Revised 2010 edition of the English Translation of the Holy Quran

English Translation of the Holy Quran

 

Originally by Maulana Muhammad Ali

(First edition, 1917; extensively revised edition, 1951)

 

Language updated by Zahid Aziz

(Print edition 2010; html edition below, March 2014)

 

Notes:

1.       The headings of sections, given here within parentheses, have been added by the translator, and do not correspond to any text in the Quran.

2.       It is sometimes necessary to know whether the words “you” and “your” in the translation (when not referring to God) occur in the singular or plural in the Arabic text. To indicate the singu­lar case in this translation, the initial letter “y” is set in italic font, like this: you. For example, in 2:4 in the words “revealed to you”, the word “you” is in the singular, referring to the Holy Prophet Muhammad, while in 4:140 in the words “revealed to you” the word “you” is plural, referring to all Muslims. Note that whenever God is addressed, it is always in the singular in the Arabic text of the Quran, and for those cases in this translation the letter “y” has been capitalised, as in “You” and “Your”.

3.      Common words have not been transliterated, such as Allah and Quran (which would be: Allāh and Qur’ān). Some names are trans­literated only to the extent of placing the ‘bar’ over the letters a, i, or u, to indicate that the vowel is long, as a guide to pronun­ciation, as in Sālih (which would be Sāliḥ). Full transliteration marks are only used when the exact form of a word or phrase in Arabic needs to be represented (for example, in names of chapters), and in all such cases that text is printed in italics.


Chapter 1

Al-Fātiḥah: The Opening

Introduction by the translator

Al-Fātiḥah or The Opening is the quintessence of the whole of the Holy Quran. It formed an essential part of the Muslim prayers from the earliest days of Islam. The chapter is headed by the words Bi-smillāh-ir-Raḥmān-ir-Raḥīm (“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful”), which also head every other chapter of the Quran except the ninth. The first three verses speak of the four chief Divine attributes, namely, providence, benefi­cence, mercy and requital, and the last three lay open before the Great Maker the earnest desire of man’s soul to walk in righteousness, without stumbling on either side, while the middle verse is expressive of man’s entire dependence on Allah. These Divine attributes disclose Allah’s all-encompassing benefi­cence and care, and His unbounded love for all of His creatures, and the ideal to which the soul is made to aspire is the path of righteousness, the path of grace, and the path in which there is no stumbling.

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

1:1                   Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds,

1:2                   The Beneficent, the Merciful,

1:3                   Master of the day of Recompense.

1:4                   You do we serve and You do we beseech for help.

1:5                   Guide us on the right path,

1:6                   The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favours,

1:7                   Not those upon whom wrath is brought down, nor those who go astray.

 

Chapter 2

Al-Baqarah: The Cow

Introduction by the translator

The name of this chapter is taken from the story in verses 67–71 regarding the slaughter of a cow, cow-worship having taken a hold among the Jews. This chapter deals mainly with the Israelites and their contentions against Islam, and hence much of the legisla­tion, details of which necessarily differ from the Jewish law, is dealt with in this chapter. The last chapter contains a prayer for being guided on the right path (1:5), and here that guidance is afforded in the opening words: “This book, in which there is no doubt, is a guide” (v. 2). The chapter deals with: the fundamental principles of Islam, need for Divine revelation, history of the Israelite nation, the replacement of former scrip­tures by the Quran, the covenant with Abraham, Islamic teachings on various important matters (including fasting, pilgrimage, wars, marriage and divorce), the power of Allah to give life to dead nations, and the need to sacrifice wealth in the cause of Truth. It ends with a prayer for the ultimate triumph of truth. This chapter was revealed at Madinah, mostly in the years 1 and 2 A.H.

Part 1

Section 1 (Fundamental Principles of Islam)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

2:1                   I, Allah, am the Best Knower.

2:2                   This Book, in which there is no doubt, is a guide to those who keep their duty,

2:3                   who believe in the Unseen and keep up prayer and spend (on good works) out of what We have given them,

2:4                    and who believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you, and of the Hereafter  they are sure.

2:5                    These are on a right course from their Lord and these it is that are successful.

2:6                    Those who disbelieve — to whom it is the same whether you warn them or do not warn them — they will not believe.

2:7                   Allah has sealed their hearts and their hearing; and there is a covering on their eyes, and for them is a grievous punishment.

Section 2 (Lip-profession)

2:8                   And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day; and they are not believers.

2:9                   They seek to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they deceive only them­selves and they do not perceive.

2:10               In their hearts is a disease, so Allah increased their disease, and for them is a painful punish­ment because they lie.

2:11               And when it is said to them, Do not make mischief in the land, they say: We are only peace­makers.

