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Can Muslims (-women) marry Non-Believers?

Monday, July 9th, 2018

Issue 2: Can Muslims (women) Marry Non-Believers?

 

[for which verse 2:221 is quoted].

There is no bar in Quran for Muslims to marry non-Muslims. Verse 2:221, cited to promote this prohibition, is essentially a marriage advisory; akin to a travel advisory1 issued by Foreign Service advising the citizens against travel to a certain country in view of any safety concerns in that country. Such advisories do not ban, rather forewarn and deter travel to prevent harm to its citizens.

A complete bar that is promoted by some under verse 2:221 is a misquote of the context in Quran. This verse, quoted below, is directed only at the idolater Makkans, who were enemies, aggressors and had declared a state of war against Muslims of Medina:

2:221. And marry not an idolatress until she believes; while a believing maid is certainly better than an idolatress even though she may highly please you. And do not give (believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a (free) idolater even though he may highly please you. It is they who invite to the Fire, but Allâh calls to the Paradise and to the protection by His command. He makes His Messages clear for the people so that they may take heed.2

This overgeneralization of a context-specific verse is nothing new. Verse 5:513 discussed in ‘Issue 1: Muslims should not take Jews and Christians as friends4, is squarely aimed at Jewish tribes of Medina, and not generally at the Jewish and Christian people. Similarly, verse 2:221 under discussion here, is also used over-broadly to ban Muslims from marrying Non-Muslims, which is not the case.

The marriage advisory in verse 2:221 is multifaceted and contextual to the state of war imposed upon Muslims by the Makkan idolaters. The Makkan idolater society depicted a depraved state of human rights in sharp contrast to the grant of women’s rights and freedom promoted by the fledgling religion of Islam. Thus, marriages between Muslims and Makkans would have deprived the Muslims of their rights and obligations. This would have been a step back from the progress the Muslims had made, and were making under Islam.

When read in its full context, verse 2:221 is a continuation of several references to the inflicted state of war and its fallout for the nascent Muslim community at the hands of the majority Makkans. This is directly referred to in the verses 2:216-2185, and the orphans of war in 2:2206, the background verses which precede verse 2:221 under discussion.

The state of aggression against the Muslim minority at the time of the Prophet is frequently mentioned in Quran. Similar to our contemporary governmental issued advisories for traffic, pollution, pollen, heat, weather and floods which change with improving circumstances, the following sample verses show the underlying influencers of the evolving matrimonial advisory of verse 2:221:

60:7. It is well-nigh that (these disbelievers embrace the Faith and thus) Allâh may establish goodwill between you and those of them with whom you are at enmity (at present), for Allâh is All-Powerful, and Allâh is Great Protector, Ever-Merciful.

60:8. Allâh does not forbid you to be kind and good and to deal justly with those who have not fought you because of your faith and have not turned you out of your homes. In fact Allâh loves those who are equitable.

60:9. Allâh only forbids you to make friends with those who have fought you because of your faith and who have turned you out of your homes, and have abetted your expulsion. Indeed, those who make friends with them are really the unjust.7

It is in context of this state of war at the hands of the idolater Makkans, inflicted on the minority Muslims that relationships were in suspension. The above-quoted verses continue:

60:10. O you who believe! when the believing women come to you having fled their homes, examine them. Allâh knows best the state of their faith. If you ascertain them to be (true) believers do not send them back to the disbelievers. These (believing women) are not lawful (wives) to those (disbelievers); nor are they lawful (husbands) to these (women). You shall however give them (their former disbelieving husbands) what they have spent on them. And you will be doing nothing unlawful if you marry these women after you have given them their dowries. And do not hold matrimonial ties with the disbelieving women, (should they join the disbelievers) you can claim what you have spent on them. So can (the disbelieving husbands) claim that which they have spent (on these believing women). This is the judgment of Allâh. He implements this judgment between you. Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

