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In listing frequently-cited sources in this Index, such as Bukhari, index entries include only those places where their names occur in the main text and exclude occurrences which are in the end-notes of the chapters.

Each x is a hyperlink to the exact place referred to in the book. An entry of the form xx contains two links, indicating respectively the beginning and the end of a block of text referred to.



Aaron, x, x

Abdullah ibn Salam, x

Abdullah ibn Ubayy, x

Abdur Rahman ibn Auf, x, x

Ablution, see Wuḍū, Bath, and Tayammum.

Abraham, x, x, x, x, x, x; did not sin, x, x; prayer of, x; teachings of, x; builds Ka‘bah and institutes Pilgrimage, x, xx, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; religion of, x; Place of Abraham (Maqām Ibrāhīm), x, x

Abu Bakr, x, x, x, x; and collection of Quran, x, x, x; as Caliph, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x

Abu Dawud, x, x, x, x

Abu Hanifah, Imam, x, x, x, x, x; see also Hanafi school.

Abu Hurairah, as narrator of Hadith, x, x, x, x, x, x

Abu Jandal, x

Abu Musa, x

Abu Ubaidah, x, x, x

Adam, x, x; revelation to, xx, xx; and Eve story, x; did not commit sin, x; sons of, x

Adhān (Call to Prayer), xx, x, x; for Friday prayer, x; none for ‘Īd prayer, x; when starting fast, x

Adultery, punishment for, xx; accusation of, xx; evidence for, x; when husband accuses wife of, x, xx

Agreements, must be fulfilled, xx, x

Ahl al-Kitāb (‘People of the Book’), x, x, x; food of, xx

Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Imam, x, x, x, x; Musnad of, x, x, x, x

Aishah, wife of Holy Prophet, x, x, x; as narrator of Hadith, x, x, x, x; as teacher, x; on Pilgrimage, x; age of at marriage, x

Akfā’ (equals), x; see Marriage.

Ākhirah, x; meaning of, x

Alcohol, see Intoxicants.

Ali, fourth Caliph, x, x, x, x, x, x

Ali, Syed Ameer, x, x

Ali Qari, Mulla, x

Allah, see ‘God’; belief in, x; is proper name of God, x; not derived from ilāh, x; no god but (lā ilaha ill Allāh), x, x, x, x, x, x; meaning of fighting in the way of, x

Amīr, meaning of, x

Anas ibn Malik, as narrator of Hadith, x

Angels, see ch. 6; cannot be seen, x, xx, x; belief in, xx, xx; cannot disobey God, x; called messengers, x, x, x; close connection of with man’s life, x, x; as recording deeds, xx, xx; bring revelation to non-prophets also, x; as friends of believers, x, x; pray for forgiveness of all people, x; bless believers and the Prophet, x; associate of every person, x, x; submit to Adam, x; devil was not an, x; see also Intercession, Lailat al-Qadr.

Animals, care of is act of charity, x, x; eating meat of, xx; slaughter of, xx; manner of slaughter of, xx, x; humane treatment of, xx, x; hunting of, x; see also Sacrifice.

Anṣār (Helpers at Madinah), x, x, x

Apostasy, no punishment for, xx; the Quran on, xx; false accusations of, x; Hadith on, xx; Fiqh on, xx

Arabia, x, x, x, x, x, x

Arabic, as language of Quran, x, x, x, x, x; prayer service in, xx; sermon in, x; usages, x, x

Arabs, x, x, x; uplifting effect of Islam on, x, x, x, x, x; memories of, x; and Ka‘bah, x; pre-Islamic beliefs & customs of, x, x, x, x, x, x, x

Arafat, x, x, x, x; stay at, xx, x

‘Arsh (‘Throne’ of God), x, x

Ash‘ari, Abu-l-Hasan, x

Aṣḥāb al-Ṣuffah, x, x

‘Aṣr (late afternoon prayer), x, x, x

Auliyā’ (saints), x, x


Badr, battle of, x, x, x, x, x; prisoners taken at, x, x

Bani Taghlib, x

Banks, interest from, xx

Barzakh (state immediately after death), x, xx, x

Bath, when obligatory, x, x

Belief, see also Faith; concept of, xx

Bequests, x, xx, x; for charity but may also be made for heirs, x; see Wills.

Bible, x; the New Testament, x; stories in, x; defects of, removed by Quran, xx, x; human alterations to, xx; see also Gospels, Torah, Psalms.

Bilal, x, x

Black Stone, see under Ka‘bah.

Blasphemy, no punishment for, xx

Book of deeds, see Deeds.

Books, the revealed, see ch. 7; see also Revelation, Bible, Gospels, Torah; names of, x, x; Muslims must believe in all, x; earlier scriptures abrogated by Quran, x; are highest type of revelation, x; granted to every prophet, x; of Abraham, Moses and David, x, x; of Jesus, x; Quran brings to perfection, x; Quran and previous books, xx; defects of previous, xx; human alterations in, xx; followers of previous Books, see Ahl al-Kitāb.

Buddha/Buddhism, x, x, x

Bukhari, Hadith collection, x, x, x, x, x, x; on belief, x; on true visions, x; and belief in Taqdīr, x, x, x, x; on prayer, x, x; on niyyah, xx; on i‘tikāf, x; on Ka‘bah, x; on jihād, xx; on jizyah, x; on apostasy, x, xx; on marriage, x, x, x, x; on wealth, xx; on food, x; on adultery, x; on ‘honour’ killing, x

Bukhari, Imam, x, x, x

Business, honesty in, xx, x; directions on selling, x; and interest, x, xx

Byzantines, x, x; see also Roman empire.