2:12               Now surely they are the mischief-makers, but they do not perceive.

2:13               And when it is said to them, Believe as the people believe, they say: Shall we believe as the fools believe? Now surely they are the fools, but they do not know.

2:14               And when they meet those who believe, they say, We believe; and when they are alone with their devils, they say: Surely we are with you, we were only mocking.

2:15               Allah will pay them back their mockery, and He leaves them alone in their inordi­nacy, blindly wandering on.

2:16               These are they who buy error for guidance, so their bargain brings no gain, nor are they guided.

2:17               Their parable is as the parable of one who kindles a fire, but when it illumines all around him, Allah takes away their light, and leaves them in darkness — they cannot see.

2:18               Deaf, dumb, (and) blind, so they do not return (to the right way),

2:19               or like abun­dant rain from the cloud in which is darkness, and thunder and lightning; they put their fingers into their ears because of the thunder-peal, for fear of death. And Allah encompasses the disbelievers.

2:20               The lightning almost takes away their sight. Whenever it shines on them they walk in it, and when it becomes dark to them they stand still. And if Allah had pleased, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Surely Allah is Power­ful over all things.

Section 3 (Divine Unity)

2:21               O people, serve your Lord Who created you and those before you, so that you may guard against evil,

2:22               Who made the earth a resting-place for you and the heaven a structure, and sends down rain from the clouds then brings forth with it fruits for your sustenance; so do not set up rivals to Allah while you know.

2:23               And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your helpers besides Allah if you are truthful.

2:24               But if you do not (do it) — and you can never do (it) — then be on your guard against the fire whose fuel is people and stones; it is prepared for the disbelievers.

2:25               And give good news to those who believe and do good deeds, that for them are Gardens in which rivers flow. Whenever they are given a portion of the fruit of these (Gardens), they will say: This is what was given to us before; and they are given the like of it. And they will have therein pure companions  and there­in they will abide.

2:26               Surely Allah does not disdain to set forth any parable — a gnat or anything above that. Then as for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord; and as for those who disbelieve, they say: What is it that Allah means by this parable? Many He leaves in error by it and many He leads aright by it. And He leaves in error by it only the transgressors,

2:27               who break the covenant of Allah after its confirmation and cut apart what Allah has ordered to be joined, and make mischief in the land. These it is that are the losers.

2:28               How can you deny Allah and you were without life and He gave you life? Again, He will cause you to die and again bring you to life, then you shall be brought back to Him.

2:29               He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. And He directed Him­self to the heaven, so He made them complete seven heavens; and He is Knower of all things.

Section 4 (Greatness of Mankind and Need for Revelation)

2:30               And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place a ruler in the earth, they said: Will You place in it such as make mischief in it and shed blood? And we celebrate Your praise and extol Your holiness. He said: Surely I know what you do not know.

2:31               And He taught Adam all the names, then presented them to the angels; He said: Tell Me the names of those if you are right.

2:32               They said: Glory be to You! we have no knowledge but what You have taught us. Surely You are the Knowing, the Wise.

2:33               He said: O Adam, inform them of their names. So when he informed them of their names, He said: Did I not say to you that I know what is unseen in the heavens and the earth? And I know what you manifest and what you hide.

2:34               And when We said to the angels, Be submissive to Adam, they submitted, but not Iblīs. He refused and was proud, and he was one of the disbelievers.

2:35               And We said: O Adam, dwell you and your wife in the garden, and eat from it a plentiful (food) wherever you wish, and do not approach this tree or you would be from among the unjust.

2:36               But the devil made them slip from it, and caused them to depart from the state in which they were. And We said: Go forth, some of you are enemies of others. And there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

2:37               Then Adam received (revealed) words from his Lord, and He turned to him (mercifully). Surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

2:38               We said: Go forth from this (state) all. Surely a guidance from Me will come to you, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve.

2:39               And (as to) those who disbelieve in and reject Our messages, they are the companions of the Fire; in it they will abide.

Section 5 (Israelite Prophecies fulfilled in the Quran)

2:40               O Children of Israel, call to mind My favour which I bestowed on you and be faithful to (your) covenant with Me, I shall fulfil (My) covenant with you; and Me, Me alone, should you fear.

2:41               And believe in what I have revealed, verifying what is (already) with you, and do not be the first to deny it; nor take a small price for My messages; and keep your duty to Me, Me alone.

2:42               And do not mix up truth with falsehood, nor hide the truth while you know.

2:43               And keep up prayer and give the due charity and bow down with those who bow down.

2:44               Do you tell people to be good and neglect your own souls while you read the Book? Have you then no sense?