60:11. If any part of (the dowries of) your wives has passed over to the disbelievers from you and then your turn comes (to pay to the disbelievers when a woman from the disbelievers' side comes over to you), give to those whose wives have come over an amount equal to that which they have spent. Keep your duty to Allâh in Whom you believe.8

On a closer read, and now shifting the focus on women, let’s read this verse again. Verse 2:221 enjoins – marry not an idolatress until she believes do not give (believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe. The pivotal word that needs elaboration here is ‘idolater’ in order to understand the repercussions of a marriage with the Makkan idolaters. Such a marriage, according to the same verse, is an invitation to the Fire, but on the reverse, Allâh calls to the Paradise of a harmonious marriage between monotheists. The reasons are explored below.

Makkan Idolaters: The ‘idolater’ of Verse 2:221 is defined in Quran as worshipper of certain idols and conjectures and identifies them by name:

53:19. Have you had a look at Lât and `Uzzâ (the gods of idolaters),

53:20. And another, the third (goddess of no account) Manât?

53:21. What (an ignoble idea you have)! Are you to have sons and He daughters?[–see also verse 43:16 quoted later for the explanation of the term daughters]

53:22. That indeed is an unjust division (and unbecoming from your own point of view which looks upon the birth of a daughter with condemnation).

53:23. (The fact is that) these are mere names (bearing no significance) which you have coined, you and your forefathers, for which Allâh has revealed no authority (for their being worshipped as gods and goddesses). These (idol-worshippers) follow nothing but mere conjectures and the fancies of (their own) minds. (They do this) even though true guidance has already come to them from their Lord.9

Unlike other religions before Islam which were sourced upon prophets and revealed books, worship in pre-Islam Arabia did not have such bases. The engendered conjectures and evil practices, the paganism, that emanated from worshipping these ‘coined’ Gods are exemplified by the superstitions and distorted values that pervaded in the pre-Islam Arabia:

5:103. Allâh has not instituted (superstition like those of) any Bahîrah (-an animal having her ear slit and let loose for free pasture, dedicated to some god, their milk was not used, nor their back, nor their meat); or Sâ'ibah (-an animal having given birth to ten females, liberated to pasture where she would, not be ridden, nor milk drunk except by her young); or Wasîlah (-an animal which gave birth to seven females consecutively and at the seventh birth she bore a pair male and female. Each of the latter was let loose and the milk of the animal drunk by men only and not by women;) or Hâmi (-an animal that is left at liberty without being made use of in any way whatsoever). But those who disbelieve have fabricated a lie (by such superstitious dedications) in the name of Allâh. Most of them cannot refrain (from such polytheistic superstitions).

5:104. And when it is said to them, `Come to what Allâh has revealed and to this perfect Messenger.' They say, `Sufficient for us is that (tradition) whereon we have found our forefathers.' What! (would they follow them blindly) even though their forefathers had no knowledge whatsoever and had no guidance?10

Debased womanhood in pre-Islam Makkah: Women, specifically, were victims of such distorted beliefs and values of the Makkan idolatry, in disproportionate numbers. They faced pervasive threat of infanticide, which, if survived, was followed by a lifelong shame of being a woman, to which Quran draws our attention to:

81: 8. And when the girl-child who is buried alive will be questioned about;

81:9. For what offence was she killed?11

43:16. Or has He taken to Himself daughters from the things He Himself has created (as the pagans describe the angels to be God's daughters) and has chosen you for (honouring with) the sons.

43:17. Yet (as to themselves) when one of them is given the news (of the birth of a female child), the like of which (sex) he ascribes to the Most Gracious (God), his face becomes gloomy and he is choked with inward grief.12

Quran – the savior of womanhood, Zihar as an example: The evil practices against women were so entrenched in the fabric of the male dominated society of these ‘idolaters’ that some of these customs continued into the behavior of early converted Muslims. One such custom was punishing the wives by declaring them Zihar – like the back of my mother, an indefinite suspended state for a wife in which all conjugal relationships were ended without any recourse for the wife. Quran forcefully ordained against it and laundered the psyche of Muslim fabric from this exploitation of women:

33:4. Allâh has not placed two hearts in the bosom of any man, nor does He regard as your mothers those of your wives whom you desert by (Zihâr) calling them as such, … These are mere words that you speak; but Allâh declares the truth and He guides to the (straight) path.13

58:2. Such of you who give up (conjugal relationship with) their wives by calling them mothers (should realise that) they do not thereby become their mothers. Their mothers are only those who have given them birth. And they (by calling their wives mothers by Zihâr) utter words that are most unseeming and false. And of course Allâh is All-Pardoning, Great Protector (against faults).

58:3. Such of those who thus happen to call their wives their mothers and then retract what they have said, must free a slave before they two touch each other (for re-establishing conjugal relationship). This is what you are enjoined (to do in case you commit such a hateful thing). And Allâh is Well-Aware of what you do.

58:4. He that cannot afford (a slave to be set free) shall then (observe) fasts for two consecutive months before he and his wife touch each other (for conjugal relationship). But he who has not even the strength (to fast for that time) shall feed sixty poor people. This has been so (ordained) that you may have faith in Allâh and really submit before Him and His Messenger. These are the limits (enjoining you to give up foul practices and injustice to women) prescribed by Allâh. And the deniers of these shall receive grievous punishment.

58:5. Surely, those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger shall be laid low and humbled as those (opponents of the truth) who were before them were laid low and humble. And We have already revealed clear ordinances (as to how to uplift the status of women). And the deniers of (these ordinances) shall receive a humiliating punishment.

58:6. (This punishment will also take place on) the day when Allâh will raise them up all together, then He will inform them of all they have been doing. Allâh has kept a recorded account of it (- their deeds), while they have forgotten it. Allâh is Witness over everything.14

Contrary to the practice of Zihar, Quran encouraged conjugal relationships between husband and wife, even during the fasting month of Ramadan, when one otherwise abstains from all food, drink and intimacy during the daytime:

2:187. (Though during Fasting you must abstain from all the urges of nature including the sexual urge) it is made lawful for you on the nights of the fasts to approach and lie with your wives (for sexual relationship). They are (a sort of) garment for you and you are (a sort of) garment for them. Allâh knows that you have been doing injustice to yourselves (by restricting conjugal relations with your wives even at night), so He turned to you with mercy and provided you relief; now enjoy their company (at night during Ramadzân) and seek what Allâh has ordained for you. Eat and drink till the white streak of the dawn becomes distinct to you from the black streak (of the darkness), then complete the fast till nightfall. And you shall not lie with them (- your wives) while you perform I`tikâf (- while you are secluding in the mosque for prayer and devotion to God [typically during the last third of the month of Ramadzan]). These are the limits (imposed) by Allâh so do not approach these (limits). Thus does Allâh explains His commandments for people that they may become secure against evil [–like the evil of Zihar in context to the current discussion].15

Even the womanhood was corrupted in pre-Islam Arabia: Keeping in view this stained psyche of Makkans, Quran kept a strict check on the practices of the new converts to Islam:

60:12. Prophet! when women come to you after having believed and they take the oath of allegiance that they will not associate anything with Allâh, and that they will not steal and will not commit fornication and adultery, nor kill their children, nor bring forth a scandalous charge which they themselves have deliberately forged, nor disobey your just and rightful orders, then accept their allegiance and seek Allâh's protection for them. Indeed, Allâh is Great Protector, Ever Merciful.16

The verse 60:12 refers to the debased culture of pre-Islam Makkah where there were pervading ‘norms’ of polytheism, thievery, fornication, adultery, infanticide and scandalmongering, to name a few, that Islam expunged from its ranks. It is unthinkable that Quran would not have issued such a marriage advisory against the Makkan culture.