Capitalism, x, x, x, x, x

Celibacy, x

Charity, see ch. 12; (see also Zakāt); and prayer, x; at ‘Īd, x; second pillar of Islam, x; prayer must lead to, x; words for, x; various acts of, xx; voluntary, xx; selflessly and for the love of God, x; only good, earned things to be given in, x; open and secret, x; at ‘Īd, see under ‘Īd; for non-Muslims, x; towards animals, x

Children, gifts to, x; inheri­tance by, x; love for, x

Christianity, x, x, x; concept of Holy Spirit in, x; doctrine of atonement in, x; fasting in, x; divorce in, x, x

Christians, x, x, x; belief of in sonship of God, xx, x, x; in Arabia, x; claim salvation, x; wars against, x, x; marriage with, x

Cleanliness, x, x

Clothing, x; cleanliness of, x; kind of, x; wearing of long garments, x, x

Communism, x, xx, x

Companions, of Prophet Muhammad, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; and the Quran, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; as narrators of Hadith, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; use of judgment by, xx, x, x; had differences of opinion, x; prayers of, x, x; spiritual experiences of, x; as workers, x; most truthful, x; high morals of, x

Confucius/Confucianism, x, x

Counsel, principle of, x, xx; see also State.


Dār al-Islām and Dār al-ḥarb, x; see also War.

Darūd (al-Ṣalā ‘ala-l-Nabiyy), x, x

David, x, x, x, x, x; guided on how to rule, x

Dead, the spiritually, xx

Dead, prayers for, see Funerals; grieving for, x; what may be done for benefit of, xx

Death, see also ‘Life after death’; is not end of life, x; state immediately after, xx

Death penalty, see Murder; not for adultery, x; stoning to, is not in Islam, x, xx

Debts and debtors, x; leniency towards and help for, x, xx, x; payment of, x, x; warning against, x

Deeds, record of, xx, xx; fruits of, x

Democracy, see under State.

Devil, purpose of creation of, xx; disbelief in, x, x; as associate of every person, x, x, x; word applied to humans, x; temptation of, x, x; see also Iblīs.

Dhanb (shortcoming), x

Dhikr (words of remembrance of God), xx, x, x; the Quran is a, x

Dhimmis, ahl al-dhimmah, xx; see also Jizyah.

Dhu-l-Qarnain, x

Dhū maḥram (close relative), x

Disabled, social relations with, xx

Divorce, xx; when permitted, xx; to be avoided if possible, xx; causes of, xx; husband and wife have equal rights in, x, x; reconciliation procedure, xx, x; arbiters of, x, x, x; divorced women free to re-marry, xx; and mahr, see Mahr; right of wife to obtain, xx; husband pronounces, xx; legal authorities can interfere in, x; prohibited during menses, x; waiting period after, x, x; revocable twice, xx; irrevocable third time, x; pronouncement of, x; three times at once is against Islam, x; effect of irrevocable divorce on couple, xx; procedure of, xx; when husband accuses wife of adultery, x, x-x; kindness towards wife in divorce, x, x

Diyah (blood-money), x

Drinks, which prohibited, xx; allowed, xx

Ḍuḥā (mid-morning prayer), x


Eid (Muslim festivals), see ‘Īd.

Evil, see under ‘Good and Evil’; evil qualities, x

Evolution, xx


Faith, concept of: see ch. 4; see also Īmān; by tongue, x, x; in heart, x; and good deeds, xx; stages of, x; basic tenets of, xx, x, x; light of, x; see also under each tenet of faith.

Fajr (morning prayer), x, x, x

Family, x, x; see also Home.

Fasting, see ch. 13; see also Ramadan; what constitutes, x; among Jews, x; in other religions, xx; Islamic concept of, x; expiatory fasts, x; benefits of, xx; exemptions from (if sick, travelling, etc.), xx, x; voluntary, xx; start and end of one fast, xx; of Holy Prophet, x; niyyah of, xx; what breaks a fast, xx; true spirit of, xx

Fātiḥah (opening ch. of the Quran), God’s attributes in, x, x, x; explanation of as prayer, xx; words of quoted, x; recited in prayer, x, x, x, x, x, x, x

Fiqh, see also Jurists and ‘Imams, the four’; four schools of, x, x; new fiqh required in modern conditions, x

Food, basic rules regarding, xx; moderation in consumption of, x, x; what is prohibited, xx, x; from the sea, x, x; of ‘People of the Book’ allowed, xx; hunted game, x; other considerations regarding, x; good manners in eating, x

Forgiveness, x, x, x, x, x, x; see also under God.

Free will, xx, x

Friday Prayers (Jumu‘a), x, xx; sermon, x, xx; taking bath before, x, x, x; see also Prayer.