2:45               And seek assistance through patience and prayer, and this is hard except for the humble ones,

2:46               who know that they will meet their Lord and that to Him they will return.

Section 6 (Divine Favours on Israel)

2:47               O Children of Israel, call to mind My favour which I bestowed on you and that I made you excel the nations.

2:48               And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will avail another in the least, neither will intercession be accepted on its behalf, nor will compensation be taken from it, nor will they be helped.

2:49               And when We delivered you from Pharaoh’s people, who subjected you to severe torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and in this there was a great trial from your Lord.

2:50               And when We parted the sea for you, so We saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you saw.

2:51               And when We appointed a time of forty nights with Moses, then you took the calf (for a god) after him, and you were unjust.

2:52               Then We pardoned you after that so that you might give thanks.

2:53               And when We gave Moses the Book and the criterion that you might walk aright.

2:54               And when Moses said to his people: My people, you have surely wronged yourselves by taking the calf (for a god), so turn to your Creator (penitently), and kill your passions. That is best for you with your Creator. So He turned to you (mercifully). Surely He is the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

2:55               And when you said: Moses, we will not believe in you till we see Allah manifestly, so the punishment overtook you while you looked on.

2:56               Then We raised you up after your stupor that you might give thanks.

2:57               And We made the clouds to give shade over you and We sent to you manna and quails. Eat of the good things that We have given you. And they did Us no harm, but they wronged their own souls.

2:58               And when We said: Enter this city, then eat from it a plentiful (food) wherever you wish, and enter the gate sub­mis­sively, and make petition for forgiveness. We will forgive you your wrongs and increase the reward of those who do good (to others).

2:59               But those who were unjust changed the word which had been spoken to them, for another saying, so We sent upon the wrong­doers a pestilence from heaven because they transgressed.

Section 7 (Divine Favours on Israel)

2:60               And when Moses prayed for water for his people, We said: March on to the rock with your staff. So twelve springs flowed from it. Each tribe knew their drinking-place. Eat and drink of the provisions of Allah, and do not act corruptly, making mischief in the land.

2:61               And when you said: Moses, we cannot endure one food, so pray your Lord on our behalf to bring forth for us out of what the earth grows, of its herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions. He said: Would you exchange what is better for what is worse? Enter a city, so you will have what you ask for. And degradation and humiliation were stamped upon them, and they incurred Allah’s wrath. That was so because they dis­believed in the messages of Allah and would kill the prophets unjustly. That was so because they disobeyed and exceeded the limits.

Section 8 (Israelites’ Degeneration)

2:62               Surely those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does good, they have their reward with their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve.

2:63               And when We made a covenant with you and raised the mountain above you: Hold on firmly what We have given you, and bear in mind what is in it, so that you may guard against evil.

2:64               Then after that you turned back; and if it had not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy on you, you would certainly have been among the losers.

2:65               And indeed you know those among you who violated the Sabbath, so We said to them: Be (as) apes, despised and hated.

2:66               So We made them an example to those who wit­nessed it and those who came after it and an admonition to those who guard against evil.

2:67               And when Moses said to his people: Allah commands you to sacrifice a cow. They said: Do you ridicule us? He said: I seek refuge with Allah from being one of the ignorant.

2:68               They said: Call on your Lord for our sake to make it plain to us what she is. (Moses) said: He says, Surely she is a cow neither advanced in age nor too young, of middle age between these (two); so do what you are commanded.

2:69               They said: Call on your Lord for our sake to make it clear to us what her colour is. (Moses) said: He says, She is a yellow cow; her colour is intensely yellow delighting the onlookers.

2:70               They said: Call on your Lord for our sake to make it clear to us what she is, for surely to us cows are all alike, and if Allah please we shall surely be guided aright.

2:71               (Moses) said: He says: She is a cow not made submissive to plough the land, nor does she water the crops, sound, without a blemish in her. They said: Now you have brought the truth. So they slaughtered her, though they were not inclined to do (it).

Section 9 (They grow in Hard-heartedness)

2:72               And when you (almost) killed a man, then you disagreed about it. And Allah was to bring forth what you were going to hide.

2:73               So We said: Strike him with it partially. Thus Allah brings the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you may under­stand.

2:74               Then your hearts hardened after that, so that they were like rocks, rather worse in hardness. And surely there are some rocks from which streams burst forth; and there are some of them which split apart so water flows from them; and there are some of them which fall down for the fear of Allah. And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

2:75               Do you then hope that they would believe in you, and some of them indeed used to hear the word of Allah, then altered it after they had understood it, and they know (this).

2:76               And when they meet those who believe they say, We believe, and when they are apart with one another they say: Do you talk to them of what Allah has disclosed to you that they may contend with you by this before your Lord? Do you not understand?