Norms’ for a Muslim society according to Quran: While preventing the seepage of evil practices of Makkan idolater society into the nascent Muslim culture, Quran was also focused on actively creating a just and pious society, which is exemplified as follows:

33:35. Verily, Allâh has in store protection (from faults) and a great reward for the men and women who submit themselves (to the will of God), and for the men and women who believe, and for the men and women who are obedient to Allâh, and for the men and women who are patiently persevering (in their faith and righteousness,) and for the men and women who are humble (before God) and for the men and women who give alms and for the men and women who fast and for the men and women who guard their chastity, and for the men and women who remember and glorify Allâh (with all His praises) again and again.17

Contrary to the idolater society centered on Lât, `Uzzâ, Manât and the corresponding conjectures and practices that emanated from such beliefs, Quran created a society centered on Allah in which all the goodness emanates from Him, for example:

7: 33. Say, `Verily, My Lord has forbidden all (acts of) indecency, open and hidden, and every (kind of) sin and aggression, which is never justifiable; and (He forbids you also) to associate with Allâh that for which He has sent down no authority, and to say concerning Allâh that which you do not know (that it is in fact said by Him).'18

2:188. Do not appropriate one another's property with inequity (and by false means) nor seek to gain access thereby to the authorities so that you may appropriate a portion of (other) people's property by sinful means (and bribery) and that (too) knowingly (that you have no right to do so).19

These sampler verses layout the grounds for the advisory on Muslim men and women not to marry into Makkan idolater society. If a Muslim woman chose to marry a Makkan idolater, then she would naturally have had to relocate from the sanctuary of Medina back to Makkah and would have been thus exposed to all the evils therein. However, there was no bar on Muslims to do so, but only an admonishment and warning against it:

60:1. O you who believe! do not take those who are enemies of Me and to you for friends. Would you send them messages of love and friendship while they have denied the Truth that has come to you (and) have driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homes merely) because you believe in Allâh, your Lord? (How can you do so) if you migrated indeed to strive in My cause and seek My pleasure? Would (some of) you make secret offers of friendship and love to them while I am fully aware of all that you conceal and all that you profess openly? And whoever of you does such a thing (let him realize that he) has indeed strayed away from the straight path.

60:2. If they (- your so-called friends from the disbelievers) somehow get the upper hand of you they will (turn out to) be active enemies to you and will lay their hand on you and (lash you with) their tongues to do (you) harm, and they ardently desire that you should disbelieve.20

Fire’ in Makkah and ‘Paradise’ of Marriage in Medina: The ‘Fire’ in verse 2:221 is the potential miseries and harm that a Muslim woman would have had been exposed to by marrying a Makkan idolater. Whereas, the ‘Paradise’ is assured by certain injunctions in Quran in a Muslim household, the lack of which naturally creates ‘Fire’ for the wife. Discussed below are the contrasting moral values that Islam seeded in the amoral Arabian desert.

Without any precedence, under the new way of life of Islam, men suddenly found themselves to be wholly responsible for the security and comfort of their wives. The wives suddenly had a host of legal, social and moral rights which were previously unheard of. This was in sharp contrast to the customs they were raised with in the pre-Islam Makkan idolater society:

4:34. Men are the full maintainers of women, because Allâh has made one of them excel the other, and because men spend out of their wealth on them…

4:19. O you who believe! … if you have a dislike for them [i.e. wife], it may be that you dislike a thing but Allâh has placed a good deal of good in it.21

Women, in pre-Islam Arabia, had no rights to the property of their husbands nor in the matters of divorce. On the contrary, Quran assures the wife in a Muslim setup:

2:228. …And women have their rights similar to their obligations in an equitable and just manner…

2:229. …if both (the husband and the wife) fear that they cannot abide by the injunctions of Allâh, and if you (- the Muslim community, also) fear that they cannot observe the limits (prescribed) by Allâh then there is no blame on either of them in what she gives up to redeem herself (as Khula`)…22

4:130. And if they (-the husband and the wife) choose to separate (through divorce obtained by either of them), Allâh will make both independent and free from want out of His bounty. And Allâh is Ever Bountiful, All-Wise.23