Funerals, xx; preparing body for burial, xx; respect for non-Muslim funerals, x; prayer at, x


Gabriel, angel (Jibrīl), coming to the Prophet, x, x, x, x; God spoke to prophets through, x, x, x, x, x

Gambling, x

Gift (hibah), giving of, x

God, see ch. 5; arguments for existence of, xx; existence of, shown by prophecies of success of Prophet, xx; four chief attributes of, xx, x, x, xx; attributes as man’s goal, x, x, x; as Rabb or Lord, xx; as Lord of all the worlds, x, x, x, xx; Unity of, xx, xx, x, x, x, x, and see Shirk; belief in sons and daughters of, xx; is free from all defects, x; is above all material conceptions, xx; is near to human soul, xx; human soul yearns for, x; realizing the ‘inner’ God, xx, x, x; achieving nearness to, x, x, x, x; attributes of, not material, x; ‘throne’ and ‘chair’ of, xx; forgiveness, love and mercy of, x, xx, x; all-encompassing mercy of, x, xx, x, x; names of, xx; calling upon Him by His names, x; praise of, x; puni­shment of, is remedial, x; attribute of speaking, x; meeting with, in the after-life, xx; will of, xx, x; does not lead man astray, xx; does not seal hearts, xx

Good and Evil, xx, xx, x; creation of, xx

Gospel(s), x, x, x, x, x; of John, x, x, x; of Matthew, xx

Guillaume, Alfred, x


Hadith, see ch. 2; as source of Islam, x, x; as explaining the Quran, x; writing of in Prophet’s time, xx; memorization of, x; Musnad and Jāmi‘ types, xx; six collections of, x; criticism of, x, x; sifting of by collectors, x, x; their integrity, x; to be judged by the Quran, x, xx, x, x, x; reports about Quran readings in, x, x; and exercise of judgment, x, x; on Muhammad as Last Prophet, xx; on life after death, x, x; on hell being temporary, xx; on predestination, x, xx; on prayer, x; on women in mosques, xx; on charity, x; on fasting, x, xx, x, x, x, x; on Pilgrimage, x, x; on jihād, xx; on war, xx, x, x; on apostasy, xx; on marriage, xx, x, x, x, x; on women’s work, x; on wife’s right of divorce, xx; on honesty in transactions, xx; on selling, x; on making bequests, xx; on debts, xx; on usury (ribā), x; on food, xx; on rulers, x; on punishments, x, x; on theft, x; on adultery, xx; on ‘honour’ killing, xx; general refs., x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x

Hafsah, wife of Prophet, x

Hagar, wife of Abraham, x, x, x

Ḥajar al-Aswad, see Ka‘bah.

Ḥajj, meaning of word, x; see Pilgrimage.

Ḥalāl (lawful), x

Hanafi school, x, x, x, x, x; on marriage, x, x, x, x

Hanafism (pre-Islamic), x

Heart (s), sealing of, xx, purification of, xx

Heaven and hell, begin in this life, xx; blessings and torments of, are spiritual and not conceivable in this life, x, xx, x; are not places but conditions, xx; meaning of “abiding in”, xx; see also Paradise.

Hell, see also ‘Heaven and hell’; fire of, x; fire and other torments of, xx; punishments of, x; means removal from God, x; different names of, x, x; will be a manifestation of hidden realities, x; low desires lead to, x; is remedial, xx, x; God’s mercy in, xx; as a purifier, x; punishment of, is not ever-lasting, xx

Hindus/Hinduism, x, x, x; marriage law of, x

Hira, cave of, x, x

Home, organization of, x; privacy of, x

‘Honour’ killings, x-x

Hour, the, see Sā‘ah.

Hud, x, x, x

Hudaibiyah, x; truce of, x, x

Ḥudūd, see Penal laws.

Humanity, service of, x, x, x, x, x; unification of by prayer, x; unification of by Pilgrimage, xx; see also Mankind.

Hunain, battle of, x

Ḥūr (of Paradise), xx; meaning of the word, x

Husband(s), rights and obligations of, xx; love between husband and wife, xx; as maintainer, xx; pronouncement of divorce by, xx; accusing wife of adultery, x; must treat wife kindly even when divorcing, x, x; gifts to wife, x; inheriting from wife, x; to make provision for widow, xx; see Wives.

Hypocrites, x, xx, x


Iblīs, x, x; see also Devil.

Ibn Abbas, Abdullah, x; narrator of Hadith, x, x, x, x

Ibn Amr, Abdullah, as narrator of Hadith, x, x

Ibn Arabi, x

Ibn Athir, x

Ibn Jarir, commentary of, x

Ibn Kathir, commentary of, x

Ibn Khaldun, x

Ibn Majah, x, x

Ibn Masud, Abdullah, x

Ibn Qayyim, x

Ibn Taimiyah, x, x

Ibn Thabit, Hassan, x

Ibn Umar, Abdullah, x, x; as narrator of Hadith, x, x, x

Ibn Yusuf, Hajjaj, x

Ibn Zubair, Abdullah, x, x

‘Īd (Eid), x, x; bath before, x; preparation for, x; women at, x, x, x; prayers at, xx; sermon at, x; charity at ‘Īd al-Fiṭr, x, x; sacrifice at ‘Īd al-Aḍḥā, xx, x, x, see also Sacrifice; why named ‘Īd al-Fiṭr, x; name Aḍḥā, x

‘Iddah (waiting period after divorce), x, x, x

Idolaters, war against, xx, xx; friendly tribes of, xx, x, x

Idolatry, x, x; idols in Ka‘bah, x; Pilgrimage not a remnant of, xx

Iḥrām, meaning of, x; see under Pilgrimage.

Iḥsān (doing good), x, x, x

Ijtihād, see ch. 3; meaning of, x; harm of shutting of door to, x, x; as source of Islam, x, x, x, x; encouraged by the Prophet, xx, x; by the Companions, xx; door of, still open, x; meets needs of later Muslims, xx

Ijmā’ (consensus), x, xx

Imam, x, x, x; sermon by, x; at funeral prayer, x; meaning of the word, x, x

Imams, the four, of jurisprudence, xx, x, x, x, x, x

Īmān (faith), xx, x, x; and islām, x, x, x; see Faith.

