Issue 70 [@1:15:16]: Slide projected with voice – Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol 7, Bk 62, Hadith 88 – The Prophet wrote the (marriage contract) with Aisha while she was six years old and consummated his marriage with her while she was nine years old and she remained with him for nine years (i.e. till his death).
Rebuttal 70: This hadith is plain false. Aisha (also written as Ayesha) was twenty years of age at her marriage. The Prophet was illiterate and could not read or write. This hadith was rejected by Malik ibn Anas, the student of Hisham ibn `urwah who is sourced on authority of his father and as reported by people of Iraq.
The documentary in its grand design tried to “move in for the kill” by alleging the Prophet to be a pedophile. The documentary makers and its ‘expert’ panel just cannot help it. It is in the tradition of Christianity and Judaism to allege, prove and then believe in sexually promiscuous prophets. The worse they can allege the Prophet with is a flimsy and baseless single sourced hadith, while their own prophets in their own Holy Scriptures are identified as such. So, the burden of this rebuttal is not only to refute the above hadith with evidence, but also to sanctify the founders of the religions that the documentary experts themselves believe in. This hadith as a case in point can be a litmus test for the reader to witness the truthfulness of Quran vs. the fabrications of the Torah. We claim further, that for a Christian and a Jew to better their own religion and faith, they need Quran, if nothing else to cleanse their own religious figures of the base allegations. Before the current rebuttal is over, it will become obvious that neither Prophet Muhammad nor any other prophet before him were either a pedophile nor incestuous. Pedophilic and incestuous are the minds who allege such smear on others while it is false.
In pre-Islamic Arabia the lunar monthly calendar consisted of 12 months for local customs, religious occasions and trade purposes, but there was no yearly calendar. Muharram was the first month of the New Year. Years were remembered for their events, e.g. ‘Year of the Elephant’ when Abrahah, the governor of Yemen attacked Makkah with elephants in his army. The same year Prophet was born in Makkah. Hijri calendar was adopted 7 years after death of the Prophet during the reign of Umar on advice of Ali. Hijri calendar was retroactive to month of Muharram, in the year when prophet migrated to Medina from Makkah. The events occurring after adoption of Hijri calendar were more accurately recorded on a timeline. The events before the said calendar are extrapolated to Georgian calendar. The years of birth for the people born before Hijri calendar can be deduced retroactively from their known years of death.
Before we go into discussion about of actual age of Aisha, it begets the fundamental question – Did Aisha pass the threshold of marriageable age, before she married the Prophet?
Aisha was already engaged to Jabir bin Mutam when Khawlah bint Hakim, wife of Prophet’s companion Uttman bin Mazun, approached and suggested to the Prophet to re-marry after death of his first wife Khadija, who had died in 10th year of the Call. She recommended him various choices. Soon thereafter, Aisha’s engagement was called off by her father-in-law fearing persecution by proxy of Abu-Bakr’s earlier conversion to Islam. Factually, Aisha’s father Abu Bakr wanted to marry her off when he undertook his own migration to Abysinnia (Ethiopia) in the year 615 CE. This fact clearly concludes that Aisha was of customarily marriageable age, and that Prophet was not the first person who was considered for her marriage. Her parents had already committed her to another person for marriage even before the Prophet comes into the picture.
Now, let’s pay to attention the facts and figures below which by themselves conclude the above assertion that Aisha was of marriageable age. The references to various years (CE=Current Era; AH=After Hijrah) and the subsequent calculations might be off by one year, up or down, due to rounding errors of reporting.
Facts about Prophet Muhammad:
570 CE: Birth of the Prophet.
595 CE: At age 25, Prophet’s 1st marriage, with Khadija.
605 CE: Holy Kaaba rebuilt. Hijr Aswaad issue resolved by the Prophet. Birth of his first child, Fatima.
610 CE: Year of the Call when Prophet is 40 years of age.
615 CE: Verses of Chapter 54 – Qamar (moon) were revealed.
616 CE: Umar accepts Islam.
620 CE: Khadija died in 10th year of the Call.
620 CE – 622 CE: Time window for betrothal (Nikah) of Aisha with the Prophet.
623 CE = 00 AH: Migration to Medina. Makkan period of 13 years ended.
625 CE = 02 AH: Prophet consummated (Rukhasti) marriage with Aisha. Battle of Badr.
633 CE = 10 AH: Prophet lived in Medina for last 10 years of his life, before his death at age 63.
Facts about Lady Aisha:
Abu-Bakr had four children from his two marriages before the Call:
- Abdullah (son) and Asma (daughter) from Fatilah ibn Abdul Uzza
- Abdur Rahman (son) and Aisha (daughter) from Umm Ruman
[Tarikh al-Umami wal muluk, Vol. 4, p. 50 – Ibn Jarir Tabari]
620 CE – 623 CE: Time window of betrothal of Aisha with the Prophet, after death of Khadija
625 CE = 02 AH: Aisha’s consummation of marriage with the Prophet
625 CE – 633 CE: Eight years of Aisha’s marriage = the remainder of prophets life in Medina
673 CE: Aisha died (calculated)
Elder sister, Asma was 10 year older than Aisha
[Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`la’ma’l-nubala’, Vol. 2, p. 289, Arabic, Mu’assasatu’l-risalah, Beirut, 1992]
[Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Vol. 8, p. 371, Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, Al-jizah, 1933]
695 CE = 73 AH: Asma died at an age of 100.
[Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Vol. 8, p. 346, 372, Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, Al-jizah, 1933]
[Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, p. 654, Arabic, Bab fi’l-nisa’, al-harfu’l-alif, Lucknow]
[Mishkat al-Masabih, published in Lahore, 1986, volume 3, pages 300–301]
Various calculations of Aisha’s Age (in light of above facts):
* By deduction, Asma was born in 595 CE, which makes 605 CE as year of birth for Aisha.
Earliest possible year of betrothal of Aisha is 620 CE, which makes her age then of 15 years.
Consummation of Aisha’s marriage in 625 CE, which makes her age then of 20 years.
* Aisha’s died at an age of 67 after 40 years of widowhood^. Thus her age at death of prophet is 27. Given her consummated marriage of 8 years, her age at consummation of her marriage with prophet is 19 years. [^Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Sirat Aisha, p. 132, April 2005] By some estimates her consummated marriage was of 9 years, which makes her age then of 20 years.
* Even if Aisha was born only a year before the Call, if not earlier, then she must be at least 16, if not more when her marriage was consummated with the Prophet in 2nd year after Migration, which is same as 15th year of the Call.
* Aisha, by self-report remembered the verses of Chapter 54, Surah Qamar (Moon) right from the time when they were revealed in 5th year of the call i.e. 615 CE. Also, biologically we form memories after 5 years of age. No wonder we remember the nursery rhymes or national anthems only after age 5 (read: Childhood Amnesia). Hence Aisha must be at least 5 years old if not older in the year 615 CE. Eight years later Migration happened, which makes her then 13 if not older. Her marriage is consummated with the prophet 2 years after the Migration, which makes her 15 years old, if not older.
* Ibn Hisham, one of the favorite historians of this documentary writes that Aisha accepted Islam a year earlier than Caliph Umar. Umar accepted Islam in the 6th year of the call i.e. year 616 CE. For her to accept Islam, she had to be beyond a certain age when she could undertake an oath. This almost matches her recalling verses of Surah Qamar (Moon), when she could not have been younger than 5 years, if not older. It took another 10 years before she consummates her marriage with the Prophet in the year 625 CE. Thus she must be at least 15 years old, if not older at the time of consummation of her marriage.
* It is a well-known fact that in the battles of Badr and Uhad, no one under 15 was allowed. Aisha participated in both, which makes her at least 15 years old, if not older during Badr, which is the same year of consummation of her marriage.
* Fatima, Prophet’s daughter by some traditions was 5 years older than Aisha. Former was born in the year of rebuilding of Kaaba, which is 5 years before the Call i.e. 605 CE. Thus, Aisha was born in the year of the Call i.e. 610 CE. This makes her 15 years old at the time of consummation of her marriage with the Prophet.