2:77               Do they not know that Allah knows what they keep secret and what they make known?

2:78               And some of them are illiterate; they do not know the Book except (from) hearsay, and they only conjecture.

2:79               Woe, then, to those who write the Book with their hands then say, This is from Allah; so that they may take for it a small price. So woe to them for what their hands write and woe to them for what they earn.

2:80               And they say: Fire will not touch us but for a few days. Say: Have you received a promise from Allah? Then Allah will not fail to perform His promise. Or do you speak against Allah what you do not know?

2:81               Indeed, whoever earns evil and his sins beset him on every side, those are the companions of the Fire; in it they abide.

2:82               And those who believe and do good deeds, these are the owners of the Garden; in it they abide.

Section 10 (Their Covenant and its Violation)

2:83               And when We made a covenant with the Children of Israel: You shall serve none but Allah. And do good to (your) parents, and to the near of kin and to orphans and the needy, and speak good (words) to (all) people, and keep up prayer and give the due charity. Then you turned back except a few of you, and you are averse.

2:84               And when We made a covenant with you: You shall not shed your blood, nor turn your people out of your cities; then you promised and you bear witness.

2:85               Yet you it is who would kill your people and turn some of you out of their homes, backing each other up against them unlawfully and exceeding the limits. And if they should come to you as captives you would ransom them, whereas their turning out itself was unlawful for you. Do you then believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? What then is the reward of such among you as do this but disgrace in the life of this world, and on the day of Resurrection they shall be sent back to the most grievous punish­ment. And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

2:86               These are they who buy the life of this world for the Hereafter, so their punish­ment shall not be lightened, nor shall they be helped.

Section 11 (They reject the Prophet)

2:87               And We indeed gave Moses the Book and We sent messengers after him one after another; and We gave Jesus, son of Mary, clear arguments and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Is it then that whenever a messenger came to you with what your souls did not desire, you were arrogant? And some you rejected and others you would kill.

2:88               And they say: Our hearts are securely covered. No, Allah has cursed them on account of their unbelief; so it is little that they believe.

2:89               And when a Book from Allah came to them verifying what they (already) have, and before this they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieved — but when that which they recognized came to them, they dis­believed in it; so Allah’s curse is on the disbelievers.

2:90               Evil is what they sell their souls for — that they should deny what Allah has revealed, out of envy that Allah should send down of His grace on whomsoever of His servants He pleases; so they incur wrath upon wrath. And there is a humiliating punish­ment for the disbelievers.

2:91               And when it is said to them, Believe in what Allah has revealed, they say: We believe in what was revealed to us. And they deny what is besides that, while it is the Truth verifying what they (already) have. Say: Why then did you kill Allah’s prophets before (this) if you were believers?

2:92               And Moses indeed came to you with clear arguments, then you took the calf (for a god) in his absence and you were wrongdoers.

2:93               And when We made a cove­nant with you and raised the mountain above you: Take hold of what We have given you with firmness and obey. They said: We hear and disobey. And they were made to imbibe (the love of) the calf into their hearts on account of their disbelief. Say: Evil is what your faith bids you if you are believers.

2:94               Say: If the abode of the Hereafter with Allah is specially for you to the exclusion of the (other) people, then invoke death if you are truthful.

2:95               And they will never invoke it on account of what their hands have already done, and Allah knows the wrong­doers.

2:96               And you will certainly find them the greediest of people for life, (greedier) even than those who set up partners (with Allah). One of them loves to be granted a life of a thousand years, and his being granted a long life will in no way remove him further off from the punishment. And Allah is Seer of what they do.

Section 12 (Their Enmity to the Prophet)

2:97               Say: Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel  — for surely he revealed it to your heart by Allah’s command, verifying what is (already) before it and a guidance and glad tidings for the believers.

2:98               Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His messengers and Gabriel and Michael, then surely Allah is an enemy to disbelievers.

2:99               And We indeed have revealed to you clear messages, and none disbelieve in them except the trans­gressors.

2:100           Is it that when­ever they make a covenant, some of them cast it aside? No, most of them have no faith.

2:101           And when a messenger from Allah came to them verifying what they (already) have, some of those who were given the Book threw the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they knew nothing.

2:102           And they follow what the devils fabricated against the king­dom of Solomon. And Solomon did not disbelieve, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people enchantment. And it was not revealed to the two angels in Babel — Hārūt and Mārūt. Nor did they teach (it to) anyone, so that they should have said, We are only a trial, so do not disbelieve. But they learn from these two (sources) that by which they make a distinction between a man and his wife. And they cannot hurt with it anyone except with Allah’s permission. And they learn that which harms them and does not benefit them. And certainly they know that he who buys it has no share of good in the Hereafter. And surely evil is the price for which they have sold their souls; if only they knew!