Inheritance, xx; women granted right of, as against Arab and Jewish traditions, xx; how divided among heirs, xx; why male share is double the female, xx; when siblings inherit, xx; division may be done by bequest if all heirs agree, x; see also Bequests, Wills.

Injīl (Gospel), x; see Gospels.

Intercession, of angels, x; for those in hell, x

Interest, see also Usury; xx; may be given in charity, xx

Intoxicants, prohibited, xx, x; in three stage, xx; as medicine, xx

Iqāmah (prayer announcement), x, x; and ‘Īd prayer, x

Isaac, x, x, x, x, x, x

‘Ishā’ (night prayer), x, x, x, x, x, x

Ishmael, x; taught prayer and charity, x; and Ka‘bah, x, xx, x, x, x; as “rejected” in Bible, xx

Islam, meaning of, x, x, x, x; as religion of peace, x; perfection of religion in, x, xx; relationship to other religions, x; is not dogma, x; deals with worldly duties as well, x; as unifying force, xx; spiritual force, x; offers solution to world problems, xx; international religion, x; and spread of learning, x; four sources of, x; amazing success and spread of, x, x, x; role of reason in, x; formulation of new laws of, x; broad brotherhood of, x, x; basic duties required by, x, x; main principles of, x, x, x; spread of by force not allowed, x, x, x, x, xx, xx, xx; how it was spread, x; freedom of religion in, x, x; no punishment for leaving Islam, see Apostasy; time before Islam, see Jāhiliyyah.

Israelite(s), stories of, x, x; law of, x, x, x, x; law of retaliation, x; stoning to death, xx; forbidden foods of, x; prophets of, x, x; rejection of Ishmael by, x; see also Jews.

Istidlāl (inference), x

Istighfār (asking for forgiveness), xx

Istiḥsān (public interest), x

I‘tikāf, x


Jabal al-Raḥmah, xx

Jacob, x, x, x, x

Jahannam (Hell), x; see Hell.

Jāhiliyyah (time before Islam), x; see under Arabs.

Jannah, x; see Paradise.

Jerusalem, x

Jesus, prophecy of, x, x; taken as God, x, x; disciples of, x; came only for Israelites, x, xx; not the only sinless one, x; no need for second coming of, xx; is dead and not alive in heaven, xx; revelation to, x, x, x; taught prayer and charity, x; fasting of, x; last Israelite prophet, x; and parable about the Black Stone, x; disapproved of swine, x; and stoning to death, x; other refs., x, x, x

Jews, see also Israelites; of Arabia, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; claim salvation, x; fasting among, x, x; marriage with, x; view of about Ishmael, xx; other refs., x, x, x, x, x, x, x

Jihād, see ch. 15; is not war, x, x, x; meaning of the word, x; meaning of in Quran, xx, x; in Hadith, xx; as spiritual struggle, x, x; by means of the Quran, x, x, x; of speaking the truth, x, x; of service to parents, x; of helping the poor, xx; how false concept developed in Fiqh, xx, xx; and fighting or qitāl, x; to save all places of worship, x

Jilbāb (over-garment), xx

Jinn, creation of, x, xx; meaning of word, x; word applied to humans, xx; wrong popular concept of, x

Jizyah, xx; not a religious tax, xx; those exempt from, xx; see also War.

John the Baptist, x, x

Judgment, day of, x, x, x, x, x; see also Resurrection.

Jumu‘a, See Friday Prayers.

Jurists, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; on war and jihād, x, xx; and apostasy, x, xx; on marriage, x, x, x, x, x; accept wife’s right of divorce, x; on pronouncing divorce, x, x; on gifts, x; on food, x; on penal laws, x, x

Justice, importance of, x, x, xx; to be done even towards enemy, x, x, xx


Ka‘bah, the first mosque, x; to be faced in prayer, x, x, x, x; sacredness of, x; as Central Mosque, x; description of, x; Black Stone at, x, x, xx, xx; history of building of, x, x; idols in, x, x; making circuits around, x, x, x, xx, x, x; known as House of God, x; not worshipped even before Islam, x; not physically House of God, x, x; ‘umrah to, see Umrah; see also Abraham, Pilgrimage, Qiblah.

Kāfir (unbeliever), x; a Muslim cannot be called, xx, x; see also Kufr.

Kalimah, x, x, x, x, x, x; in the Call to Prayer, x; in sermon, x

Khaibar, x

Khamr (intoxicating drink), x

Khātam al-nabiyyīn (Seal or Last of the Prophets), x, x

Khawarij/Khariji, x, x

Khidr, x

Khul‘ (divorce by wife), x, x

Khuṭbah (sermon), x, xx, x

Kitāb (book), x, x

Krishna, x

Kufr (unbelief), xx, x; see also Kāfir.


Labour, x, x, x; Islamic teachings on, xx; see also Work.

Lailat al-Qadr, x, xx

Land, cultivation of, x

Law(s) of Islam, formulation of, x; everything lawful unless prohibited, x; principles of making state laws, xx; supremacy of, x; and moral reform, x; see also Penal laws.

Life, aim of, xx, x, x

Life after death, see ch. 9; value of faith in, xx; inconceivable in this life, x; meeting with God in, x; see also Resurrection, Deeds, Paradise.