* Aisha had to be of an age where she could have assumed the duties of the household after death of Khadija, where there were already two young girls, Prophet’s daughters – Fatima and Umm Kulthum. There is no point for a busy person like prophet facing all the challenges of present and future for him to essentially take care of a third girl in his household. His wife had to be of an age where she could shoulder responsibilities and be a partner in the challenges of his office.
Thus it becomes plainly clear that Aisha was of marriageable age and Prophet Muhammad was no pedophile. The following (ref: link) research clarifies the weakness of the above and similar hadiths about age of Aisha:
Most of these narratives are reported only by Hisham ibn `urwah reporting on the authority of his father. An event as well known as the one being reported, should logically have been reported by more people than just one, two or three.
It is quite strange that no one from Medinah, where Hisham ibn `urwah lived the first seventy one years of his life has narrated the event, even though in Medinah his pupils included people as well known as Malik ibn Anas. All the narratives of this event have been reported by narrators from Iraq, where Hisham is reported to have had shifted after living in Medinah for seventy one years.
Tehzibu’l-tehzib, one of the most well known books on the life and reliability of the narrators of the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) reports that according to Yaqub ibn Shaibah: “narratives reported by Hisham are reliable except those that are reported through the people of Iraq”. It further states that Malik ibn Anas objected on those narratives of Hisham which were reported through people of Iraq. (vol 11, pg 48 – 51)
Mizanu’l-ai`tidal, another book on the narrators of the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) reports that when he was old, Hisham’s memory suffered quite badly. (vol 4, pg 301 – 302)
The summations so far are significantly based upon the following two main sources and reader is encourage to review them for a more in depth information:
By the above corroborated evidence and calculations, we are left with no choice but to reject the hadith quoted by the documentary as unauthentic. At least, so far we have conclusively proven that Aisha was of customarily marriageable age when she consummated her marriage with the Prophet. She was at least 15 years of old and most likely 19 or 20 years old at the time of her marriage.
Let’s turn the page to Christianity and Judaism from where this hadith has become an issue. Can the makers and ‘experts’ of the documentary by their own accounts in their own Scriptures absolve their founders of drunkenness, nakedness, incest, soliciting prostitutes and contracting underage marriages? Can they prove a model of piousness in any of their substantive prophets? Can they say to their children to follow in the footsteps of Noah, Abraham, Lot, Moses, David, Mary?
No one should forget that from Christian sources, Mary, mother of Jesus married when she was only 12 years old and gave birth to Jesus the following year. Joseph at that time was already old and had children of his own (– see para 9 of Infancy Gospel of James). Whether, Mary was impregnated by Joseph or God, the argument cannot be denied that in Christianity, pedophilia was the very basis of its origination as a religion. God of Bible broke His own law by making Mary pregnant before her reaching majority. According to Bible, majority is reached at 20 years of age when one is able to make decisions:
Numbers 14:28-30 (NIV) So tell them, ‘As surely as I live, declares the Lord, I will do to you the very thing I heard you say: In this wilderness your bodies will fall—every one of you twenty years old or more who was counted in the census and who has grumbled against me. Not one of you will enter the land I swore with uplifted hand to make your home, except Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.
Unlike Gospels (narrations, gossips) of the previous scriptures, a hadith can never displace or pollute Quran. Similar to above hadith, Gospels were themselves hadiths of the prophet(s). They were human recollections, but found their way into the Torah and Evangel as word of God. The Jews and Christians alike are in a bind. They have to declare themselves apologetically “reformed” to bring some sense into their spiritual lives. In their reformation, the first requirement is to disassociate themselves from the nonsense in their Scripture. Still, they fail to be fully reformed, unless they replace their Scriptures with Quran. The outrageous stories in their Scriptures carry moral values which are at time less than what one finds in Aesop’s Fables. Some may argue that those stories are even worse and “rated R”. Not to be shared with underage children and to be read only in presence of an adult. Note – according to Western standards, a material is rated R because:
An R-rated motion picture, in the view of the Rating Board, contains some adult material. An R-rated motion picture may include adult themes, adult activity, hard language, intense or persistent violence, sexually-oriented nudity, drug abuse or other elements, so that parents are counseled to take this rating very seriously. Children under 17 are not allowed to attend R-rated motion pictures unaccompanied by a parent or adult guardian. Parents are strongly urged to find out more about R-rated motion pictures in determining their suitability for their children. Generally, it is not appropriate for parents to bring their young children with them to R-rated motion pictures.