Keeping in view the practice of Arabia before the Prophet, imagine if the Muslim wife of a Makkan idolater became a widow. Under the Makkan norms, she would have been exposed to a forced marriage with another relative of her deceased husband by way of inheritance. This practice was vehemently forbidden in Islam:

4:19. O you who believe! it is not lawful for you to treat women (of your deceased relatives) as inherited property by force, nor should you detain them that you may take away part of that which you have given them, except that they commit flagrant indecency. But consort with them in peace. Then if you have a dislike for them, it may be that you dislike a thing but Allâh has placed a good deal of good in it.24

Contrary to Zihar, the practice of Makkan idolater husbands, Quran assures intimacy for a wife, which if violated, gives her the right to initiate a divorce:

2:226. Those who vow (to abstain) from their wives, (the maximum) period of waiting (for them) is four months (after which divorce becomes inevitable), then if they (are reconciled within four months and) revert (to their normal relations), then, surely, Allâh is Great Protector, Ever Merciful.25

There was no financial protection for a Muslim wife of the Makkan idolater if the Makkan husband decided to divorce her. Whereas the Quran guards a divorced woman:

4:20. And if you desire to take one wife in place of (another) wife and you have given one of them a huge treasure, then take nothing from that which you have given. Would you take it by false accusation and by committing an open sin?

4:21. And how can you take it when you have already lain with one another and they (- your wives) have bound you down to a firm and solemn covenant (by marriage)?26

There was no bar on incest marriages in pre-Islam Arabia. Islam banned all incestuous relations. Just imagine the state of the Muslim wife whose Makkan husband later decided to marry another closely related woman. What custom or law would have prevented the Makkan idolater husband from doing so?

4:22. And marry not those women whom your fathers had married, except what had already passed (- you shall not be called to account for what you did in the past, only you have to divorce them now); for it is a thing highly indecent and repugnant and an evil practice.

4:23. Forbidden to you (for marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, and your maternal aunts, and the daughters of a brother, and the daughters of a sisters, and your (foster) mothers who have given suck to you, and your foster sisters, and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are being brought up under your care and have been born of your wives (by their former husbands,) unto whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone in unto them (- their mothers), then there is no blame on you (in marrying their daughters), and the wives of your sons who are from your own loins; and (it is forbidden to you) to keep in wedlock two sisters (at one and the same time), except what has already passed, (you have to divorce one of them). Surely, Allâh is Most Protector (against faults), Ever Merciful.27

If the marriage of the Muslim woman ended in a divorce there was no protection of her rights or assets in Makkah:

2:241. And for the divorced women (also) a provision (should be made) in a fair and equitable manner. This is an obligation binding on those who guard against evil (and have regard for duty).28

Contrary to prevailing emotions, divorce process in Quran is not to be a hardship for the woman, her pregnancy or her motherhood. This, for sure was not guaranteed in Makkan idolater society, if a Muslim woman married into it:

2:229. Such a (revocable) divorce may be (pronounced) twice, then, (after the second pronouncement) there should be either retaining (the wife) with honour and fairness or letting (her) leave with goodness. And it is not lawful for you to take (back) anything of what you have given them (your wives); however, if both (the husband and the wife) fear that they cannot abide by the injunctions of Allâh, and if you (- the Muslim community, also) fear that they cannot observe the limits (prescribed) by Allâh then there is no blame on either of them in what she gives up to redeem herself (as Khula`). These are the injunctions of Allâh, therefore, do not violate them; and whoso violates the injunctions of Allâh, it is they who are really the wrongdoers.

2:231. And when you divorce (your) women (a revocable divorce), and they approach the end of their `Iddat (-the prescribed period of waiting after divorce) then either retain them in an equitable manner or send them away (- freeing them) in an equitable manner. And do not retain them wrongfully that you may exceed the proper limits (and do them harm and maltreat them). And whosoever does that he has indeed done wrong and injustice to himself. Do not take Allâh's commandments in a light way; and remember Allâh's favour upon you and what He has revealed to you of the Book and the Wisdom, wherewith He exhorts you. And take Allâh as a shield and know that Allâh has perfect knowledge of everything.