Life, spiritual, x, x, x, x, x; blindness of, x

Lot, x, x, x

Luqman, x


Madinah, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; attacked, x, x, x, x; details of Islamic law revealed at, x, x, x, x, x; alcohol prohibited at, x; revelations at, x, x, x, x, xx, x, x, x, x, x; Prophet’s mosque at, x, x; emigration to, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; government at, x, x, x, x, x

Maghrib (sunset prayer), x, x, x, x

Magians, x, x

Mahr (nuptial gift), x, xx; gives wife independence, xx; is obligatory, x; payment of, xx; and divorce, x, x, x, x; amount of, xx, x

Makkah, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; sacredness of, xx, x; revelations at, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, xx, x, x, x, x; conquest of, x, x, x, x, x; during Pilgrimage, x, x, x, x, x, x; see also Abraham.

Malā’ika (angels), see Angels; meaning of, x, x

Mālik (God as Master), x, x, x, xx

Malik ibn Anas, Imam, Muwaṭṭā of, x, x; as jurist, x, x; Maliki school, x, x, x, x

Man, created sinless, xx, spiritual development of, x

Manāsik (acts of Pilgrimage), x, x; see Pilgrimage.

Mankind, is one, x, x, xx, x, x, x, x, x; see also Humanity.

Manners, x

Marriage, see ch. 16; see also Mahr, Nikāḥ, Polygamy, Wives; importance of, xx; is a contract between husband and wife, x, x, xx, x; Quran on, x, x, x, x; Hadith on, xx, x, x; Fiqh on, x, x, x; purposes of, xx; union of man and woman, x; prohibitions relating to, xx; with non-Muslims, xx, x, x, x; free consent of man and woman an essential, xx, x, x; proposing, xx, x; age of, is after attaining age of majority, xx; role of guardian in, xx; woman may marry whom she pleases, xx; of divorced women and widows, xx; with “equals”, x; sermon, x, xx; publicizing of, xx; witnesses to, x, x, x; music and singing at, x; Walīmah, x; a permanent, sacred relation based on love, x

Mary, worship of, x; God’s revelation to, x, x, x

(al-)Masjid al-Aqṣā (the Remote Mosque), x

(al-)Masjid al-Ḥarām (the Sacred Mosque), x, x, xx

Materialism, x, x, x, x, x, x

Meat, of sacrifice, xx; see also Animals, Food.

Menstruation, is not impurity, x; what is allowed and not allowed during, x, x, x, x; divorce prohibited during, xx, x

Mina, x, x, x, xx, x; casting of stones at, x

Miracles, concept of in Islam, xx; Quran as a, x, x

Mi‘rāj, prayer is man’s, x

Mīzān (balance), xx

Moon, appearance of the new, x

Morals, ch. 20; importance of, x; truth, xx; patience, xx; courage, xx; humility, x; selflessness, xx; sincerity, x; thankfulness, xx; some bad qualities, x

Mortgage, x

Moses, x, x, x, x; revelation to, x, x, x, x, x; mother of, x, x; did not sin, x, x; fast of, x, x

Mosque, the Sacred at Ka‘bah, see (al-)Masjid al-Ḥarām.

Mosques, xx; non-Muslim deputations staying in, x; various activities in, x; manners in, x; must face the Ka‘bah, x; simple structure of, xx; Prophet’s mos­que at Madinah, x; no Muslim sect can be prohibited from, x; women may enter, xx; officers of, x

Mother, one’s duty to, xx; see also Parents.

Mu‘adh ibn Jabal, appointed governor, x, x, x, x, x

Muhājir (refugees or emigrants from Makkah), x

Muhammad, the Holy Prophet, called a Muslim, x; Last Prophet, x, x, x, x, xx; unparalleled success achieved by, x, x, x; success over opposition as proof of God’s existence, xx; Quran revealed to, xx; first revelation of, x, x; revelations of lower forms to, x, x; experience of highest form of revelation, x, x, x; never forgot revelation, xx; experience of revelation was not epilepsy, x; as exemplar of Islam, x; new converts eager to know about, x; history of, preserved, x; belief in, x, x, x; a mortal, x, x; came for the whole world, xx, x; as mercy to mankind, x; allegation of sin against, xx; prayers of, x, x, x; as Imam, x, x; prayer for, x, x; fasts of, x; helps rebuild Ka‘bah, x; Pilgrimage of, x, x, x; prohibits war atrocities, x; marriage feasts of, x; treatment of wives by, x; marriage of with Aishah, x; as a worker, xx; tender towards animals, xx; simple food of, x; founds a state, x; as ruler, x; obedience to, x; consults in decision-making, x; forgiving, x; established democratic system, x; true to his agreements, x; gives equal rights to non-Muslims, x; as moral reformer, x, x; truthfulness of, x; called al-Amīn, x; firm under persecution & temptation, x; humility of, x; anxiety of, for the poor and orphans, x; Farewell Pilgrimage of, x, x; death of, x

Muharram, x

Muir, Sir William, x, x

Mujaddid (Reformer), x

Mujahid (commentator), x

Murder, punishment for, xx; of non-Muslim, xx

Murtadd, x; see Apostasy.

Music, of Quran, x

Muslim(s), meaning of, x; in legal sense, x; must believe in all the prophets, x, x, x, xx, x; may differ with majority, x; allowed independence of thought, x; can make new laws, x; obedience of to authorities, x, x; acts of unbelief by, xx; cannot be called kāfir, xx; and mu’min (believer), x, x; righteous among receive revelation, x, xx; strengthened by angels, x; to fight to save all places of worship, x; persecuted, x, x, x; in wars of self-defence, x, x, see also War; are brethren, x; never broke an agreement with non-Muslims, x; moral qualities required of, see Morals; behaviour towards one another, xx

Muslim, Sahih, x, x, x, x, x; on predestination, x; on marriage, x; on ‘honour’ killing, x, x (lower)

Muttaqī (‘God-fearing’), who is a, x

Muzdalifah, x


Nabī (prophet), x; see Prophets.