As to how different is the case of Torah for its MPAA ratings, we will leave it to the reader themselves and instead will only highlight some of the passages from it below.
The following is the account of Noah in Torah, which is none but licentious:
Genesis 9:20-25: (NIV) Noah, a man of the soil, proceeded[a] to plant a vineyard. When he drank some of its wine, he became drunk and lay uncovered inside his tent. Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked and told his two brothers outside. But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it across their shoulders; then they walked in backward and covered their father’s naked body. Their faces were turned the other way so that they would not see their father naked. When Noah awoke from his wine and found out what his youngest son had done to him, he said, “Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers.”
Compare the immorality of Noah in Torah with the standards of Noah in Quran that brings to forth the message of a prophet, who was neither drunk nor molested by his own son:
26:105. The people of Noah cried lies to the Messengers.
26:106. (Recall the time) when their kinsman Noah said to them, `Will you not guard against evil?
26:107. `Surely, I am to you a Messenger, faithful to (my) trust.
26:108. `So take Allâh as a shield and obey me.
26:109. `And I ask no reward from you for it (- the delivery of the Message of God). My reward lies with the Lord of the worlds alone.
26:110. `So take Allâh as a shield and obey me.’
26:111. They (- the disbelievers) said, `Shall we believe in you whereas (we see that) only the people of a very low status follow you?’
26:112. He said, `I have no knowledge what (good) deeds they did (in the past that now they have the honour to accept the truth).
26:113. `It is only up to my Lord to call them to account; if you could but perceive.
26:114. `I cannot drive away the believers (thinking them to be of low status).
26:115. `I am but a plain Warner.’
26:116. `Noah!’ they said, `If you do not desist, you shall be excommunicated or done away with.’
26:117. (Noah) said (praying), `My Lord! my people have treated me as a liar,
26:118. `So judge between me and them, a decisive judgment, and deliver me and the believers who are with me.’
Another incidence of incest by a drunken prophet and the debauchery of his daughters in Torah:
Genesis 19:30-35 (NIV) Lot and his two daughters left Zoar and settled in the mountains, for he was afraid to stay in Zoar. He and his two daughters lived in a cave. One day the older daughter said to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is no man around here to give us children—as is the custom all over the earth. Let’s get our father to drink wine and then sleep with him and preserve our family line through our father.”
That night they got their father to drink wine, and the older daughter went in and slept with him. He was not aware of it when she lay down or when she got up.
The next day the older daughter said to the younger, “Last night I slept with my father. Let’s get him to drink wine again tonight, and you go in and sleep with him so we can preserve our family line through our father.” So they got their father to drink wine that night also, and the younger daughter went in and slept with him. Again he was not aware of it when she lay down or when she got up.
Compare the incestuous Lot in Torah with the righteous Lot in Quran and his teachings:
26:160. And the people of Lot cried lies to the Messengers.
26:161. (Recall the time) when their kinsman Lot said to them, `Will you not guard against evil?
26:162. `Verily, I am to you a Messenger, faithful to (my) trust.
26:163. `So take Allâh as a shield and obey me.
26:164. `And I ask no reward from you for this (service I render). My reward lies with the Lord of the worlds alone.
26:165. `(Is it not true that) of all people you alone approach males (for sexual satisfaction),
26:166. `And leave that (abode of love) which your Lord has created for you in your wives. `Nay, (the real fact is) you are a people who know no limits.’
26:167. They said, `If you desist not (of admonishing us for sodomy) O Lot! you shall indeed be of the banished ones.’
26:168. He said, `I surely abhor your practice (of going to males),
26:169. `My Lord! save me and my followers from (the evil consequences) of their deeds.’
26:170. So We saved him and his followers, all of them,
Old Testament sanctifies a prophet impregnating a married woman and lying with a young virgin, without marrying them:
2 Samuel 11:2-5 (NIV) One evening David got up from his bed and walked around on the roof of the palace. From the roof he saw a woman bathing. The woman was very beautiful, and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said, “She is Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite.” Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (Now she was purifying herself from her monthly uncleanness.) Then she went back home. The woman conceived and sent word to David, saying, “I am pregnant.”