2:103           And if they had believed and kept their duty, reward from Allah would certainly have been better; if only they knew!

Section 13 (Previous Scriptures are abrogated)

2:104           O you who believe, do not say Rā‘i-nā and say Unẓur-nā, and listen. And for the disbelievers there is a painful punishment.

2:105           Neither those who disbelieve from among the people of the Book, nor the idolaters, like that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord. And Allah chooses whom He pleases for His mercy; and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

2:106           Whatever message We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or one like it. Do you not know that Allah is Powerful over all things?

2:107           Do you not know that Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and that besides Allah you have not any friend or helper?

2:108           Rather you wish to put questions to your Messenger, as Moses was questioned before. And who­ever adopts disbelief instead of faith he indeed has lost the right direction of the way.

2:109           Many of the people of the Book wish that they could turn you back into disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from themselves, after truth has become clear to them. But pardon and forgive, till Allah bring about His command. Surely Allah is Powerful over all things.

2:110           And keep up prayer and give the due charity. And what­ever good you send on ahead for yourselves, you will find it with Allah. Surely Allah is Seer of what you do.

2:111           And they say: None shall enter the Garden except he who is a Jew, or the Christians. These are their vain desires. Say: Bring your proof if you are truthful.

2:112           No, whoever submits himself entirely to Allah and he is the doer of good (to others), he has his reward from his Lord, and there is no fear for such nor shall they grieve.

Section 14 (Perfect Guidance is only in Islam)

2:113           And the Jews say, The Christians follow nothing (good), and the Christians say, The Jews follow nothing (good), while they recite the (same) Book. Even thus say those who have no knowledge, like what they say. So Allah will judge between them on the day of Resurrection in that in which they differ.

2:114           And who is more unjust than he who prevents (people) from the mosques of Allah, from His name being remembered in them, and strives to ruin them? (As for) these, it was not proper for them to enter them except in fear. For them is disgrace in this world, and theirs is a grievous punishment in the Hereafter.

2:115           And Allah’s is the East and the West, so whichever way you turn, there is Allah’s purpose. Surely Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.

2:116           And they say: Allah has taken to Himself a son — glory be to Him! Rather, whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His. All are obedient to Him.

2:117           Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth! And when He decrees an affair, He only says to it, Be, and it is.

2:118           And those who have no knowledge say: Why does not Allah speak to us or a sign come to us? Even thus said those before them, like what they say. Their hearts are all alike. Indeed We have made the messages clear for a people who are sure.

2:119           Surely We have sent you with the Truth as a bearer of good news and as a warner, and you will not be called upon to answer for the companions of the flaming Fire.

2:120           And the Jews will not be pleased with you, nor the Christians, unless you follow their religion. Say: Surely Allah’s guidance — that is the (perfect) guidance. And if you follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, you shall have from Allah no friend, nor helper.

2:121           Those to whom We have given the Book follow it as it ought to be followed. These believe in it. And whoever disbelieves in it, these it is that are the losers.

Section 15 (Covenant with Abraham)

2:122           O Children of Israel, call to mind My favour which I bestowed on you and that I made you excel the nations.

2:123           And be on your guard against a day when no soul will avail another in the least, neither will any compensation be accepted from it, nor will intercession benefit it, nor will they be helped.

2:124           And when his Lord tried Abraham with certain commands he fulfilled them. He said: Surely I will make you a leader of people. (Abraham) said: And of my offspring? My cove­nant does not include the wrongdoers, said He.

2:125           And when We made the House a resort for people and a (place of) security, and (saying): Take the Place of Abraham for a place of prayer. And We commanded Abraham and Ishmael, saying: Purify My House for those who visit (it) and those who abide (in it) for devotion and those who bow down (and) those who prostrate themselves.

2:126           And when Abraham said: My Lord, make this a secure town and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day. He said: And whoever disbelieves, I shall grant him enjoyment for a short while, then I shall drive him to the punishment of the Fire. And it is an evil destination.

2:127           And when Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House: Our Lord, accept from us; surely You are the Hearing, the Knowing.

2:128           Our Lord, and make us both submissive to You, and (raise) from our offspring, a nation submissive to You, and show us our ways of devotion and turn to us (merci­fully); surely You are the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

2:129           Our Lord, and raise up in them a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Your messages and teach them the Book and the Wisdom, and purify them. Surely You are the Mighty, the Wise.

Section 16 (The Religion of Abraham)

2:130           And who forsakes the religion of Abraham but he who makes a fool of himself. And certainly We made him pure in this world, and in the Hereafter he is surely among the righteous.