2:233. The mothers shall give suck to their children for two full years, (this instruction is) for him who desires to complete the (period of) suckling. And it is incumbent on the man to whom the child is born (- the father) to provide them (- the mothers) the usual maintenance and their clothing (for this period) equitably and according to usage. No soul is charged with a duty except to its capacity. Neither shall a mother be made to suffer on account of her (love for her) child, nor shall he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) on account of his child. The (father's) heir has a like duty. However if (mother and father) both desire weaning, by mutual consent and consultation, then there is no blame on (either of) them. And if you desire to provide a wet-nurse for your children there is no blame on you, provided you hand over what you have agreed to pay equitably (and in accordance with popular usage). And keep your duty to Allâh and know that Allâh is Seer of what you do.29

65:6. Lodge (the divorced) women (during the prescribed period in some part of the house) where you are lodging, according to (the best of) your means. Do not harass them so as to make (their stay) hard for them. If they be pregnant, bear their expanses until they are delivered of the child. And if they suckle (the child) for you (as the period of waiting is over with delivery) pay them their dues (for suckling), and (in order to settle it) consult together in all fairness (making only reasonable demands on one another). But if you find it mutually difficult (to come to a settled agreement) then let another woman suckle (the child) for him (- the father).

65:7. Let a man with (plentiful) means spend (for the maintenance of the suckling woman) according to his means. And let him whose means of subsistence are limited spend according to what Allâh has given him. Allâh burdens no person (with responsibility) beyond what He has given him. Allâh will soon bring about easy times after hardships.30

In Makkan society, the widows were at the mercy of the relatives of the deceased as indicated in some of the verses above. The Muslim widow of Makkan idolater would not have received the protection when she needed the most, whereas, Quran guarantees it for any widow:

2:234. Those of you who die and leave wives behind, these (wives) should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days (as `Iddat). So when they reach the end of their (prescribed) term (of waiting) then there is no blame on you for what they do with regard to themselves (about their remarriage) in an equitable manner. And Allâh is fully Aware of what you do.

2:240. And those of you who die and leave wives behind, there is a binding injunction (of God) for their wives for a year's maintenance without being turned out (of their homes). But if they go out (of their own accord during this period) there is no blame on you with regard to what they do about themselves in an equitable and decent manner. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.31

The divorced and unmarried women (and their orphaned children) were at the whims of their future husbands that Quran squarely addresses:

4:127. And they seek your ruling with regard to (marrying) women (having no husbands). Say, `Allâh gives you His ruling about them and He reminds you the ruling as has (already) been mentioned to you in this Book regarding women without husbands (- widows, divorced, or yet to be married) to whom you do not give their rights prescribed for them, yet you feel inclined to get them in marriage (with a mind to take over their belongings) and (the ruling is also regarding) the helpless children. (He enjoins you to) stand firm in observing equity towards the orphans. And (remember) whatever good you do Allâh knows it very well.32

In light of the verses above, it was of utmost importance, in order to protect the fundamental rights of the Muslims of the new order, to prohibit Muslim women from marrying into a Makkan idolater household which had no binding inclination for women rights nor for the orphans.

Marriage of a Muslim to a Non-Muslim: With the contextual discussion of Makkan idolaters out of the way, it becomes necessary to clear the fog surrounding the question of marriage of Muslim men and women to Non-Muslims in general.

As a prelude, it is an article of faith for a believer in Allah, Quran and the Prophet to endorse and show belief in the fundamental virtues of all previous Prophets, Books and by implication respect and develop bonds of brotherhood with all nations and peoples of the world.