1 Kings 11-4 (NIV) When King David was very old, he could not keep warm even when they put covers over him. So his attendants said to him, “Let us look for a young virgin to serve the king and take care of him. She can lie beside him so that our lord the king may keep warm.” Then they searched throughout Israel for a beautiful young woman and found Abishag, a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. The woman was very beautiful; she took care of the king and waited on him, but the king had no sexual relations with her.
Whereas, Quran highlights the attributes of David which befit a prophet and a righteous king:
38:17. Bear with patience what they say. And remember (the event of the life of) Our servant David, the possessor of might. Verily, he was ever turning (to God).
38:20. And We strengthened his [– David] kingdom, and We granted him wisdom and decisive judgment.
38:24. …David realised that We had tried him, therefore he sought protection of his Lord and fell down bowing in worship and turned (to his Lord) in repentance.
38:25. So We gave him that protection (sought for by him from that danger he felt). And verily he enjoyed Our close proximity and an excellent status.
38:26. (We said,) `O David! verily We have made you the ruler in this land. So rule among the people according to (the tenants of) justice, and do not follow their vain desires, (for if you do) it will lead you astray from the path leading to Allâh. Behold! a severe punishment awaits those who go astray from Allâh’s way, because they have forgotten the Day of Reckoning.
In the above we see that the same prophets who are an example of aversion in Torah, become model of virtue in Quran for coming generations and can be rightfully followed by both young and old.
We leave it to Jews as to how they judge their ‘chosen’ status for being named after Judah. Someone, who first tried to kill his brother, Joseph a future prophet, but instead ended up selling him. That does not end his treachery, he later in life not only bought services of a prostitute who was none other than his own daughter-in-law in disguise, but also impregnated her:
Genesis 38:13-19 (NIV) When Tamar was told, “Your father-in-law is on his way to Timnah to shear his sheep,” she took off her widow’s clothes, covered herself with a veil to disguise herself, and then sat down at the entrance to Enaim, which is on the road to Timnah. For she saw that, though Shelah had now grown up, she had not been given to him as his wife.
When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute, for she had covered her face. Not realizing that she was his daughter-in-law, he went over to her by the roadside and said, “Come now, let me sleep with you.”
“And what will you give me to sleep with you?” she asked.
“I’ll send you a young goat from my flock,” he said.
“Will you give me something as a pledge until you send it?” she asked.
He said, “What pledge should I give you?”
“Your seal and its cord, and the staff in your hand,” she answered. So he gave them to her and slept with her, and she became pregnant by him. 19 After she left, she took off her veil and put on her widow’s clothes again.
If the makers of the documentary can believe with impunity about the debauchery attributed to their own prophets of God, then it is no surprise that they will pounce upon any false report about Prophet Muhammad whom they call an imposter to begin with. No wonder, the drunkenness and sexual promiscuity has always been part of social fabric of the followers of Scriptures. Their Scriptures continue to narrate examples of such lewd behaviors by their divinely ordained prophets as factual, no matter how much Quran rebuts and cleanses those prophets of such false attributions. Not only they falsely debase their prophets, their ancestors are also known to be the prophet killers.
Matthew 23:34-36 (NIV) Therefore I am sending you prophets and sages and teachers. Some of them you will kill and crucify; others you will flog in your synagogues and pursue from town to town. And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. Truly I tell you, all this will come on this generation.
Matthew 23:37 (NIV) “Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were not willing. [Note: Jesus laments prophesied his own attempted killing on the cross]
Jeremiah 26:20-23 (NIV) (Now Uriah son of Shemaiah from Kiriath Jearim was another man who prophesied in the name of the Lord; he prophesied the same things against this city and this land as Jeremiah did. When King Jehoiakim and all his officers and officials heard his words, the king was determined to put him to death. But Uriah heard of it and fled in fear to Egypt. King Jehoiakim, however, sent Elnathan son of Akbor to Egypt, along with some other men. They brought Uriah out of Egypt and took him to King Jehoiakim, who had him struck down with a sword and his body thrown into the burial place of the common people.)