2:131           When his Lord said to him, Submit, he said: I submit myself to the Lord of the worlds.

2:132           And the same did Abraham command his sons, and (so did) Jacob: My sons, surely Allah has chosen for you (this) religion, so do not die except as submitting ones.

2:133           Or were you witnesses when death visited Jacob, when he said to his sons: What will you serve after me? They said: We shall serve your God and the God of your fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, one God only, and to Him do we submit.

2:134           Those are a people that have passed away; for them is what they earned and for you what you earn; and you will not be asked of what they did.

2:135           And they say: Be Jews or Christians, you will be on the right course. Say: Rather, (we follow) the religion of Abraham, the upright one, and he was not of those who set up partners (with Allah).

2:136           Say: We believe in Allah and (in) what has been revealed to us, and (in) what was revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and (in) what was given to Moses and Jesus, and (in) what was given to the prophets from their Lord, we make no distinction between any of them and to Him we submit.

2:137           So if they believe as you believe, they are indeed on the right course; and if they turn back, then they are only in opposition. But Allah will be sufficient for you against them; and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

2:138           (We take) Allah’s colour, and who is better than Allah at colouring, and we are His worshippers.

2:139           Say: Do you dispute with us about Allah, and He is our Lord and your Lord, and for us are our deeds and for you your deeds; and we are sincere to Him?

2:140           Or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do you know better or Allah? And who is more unjust than he who conceals a testimony that he has from Allah? And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

2:141           Those are a people that have passed away; and for them is what they earned and for you what you earn; and you will not be asked concerning what they did.

Part 2

Section 17 (The Ka‘bah as the Spiritual Centre)

2:142           The fools among the people will say: What has turned them from their qiblah which they had? Say: The East and the West belong only to Allah; He guides whom He pleases to the right path.

2:143           And thus We have made you an exalted nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you. And We did not make that which you would have to be the qiblah  but that We might distinguish him who follows the Messenger from him who turns back upon his heels. And it was indeed a hard test except for those whom Allah has guided. Nor was Allah going to make your faith to be fruitless. Surely Allah is Compassionate, Merciful, to the people.

2:144           Indeed We see the turning of your face to heaven, so We shall surely make you master of the qiblah which you like; turn then your face towards the Sacred Mosque. And wherever you are, turn your faces towards it. And those who have been given the Book certainly know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not heedless of what they do.

2:145           And even if you should bring to those who have been given the Book every sign they would not follow your qiblah, nor can you be a follower of their qiblah, neither are they the follow­ers of each other’s qiblah. And if you should follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, then you would indeed be from among the wrongdoers.

2:146           Those whom We have given the Book recognize him as they recognize their sons, but some of them surely conceal the truth while they know.

2:147           The truth is from your Lord, so do not be from among the doubters.

Section 18 (The Ka‘bah as the Spiritual Centre)

2:148           And everyone has a goal to which he turns (himself), so vie with one another in good works. Wherever you are, Allah will bring you all together. Surely Allah is Powerful over all things.

2:149           And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. And surely it is the truth from your Lord. And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

2:150           And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. And wherever you are, turn your faces towards it, so that people may have no plea against you except such of them as are unjust — so do not fear them and fear Me — and that I may complete My favour to you and that you may go aright.

2:151           Even as We have sent among you a Messenger from among you, who recites to you Our messages and purifies you and teaches you the Book and the Wisdom and teaches you what you did not know.

2:152           Therefore glorify Me, I will make you eminent, and give thanks to Me and do not be ungrateful to Me.

Section 19 (Hard Trials necessary to establish Truth)

2:153           O you who believe, seek assistance through patience and prayer; surely Allah is with the patient.

2:154           And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Rather, (they are) alive, but you do not perceive.

2:155           And We shall certainly try you with something of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits. And give good news to the patient,

2:156           who, when a misfortune befalls them, say: Surely we are Allah’s, and to Him we shall return.

2:157           Those are they on whom are blessings and mercy from their Lord; and those are the followers of the right course.

2:158           The Safa and the Marwah are truly among the signs of Allah; so whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them. And whoever does good spontaneously — surely Allah is Bountiful in rewarding, Knowing.

2:159           Those who conceal the clear proofs and the guidance that We revealed after We have made it clear in the Book for people, these it is whom Allah curses, and those who curse, curse them (too).

2:160           Except those who repent and amend and make manifest (the truth), these it is to whom I turn (merci­fully); and I am the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

2:161           Those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers, these it is on whom is the curse of Allah and the angels and people, of all (of them):

2:162           abiding in it; their punishment shall not be light­ened nor shall they be given respite.