2:285. The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him by his Lord and (so do) the faithful. Everyone believes in Allâh, His angels, His Books and His Messengers. (And the faithful declare,) `We make no distinction (in believing) between any of His Messengers.' They say, `(Lord!) we have heard (Your commandments) and we are obedient. (Grant us) Your protection, Our Lord! for to You is the returning.'33

[“Messenger” implies Muhammad, and “Messengers” refers to all the previous Prophets i.e. Noah, Enoch, Abraham, Ismael, Issac, Jacob, Joseph, David, Solomon, Jesus, Rama, Krishna, Gautama Buddha, Zoroaster, Confucius, Tao etc. “Books” refer to all original scriptures, which are Torah, Zabur, Bible and Quran, and other revelations, which possibly include Zend-Avesta, Bhagavad Gita, Tipitaka, Tao Te Ching]

In pursuit of universal brotherhood, Quran gives some ultimate guidelines:

5:5. This day all good and pure things have been made lawful for you. And the food of those who have been given the Scripture is lawful for you (provided the food does not include anything forbidden in Islam), and your food is lawful for them. And (lawful for you for marriage are) the chaste women from among the believing women and chaste women from among those who have been given the Scripture before you, provided that you pay them their dowers (to live with them) after contracting valid marriage, not committing fornication, nor seeking secret love affairs by taking secret paramours. And whoever denies the commandments of (the true) faith, no doubt (he will find) his deeds have gone in vain and he will be of the losers in the Hereafter.34

With the above verse in mind, what could possibly create stronger bonds of love between individuals and communities than sharing of food between different cultures and love of marital relationships? Verse 5:5 factually encourages marriages between Muslims and non-Muslims and the feasting that goes along with it – a step towards racial integration and ‘one nation from all races and religions, rather than one race alone, under one God..’

At first blush, verse 5:5 seeming allows only Muslim men to marry non-Muslim women. It does not prohibit Muslim women marrying non-Muslim men. This verse also does not mandate Muslim men to marry non-Muslim women either; it only encourages it with the implication that such marriages are not bad – all good and pure things have been made lawful for you. Throughout Quran, while laying out general principles, male gender is used to address both men and women, unless it specifically addresses gender specific rights and obligations. Additionally, Quran is explicit in its injunctions when it outlines the prohibitions in no ambiguous terms, e.g. polyandry – And (you are also forbidden to marry) already married women who are in a wed-lock (4:24). The verse 5:5, while not prohibiting Muslim women to marry non-Muslim men, when read in light of verse 2:228 i.e. …And women have their rights similar to their obligations in an equitable and just manner…, Quran allows the same for Muslim women to marry non-Muslim men.

Any prohibition attributed to Quran must be validated from within its text else Quran is quite clear in its prohibitions, and the issue under discussion finds no injunction against it:

6:150. Say, `Bring your witnesses who can testify that Allâh has forbidden the thing (you forbid yourselves).' Then supposing they testify this, do not bear them out, nor follow the caprice of those who treat Our Messages as lies and who do not believe in the Hereafter and who set up equals to their Lord.35

Rather on the reverse, Quran, as a principle, states:

5:87. O You who believe! do not forbid yourselves good and pure things which Allâh has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Verily, Allâh does not like the transgressors.36

In conclusion, according to Quran, Muslim men and women may marry non-Muslims, while observing the precaution of the marital advisory in Quran. Irrespective of outside opinions, Quran plainly states –There is no compulsion of any sort in religion (as) the right way does stand obviously distinguished from the way of error (2:256)…by implication there is no compulsion in the practices within the religion as well because the right way does stand obviously distinguished from the way of error.