Some apologists deny that Jews killed their ‘true’ prophets and only admit to killing ‘false’ prophets. Essentially, they then are denying their own scriptures which mention otherwise above. However, Quran testifies to their killing of their prophets and the reasons for such behaviors:
2:87. Indeed, We gave Moses the Scripture and sent Messengers after him in successive series. We also gave Jesus, son of Mary, clear arguments and strengthened him with the blessed word of God. (Is it not then unjust on your part that) whenever a Messenger came to you (O Jews!) with that (teaching) which did not suit your fancies, you behaved arrogantly? You belied some (Messengers) while others you seek to kill (even now).
2:88. They said, `Our hearts are storehouse of knowledge (so that we stand in no need of further teaching.)’ Rather Allâh has deprived them of His mercy for their disbelief, with the result that little they believe.
2:89. And (now) when there has come to them the glorious Book from Allâh, fulfilling that (Prophecy) which is already with them, and previous to that they had been praying for victory over those who disbelieved, yet when that (long awaited Prophet and the Qur’ân) came to them which they recognised (also to be the truth), they disbelieved in it. (And because of this rejection) the disapproval of Allâh is the due for the disbelievers.
2:90. Evil is that thing they have sold themselves for that they should reject that (source of guidance) which Allâh has revealed, grudging that Allâh should send down His grace on such of His servants as He pleases. Thus they have incurred (His) displeasure after displeasure. There awaits these disbelievers a humiliating punishment.
2:91. When it is said to them, `Believe in that (- the Qur’ân) which Allâh has sent down.’ They say, `We believe only in that (- the Torah) which has been sent down to us.’ And they deny everything other than that (and which has since been revealed); though it (- the Qur’ân) is the lasting truth and corroborates that which is already with them (in their own Scriptures). Say, `Why, then, did you seek to kill the Prophets of Allâh in former times if you were (real) believers (in the former Scriptures)?’
Even if the followers of old scriptures do not learn from Quran, at least they cannot deny their former and current behaviors as outlined in verses above. Such a self-awakening itself can be a source of learning and virtue for them. But will they? Will they still continue to claim – `Our hearts are storehouse of knowledge (so that we stand in no need of further teaching.)’?
The ‘experts’ of the documentary following in their ancestral footsteps eagerly want to kill the legacy and the everlasting message and teachings of the greatest man ever by smearing him with whatever means possible including the false hadith they quoted in this issue, but they will never be able to do so, because:
48:2. …Allâh will protect you [– Muhammad] from (the ill consequences of) the fault attributed to you in the past and those to follow, and that He will make His favour perfect upon you and will lead you to the goal of the exact right path;
Age of Aisha (ra) at time of marriage – Zahid Aziz, Ph.D.
Ayesha’s Age – M. Amir Ali, Ph.D.
Mishkat al-Masabih – Entry about Asma’s age, first written 700 years ago
Sirat Aisha – Syed Sulaiman Nadvi
Hazrat Aishah Siddiqah’s Age at Her Marriage – Ghulam Nabi Muslim, M.A.
Lady ‘A’ishah’s Age at the Time of the Consummation of Her Marriage to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sas) – Ghulam Nabi Muslim, M.A.
Hijri calendar – Wikipedia
Georgian calendar – Wikipedia
Current Era – Wikipedia
Migrations to Abyssinia – Abu Bakr – Wikipedia
References to Asma bint Abu Bakr – Wikipedia
Childhood Amnesia – Wikipedia
Specific incestuous relationships in the Bible – Wikipedia
Mary (mother of Jesus) – Wikipedia
Matthew: A Shorter Commentary, p. 12 – W. D. Davies, Dale C. Allison, Jr.
The Protoevangelium of James, Infancy Gospel of James – Early Christian Writings
R-Rated – Motion Picture Association of America
Curse of Ham – Wikipedia
Bathsheba – Biblical Narrative – Wikipedia
Children of Jacob sell their brother Joseph by Konstantin Flavitsky – Wikipedia
Tamar and Judah – Wikipedia
Judah and Tamar by Horace Vernet – Wikipedia
Judah – Wikipedia
Hart’s Top 100 – Wikipedia
New International Version – Bible Gateway
Holy Quran – Nooruddin