2:163           And your God is one God; there is no God but He! He is the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Section 20 (Unity must prevail)

2:164           In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alter­nation of night and day, and the ships that run in the sea with that which benefits mankind, and the water that Allah sends down from the sky, then gives life with it to the earth after its death and spreads in it all (kinds of) animals, and the changing of the winds and the clouds made subservient between heaven and earth, there are surely signs for a people who understand.

2:165           Yet there are some people who take for themselves objects of worship besides Allah, whom they love as they should love Allah. And those who believe are stronger in (their) love for Allah. And if only the wrongdoers had seen, when they see the punishment, that power is wholly Allah’s, and that Allah is Severe in punishing!

2:166           When those who were followed renounce those who followed (them), and they see the punishment and their ties are cut apart.

2:167           And those who followed will say: If only we could return, we would renounce them as they have renounced us. Thus will Allah show them their deeds to be intense regret to them, and they will not escape from the Fire.

Section 21 (Prohibited Foods)

2:168           O people, eat the lawful and good things from what is in the earth, and do not follow the footsteps of the devil. Surely he is an open enemy to you.

2:169           He commands you only (to commit) evil and indecency, and that you speak against Allah what you do not know.

2:170           And when it is said to them, Follow what Allah has revealed, they say: But we follow that (path) upon which we found our fathers. What! Even though their fathers had no sense at all, nor did they follow the right way.

2:171           And the parable of those who disbelieve is as the parable of one who calls out to that which hears no more than a call and a cry. Deaf, dumb, blind, so they have no sense.

2:172           O you who believe, eat of the good things that We have provided you with, and give thanks to Allah if He it is Whom you serve.

2:173           He has forbidden you only what dies of itself, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked. Then whoever is driven by necessity, not desiring, nor exceeding the limit, no sin is upon him. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

2:174           Those who conceal anything of the Book that Allah has revealed and take for it a small price, they eat nothing but fire into their bellies, and Allah will not speak to them on the day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them; and for them is a painful punishment.

2:175           Those are they who buy error for guidance and punish­ment for forgiveness; how bold they are to challenge the Fire!

2:176           That is because Allah has revealed the Book with truth. And surely those who disagree about the Book go far in oppo­si­tion.

Section 22 (Retaliation and Bequests)

2:177           It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteous is the one who believes in Allah, and the Last Day, and the angels  and the Book and the prophets, and gives away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the traveller and to those who ask and to set slaves free and keeps up prayer and gives the due charity; and the performers of their promise when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in the time of conflict. These are they who are truthful; and these are they who keep their duty.

2:178           O you who believe, retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain: the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if remission is made to one by his (aggrieved) brother, prosecution (for blood-money) should be according to usage, and payment to him in a good manner. This is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy. Whoever exceeds the limit after this, will have a painful punishment.

2:179           And there is life for you in retaliation, you people of understanding, that you may guard yourselves.

2:180           It is prescribed for you, when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives, to make a bequest in a kindly manner; it is incumbent upon the dutiful.

2:181           Then whoever changes it after he has heard it, the sin of it is only upon those who change it. Surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

2:182           But if one fears a wrong or a sinful course on the part of the testator, and effects an agreement between the parties, there is no blame on him. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 23 (Fasting)

2:183           O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard against evil.

2:184           For a certain number of days. But whoever among you is sick or on a journey, (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days. And those who find it extremely hard may effect redemption by feeding a poor one. So whoever does good spontaneously, it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.

2:185           The month of Ramadan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to people and clear proofs of the guidance and the Criterion. So whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast in it, and whoever is sick or on a journey, (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days. Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire hardship for you, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for having guided you and that you may give thanks.

2:186           And when My servants ask you concerning Me, surely I am near. I answer the prayer of the supplicant when he calls on Me, so they should hear My call and believe in Me that they may walk in the right way.

2:187           It is made lawful for you to have intercourse with your wives on the night of the fast. They are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them. Allah knows that you acted unjustly to your­selves, so He turned to you in mercy and removed (the burden) from you. So now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till nightfall, and do not touch them while you keep to the mosques. These are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make clear His messages for people that they may keep their duty.

2:188           And do not swallow up your pro­perty among yourselves by false means, nor seek to gain access thereby to the judges, so that you may swallow up a part of the property of (other) people wrongfully while you know.

Section 24 (Fighting in Defence)

2:189           They ask you about the new moons. Say: They are times appointed for people, and (for) the pilgrimage. And it is not righteousness that you enter houses by their backs, but he is righteous who keeps his duty. And go into houses by their doors; and keep your duty to Allah, that you may be successful.

2:190           And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you but do not be aggressive. Surely Allah does not love the aggressors.