Najrān, x, x

Nasa’i, x, x

Naskh (Abrogation in Quran), xx; meaning of word, x

Nature, human, x, x, xx

Nature, worship of, x

Neighbour, treatment of, x

Nikāḥ, see also Marriage; meaning of, x; performance of, x; sermon at, xx

Niyyah (‘intention’), of fasting, xx

Noah, x, x; flood of, x; did not sin, x

Non-Muslim(s), good deeds of a, xx; God’s mercy for, x; charity for, x; under Muslim rule, xx; kind treatment of, x; marriage with, xx, x, x, x; exchange of gifts with, x; eating with, x; Muslims must show justice towards, xx; murder of, xx


Orphans, care of, x, x, xx, x, xx, x


Paradise, Jannah, meaning of, x; blessings of, xx; are inconceivable, x, x; women in, xx; peace in, x; meeting with God in, xx; endless advancement in, xx; light of faith in, x; is unending, xx

Parents, x; as heirs, x; treatment of, xx

Parsis, x

Paul, St., x

Peace, as meaning & mission of Islam, x, x; in paradise, x; to end war, xx; see War.

Penal laws, xx; no legal penalty for neglecting spiritual duties, x; principle of puni­shment, xx; flogging, xx; see also Murder, Theft, Robbery, Adultery, Death penalty.

Persians, x, x, x, x, x

Peter, St., on swine, x

Pharaoh, x, x

Pig, meat of, see Swine.

Pilgrimage, see ch. 14; Western explanation of, x; when first instituted, xx; origin of, xx, x; asceti­cism in, x; equalizes all, xx, x; a spiritual experience, xx, x, x, x; when obligatory, xx; veil forbidden at, x, x, x; state of iḥrām, x, xx; emerging from iḥrām, xx; mīqāt or muhill, xx; saying the talbiyah, x, x, x; Ṭawāf, xx, x; Black Stone, is not idolatry, xx and see under Ka‘bah; running between Safa and Marwah, xx; march to Mina, x; in Arafat, xx; completion of, x; stopping at Muzdalifah, x; sacrifice at Mina, xx; final stay at Mina, x; casting of stones at, xx; trading at, x; see also Ka‘bah, Ṭawāf, Sacrifice, Safa and Marwah.

Polygamy, xx; allowed as exception, x, x; a remedy, x; abuse of permission, x; see also Marriage.

Poor, concern for, x, x, x; to receive charity, x, x, x, xx; other support of, x, x, x, x

Prayer, see ch. 11; and effort, x, xx; important institution of Islam, x, x; as highest ascent of man, x; leads to success, x; realization of God through, xx; and service of humanity, x; and charity, x, x; useless if it does not lead to charity, x; and zakāt, x; purifies the heart, xx; spirit of, xx, x; outpouring of soul in, x; unification of people through, x, x, x, x, x; reason for regularization and form of, x, x; freedom given to individual in, x; why times specified, x; significance of postures of, x, x, x; postures described, xx; when postures may be modified, x, xx; using one’s own language, x, x; why Arabic is used, xx; Fātiḥah in, xx; place of, xx; bodily cleanliness before, xx; times of, x, xx; the five daily, xx; when they may be combined, x, x; shortened while on journey, x; how performed, xx; a rak‘ah of, x; words said during, xx; in congregation, xx; see also Adhān, Rak‘ah, Friday Prayer (Jumu‘a), ‘Īd (Eid), Funerals.

Predestination, see Taqdīr.

Priesthood, none in Islam, x

Property, acquiring and owning, xx; no limit on acquisition of, x; unlawful ways of acquiring, xx; guidance on spending of, x, xx; management of by a guardian, x, xx; state restric­tions on disposal of, x; selling of, x; mortgaging of, x

Prophecies, a miracle, xx; of Quran and Hadith, x, x; of the triumph of Islam, xx; granted to righteous Muslims, x

Prophethood, ending of, x, xx, x; visions as remaining part of, x, x

Prophets, see ch. 8; all submitted to God, x, a Muslim must believe in all, x, x, x, xx, x; why sent, x, x; granted highest type of revelation, x, x; raised among all nations, x, x, x, xx, x, x; were all human, x; all granted books, x; were models for followers, x; all are one community, x; all taught Unity of God, x; all were sinless, xx; all taught prayer and charity, xx; non-Biblical ones, x, x; of various nations, x, x, x; covenant made with, xx; see also Revelation.

Psalms, x, x; Black Stone in, xx

Punishment, see also Penal laws; is remedial, x, xx; angels as bringing, x; is a necessary evil, x; object of is reform, x; execution of, xx


Qadar, see Taqdīr.

Qiblah, anyone facing it in prayer is a Muslim, x, x; stands for Muslim unity, x; and the call to prayer, x; Ka‘bah made qiblah, x, x; see also Ka‘bah.

Qiṣāṣ (retaliation), law of, x

Qitāl (war), see under Jihād.

Qiyāmah (Resurrection), x, x, x; see Resurrection.