 


 

2 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
3 Al-Mâ'idah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin. 5:51. O you who believe! do not take these Jews and the Christians for allies. They are allies of one to another (when against you), and whoso from amongst you takes them for allies, is indeed one of them. Verily, Allâh does not guide the unjust people to attain their goal.
5 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin. 2:216-217. Fighting has been ordained for you, though it is hard for you. But it may be that a thing is hard upon you though it is (really) good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is bad for you. Allâh knows (all things) while you do not know. They ask you with regard to fighting in the Sacred Month. Say, `Fighting in it is (a) grave (offence). But to bar (people) from Allâh's cause and disbelief in Him and (to hinder people from) the Holy Mosque and to turn out its people therefrom is still grave in the sight of Allâh, and persecution is all the more grave an offence than killing.' And they will not cease to fight you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And whoso from amongst you turns back from his faith, and dies while he is a disbeliever, it is they, then, whose deeds go in vain in this world and the Hereafter; and it is they who are the fellows of the Fire and therein they shall abide for long. Verily, as to those who believe and those who emigrate and struggle hard in the cause of Allâh, it is they who do (rightly) hope for Allâh's mercy. And Allâh is Great Protector, Ever Merciful.
6 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin. 2:220. Upon this world and the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning the orphans. Say, `To set (their affairs) right (keeping in view the promotion of their welfare) is (an act of great) virtue, and if you intermix with them they are (after all) your brethren. And Allâh knows the wrongdoers from the right-doers. And if Allâh had so willed, He would certainly have made matters difficult for you. Verily, Allâh is All- Mighty, All-Wise.
7 Al-Mumtahanah – She that is to be Examined: Nooruddin
8 ibid
9 Al-Najm – Parts of the Qur'ân: Nooruddin
10 Al-Mâ'idah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin
11 Al-Naba' – The Important Announcement: Nooruddin
12 Al-Zukhruf – The Ornaments: Nooruddin
13 Al-Ahzâb – The Confederates: Nooruddin
14 Al-Mujâdilah – The Pleading Woman: Nooruddin
15 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
16 ibid
17 Al-Ahzâb – The Confederates: Nooruddin
18 Al-A`râf – The Elevated Places: Nooruddin
19 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
20 ibid
21 Al-Nisâ' – The Women: Nooruddin
22 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
23 Al-Nisâ' – The Women: Nooruddin
24 ibid
25 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
26 Al-Nisâ' – The Women: Nooruddin
27 ibid
28 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
29 ibid
30 Al-Talâq – The Divorce: Nooruddin
31 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
32 Al-Nisâ' – The Women: Nooruddin
33 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
34 Al-Maidah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin
35 Al-An`âm – The Cattle: Nooruddin
36 Al-Maidah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin
 

Qadianis claim that court in Malaysia declared them as Muslims, when in fact they said to court: We are non-Muslims!

Friday, July 6th, 2018

Today, 6th July 2018, Qadianis are claiming that a court in Malaysia has declared them as Muslim. See, for example, the facebook page Faizan e Ahmadiyyat.

Yet if you look at the link to a Malaysian newspaper given on the above facebook page, the news report says:

Thirty-nine members of the sect had challenged JAIS [Selangor Islamic Religious Department] for trying to charge them with shariah offences, on the basis that Islamic authorities in Selangor do not recognise Ahmadiah Muslims as Muslims.

The court ruled that the Selangor Islamic religious authorities have no jurisdiction over Ahmadi Muslims in the state.

In his submission previously, Paiva [lawyer for the Qadianis] said the community should be allowed to practise their faith since they were not considered Muslims by Selangor.

He said Jais could not attempt to charge the community with shariah offences when they had refused to recognise the Muslim sect as adherents.

“On the one hand, you say they are not Muslims; on the other hand, you are arresting them and taking them to the Shariah Court to face charges,” Paiva said.

So what happened was that the Qadianis went to court against the Selangor Islamic authorities saying: You can't charge us with committing offences against Islamic Shariah because you consider us as non-Muslims.

In another Malaysian newspaper the report begins:

KUALA LUMPUR, July 6 ― The Shah Alam High Court decided today that the Shariah Court has no jurisdiction over members of the Ahmadiyya community, as the Selangor Islamic Religious Department (Jais) has refused to recognise the Muslim sect as adherents.

What it means is that if a Qadiani commits an act which is an offence in Islamic Shariah (though not against the secular law of the land), he cannot be charged by the Islamic authorities because the jurisdiction of these authorities is limited only to Muslims!

— Zahid Aziz