Qiyās (analogical reasoning), x, x

Quraish, x, x, x, x, x; dialect of, xx; wars with, x, x, x; rebuild the Ka‘bah, x; prevent Pilgrimage by Muslims, x; persecute Muslims, x, x

Quran, the Holy, see ch. 1; name of, x; meaning of word, x; how, when and why revealed, xx, x, x; relation to previous scriptures, x, xx; as verifying earlier scriptures, x; original source of Islam, x, x, x, x; revealed in dialect of Quraish, xx; Arabic as language of, see Arabic; public promulgation of, x; abrogates previous scriptures, not its own verses, xx; decisive and allegorical verses in, x; and Hadith, see under Hadith; it advanced Arabic language and literature, x; vastness of subjects dealt with in, x; transformation brought about by, x, x; values reason and knowledge, x, xx; allows independence of thought, x; commentaries of, contain weak reports, x, x; brings revelation to perfection, x, xx; as a miracle, x, x; uses arguments, x; prophecies in, xx; recitation of, in prayer, x, x, x, x; recitation of is like music, x; is a remembrance of God, x; propagation of, is jihād, x; opening chapter of, see Fātiḥah.


Rabb (Lord), meaning of, xx; close to man’s soul, x; of all nations, x, x, x; as one of four chief attributes of God, xx, x, xx

Raghib, dictionary of, x

Raḥim (womb), x, x

Raḥīm (God as Merciful), x, x, x, x

Raḥmān (God as Beneficent), x, x, x, x, x, x

Rak‘ah, of prayer, x, x, x, x; number of, xx, x; at Friday, x; at ‘Īd, x; of Tahajjud, xx; of Tarāwīḥ, x; see also Sunnah

Rama, x

Ramadan, see also Fasting; Quran revealed in, x, x, x; battle of Badr in, x; month of fasting, x, x, x, x, xx, x; voluntary fasting just before, x; doing good during, x; attaining nearness to God during, x, x; Tahajjud in, x, Tarā­wīḥ in, x; I‘tikāf in, x, x; see also Lailat al-Qadr.

Rape, xx

Rasūl (messenger), x; used for those not sent by God, x

Reason, importance of use of, xx; x; allowed by Quran and Hadith, x

Reformers, see Mujaddid.

Relatives, helping, x; eating with, xx; doing good to, xx; see also Inheritance.

Religion(s), great work of, x; force in development of mankind, xx, x; not cause of bloodshed, x; opposition to, x; all taught prayer and charity, xx; matter of conscience, x; freedom of religion given by Islam, x, x, see also Apostasy.

Renaissance, in Europe, x

Resurrection, names of, x; description of, xx; the spiritual, xx; purpose of belief in, x; and science, xx; in a new bodily state, xx; deeds done become manifest on Day of, x, xx; balance set up on, xx

Revelation, granted to all nations, x, x, x, xx, x, x; three forms of, x, x, xx, x; as proof of God’s existence, xx; to all prophets came in same way, x; lower forms granted to righteous non-prophets, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; to all humans, x, x, x; to non-humans, xx; need for, xx; brought to perfection in Islam, x; highest form of, closed, x, x; lower forms continue forever, xx; see also Makkah and Madinah for revelations received at.

Ribā, meaning of, x; see Usury and Interest.

Robbery (violent), x, xx

Roman empire, x, x, x, x, x, x, x


Sabians, x, x

Sā‘ah (the Hour), x, x

Sacrifice, at ‘Īd al-Aḍḥā, see under ‘Īd; cannot be replaced by charity, x; concept of, xx; at Pilgrimage, x, x, x; for idols, xx

Ṣadaqah (charity), x, x, x; zakāt also called as, x, x

Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqas, x

Safa and Marwah, x, x, x, x; running between at Pilgrimage (sa‘y), xx, x

Safiyyah, Prophet’s wife, x

Ṣaḥīfah (scripture), x

Ṣalāt (prayers), meaning of, x, x; see Prayer.

(al-)Ṣalā ‘ala-l-Nabiyy, x, x

Salih, x, x, x

Salvation, x, x, x, x

Ṣaum (fasting), x; see Fasting.

Sa‘y, see under Safa and Marwah.

Servants, kind treatment of, x

Sexual relations, x, x, x; clandestine prohibited, x; see also Marriage.

Shafi‘i, Imam, x, x, x, x

Shiah, x, x, x, x

Shirk (ascribing partners to God), meaning of, x; is degrading, x; various forms of, xx; and marriage, x, x; see also God, Unity of.

Shuaib, x

Shūrā (counsel), x, x; see State.

Sin(s), all prophets were sinless, xx; asking for forgiveness of, xx; God’s mercy forgives, x, x; debars man from God, x; hell purifies man of, x; of Muslims and of non-Muslims, x; man created sinless, xx

Slaughter, see under Animals.

Slaves/slavery, x, x; zakāt to be spent on freeing, x; freeing of, x; abolished, xx

Social relations and conduct, xx, xx

Socialism, xx, x; see also communism.

Solomon, xx, x

Soul, conscious of God, xx; created by God, x, x, x; purification of, x, xx, x, x, x; and death, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; doing good and harm to, xx

Spirit, the Holy, x, x, x, x; prophets as well as believers strengthened with, xx; descent of, x

State, see ch. 19; modern state ideologies, xx; basic concept of the Islamic, xx; head of, x, xx, xx, x; head subject to law, xx, x; head as accountable servant of people, x, x; employees of, x; is democratic, xx, xx, x, x; moral values in conduct of, x; instructions to governors, xx; to help poor and debtors, x; people’s obligations towards, xx; Quran supreme over, x; law making by, xx; principle of counsel, x; must exercise justice towards all, xx; must fulfil all agreements & treaties, xx; tax collection by, x, xx, xx; equal rights of non-Muslims in, x

Suffering, xx, x, x, x, x, x, x; of Muslims, x, x, x, x, x

Sunnah, see also Hadith; x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; of prayer, x, x, x

Sūrah, meaning of, x

Sayuti, Jalal-ud-Din, x, x, x

Swine, flesh of, forbidden, x, x


Tabuk, x, x

Tahajjud (prayer during the night), x, xx; in Rama­dan, x

Ṭalāq (divorce), x; see Divorce.

Taqdīr and Qadar (so-called Predestination), see ch. 10; not an article of faith, x, x, xx; meaning of, xx, x; in Hadith, xx

Tarāwīḥ (prayer), x

Tashrīq days, x, x; see Pilgrimage.

Tauḥīd (Unity of God), xx; significance of, xx, x; see also under God.

Ṭawāf, xx, x, x, x; see also Pilgrimage, Ka‘bah.

Tax, xx, xx; see under Zakāt and Jizyah.

Tayammum, xx

Ta‘zīr (legal punishment), x

Thaqīf, x

Theft, x, xx

Tirmidhi, x, x

Torah, x, x, x; see Bible.

Trade, see Business.

Trinity, x, x, x

Trusts, xx


Uhud (Uḥud), battle of, x, x

Ukul, tribe of, x

Umar, second Caliph, urges compilation of Quran, x; received revelation, x; saying of about hell, x; proposes the Call to Prayer, x; and Tarāwīḥ, x; and Jizyah, x, x, x; as Caliph, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x; other refs., x, x, x, x, x

Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, x, x, x

‘Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage), what is, xx, x, x, x, x

Universe, uniformity of law in, xx

‘Uqūd (agreements), xx

‘Ushr (land tax), x, x

Usury, see also Interest; xx; why prohibited, xx, x

Uthman, x, x, x, x, x, x


Veil (of face), x, xx; forbidden at Pilgrimage, x, x, and at prayer, xx; was mark of high rank, x


Waḥy, x, x, x, x, x; see also Revelation.

Walīmah, x; see Marriage.

Wali-ullah, Shah, x, x

Waqf, see Trusts.

War, jihād is not the same as, x; permitted to Muslims only in self-defence, x, x, x, xx, x, x; to save all places of worship, x; aggressive not allowed, x, x, x, x; meaning of fighting in the way of Allah, x; early teachings not abrogated, xx, x; “verse of the sword”, xx; cessation of, xx; peace after, xx; not for propagation of Islam, x, x, xx, xx; wars of early Caliphate, xx, x; Hadith on, xx; Jurists’ wrong notion of, xx; directions relating to, x; prisoners of, xx; as an honest, ethical struggle, xx; and deception, x; polygamy as solution to decrease in males by war, x

Wealth, distribution of, x, x, xx; see Property, Zakāt.

West, civilization of, x, x, x, x; Western critics of Islam, x, x, x, x, x, x, x

Widows, marriage of, x, x; position of among Arabs, xx; husband’s provision for, xx; welfare of, x

Wills, xx; making of, xx, x; for charity and heirs, x; see also Bequests, Inheritance.

Wine, see Intoxicants.

Witr (prayer), x, x

Wives, created from same soul as man, x; husband required to treat well, x, xx; independence of, x, x; rights of, xx; as ruler of the home, x; love between husband and wife, xx, x; duties of, x; right of divorce of, xx; kindness towards even in divorce, x, x; gifts to husband, x; inheriting from husband, x; when accused of adultery by husband, x; see Husbands, Marriage, Divorce, Widows, Women.

Women, rights of, xx; pre-Islamic treatment of, x, x, x; work of rewarded as of men, x, xx; in Paradise, xx, xx; revelation to, x, x, x; as earning, owning and controlling property, x, x, x, x; as working, x, x; conducting business, x; inheritance rights of, xx; why male share is double, xx; no seclusion of, xx; mixing of with men, x; entry of to mosques, xx; dress of, x, x, xx, and see Veil; as imam, x; in prayer congregation, x; at ‘Īd prayers, x; at funerals, x; and fasting in Ramadan, x, x; at Pilgrimage, x, x, x; and children must not be killed in war, x, x; may marry whom they wish to, see Marriage; see also Menstruation, Widows, Wives.

Work, rewarded, x, x; Prophet Muhammad dignifies, xx; equality of worker and employer, x; entitled to wages for, x; see Labour.

Wuḍū, x; spiritual purpose of, x; see also Tayammum.


Yaman, x, x, x


Zabūr (Psalms) x, x

Zacharias, x, x

Zaid ibn Haritha, liberated slave, x; marriage of with Zainab, x

Zaid ibn Thabit, x, x, x

Zainab, Prophet’s cousin and wife, x, x, x; first marriage of with Zaid ibn Haritha, x

Zainab, a daughter of the Prophet, x

Zain-ud-Din, Hafiz, x

Zakāt, see also Charity, Ṣadaqah; meaning of the word, x, x; as purifier, x; institution of Islam, x, x, x; as important as prayer, x­–x; significance of, x; is a state or communal institution, xx; as a tax due to the state, x; how assessed, xx; niṣāb of, xx; spending of, xx; administration of, x, x; on propagation of Islam, xx; up to one-third may be spent as donor wishes, x

Zamzam, fountain of, x

Zīnat (adornment), x

Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, x, x

Zubair, x

Ẓuhr (early afternoon prayer), x, x, x, x