2:191           And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out, and persecution is worse than slaughter. And do not fight with them at the Sacred Mosque until they fight with you in it; so if they fight you (in it), kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.

2:192           But if they cease, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

2:193           And fight them until there is no persecution, and religion is only for Allah. But if they cease, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.

2:194           The sacred month for the sacred month, and retaliation (is allowed) in sacred things. Whoever then acts aggressively against you, inflict injury on him according to the injury he has inflicted on you and keep your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is with those who keep their duty.

2:195           And spend in the way of Allah and do not cast yourselves to destruction with your own hands and do good (to others). Surely Allah loves the doers of good.

2:196           And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah. But if you are prevented, (send) whatever offering is easy to obtain; and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its destination. Then whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head, (he may effect) a compensation by fasting or (giving in) charity or sacrificing. And when you are secure, whoever profits by combining the visit with the pilgrimage (should take) whatever offering is easy to obtain. But he who cannot find (an offering) should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days when you return. These are ten (days) complete. This is for him whose family is not present in the Sacred Mosque. And keep your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Severe in retribution.

Section 25 (The Pilgrimage)

2:197           The months of the pilgrimage are well known; so who­ever determines to perform pilgrimage in them, there shall be no immodest speech, nor abusing, nor altercation in the pilgri­mage. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And make provision for yourselves, the best provision being to keep one’s duty. And keep your duty to Me, you people of under­standing.

2:198           It is no sin for you that you seek the bounty of your Lord. So when you press on from Arafat, remember Allah near the Holy Monument, and remember Him as He has guided you, though before that you were certainly in error.

2:199           Then hasten on from where the people hasten on, and ask the forgiveness of Allah. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

2:200           And when you have performed your devotions, extol Allah as you extolled your fathers, rather a stronger extolling. But there are some people who say: Our Lord, give us (good) in the world. And for such there is no portion in the Hereafter.

2:201           And there are some among them who say: Our Lord, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the Fire.

2:202           For those there is a portion on account of what they have earned. And Allah is Swift in reckoning.

2:203           And remember Allah during the appointed days. Then whoever hastens off in two days, it is no sin for him; and whoever stays behind, it is no sin for him, for one who keeps his duty. And keep your duty to Allah, and know that you will be gathered together to Him.

2:204           And among people is he whose speech about the life of this world pleases you, and he calls Allah to witness as to what is in his heart, yet he is the most violent of adversaries.

2:205           And when he holds authority, he makes effort in the land to cause mischief in it and destroy crops and offspring; and Allah does not love mischief.

2:206           And when it is said to him, Be careful of your duty to Allah, pride carries him off to sin — so hell is sufficient for him. And certainly evil is the resting-place.

2:207           And among people is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is Compassionate to the servants.

2:208           O you who believe, enter into complete peace and do not follow the footsteps of the devil. Surely he is your open enemy.

2:209           But if you slip after clear arguments have come to you, then know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.

2:210           They only wait that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds with angels, and the matter has (already) been decided. And to Allah are (all) matters returned.

Section 26 (Trials and Tribulations)

2:211           Ask the Children of Israel how many a clear sign We gave them! And whoever changes the favour of Allah after it has come to him, then surely Allah is Severe in retribution.

2:212           The life of this world is made to seem attractive to those who disbelieve, and they mock those who believe. And those who keep their duty will be above them on the day of Resurrection. And Allah gives to whom He pleases without measure.

2:213           Mankind is a single nation. So Allah raised prophets as bearers of good news and as warners, and He revealed with them the Book with truth, that it might judge between people in that in which they differed. And none but the very people who were given it differed about it after clear arguments had come to them, envying one another. So Allah has guided by His will those who believe to the truth about which they differed. And Allah guides whom He pleases to the right path.

2:214           Or do you think that you will enter the Garden, while there has not yet come upon you the like of what befell those who have passed away before you. Distress and affliction befell them and they were shaken violently, so that the Messenger and those who believed with him said: When will the help of Allah come? Now surely the help of Allah is near!

2:215           They ask you as to what they should spend. Say: What­ever wealth you spend, it is for the parents and the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the traveller. And whatever good you do, Allah surely is Knower of it.

2:216           Fighting is ordained for you, though it is disliked by you; and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is harmful for you; and Allah knows while you do not know.

Section 27 (Miscellaneous Questions)

2:217           They ask you about fighting in the sacred month. Say: Fighting in it is a grave (offence). And hindering (people) from Allah’s way and denying Him and the Sacred Mosque and turning its people out of it, are still graver with Allah; and persecution is graver than slaughter. And they will not cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion, if they can. And whoever of you turns back from his religion, then he dies while an un­believer — these it is whose deeds are fruitless in this world and the Hereafter. And they are the companions of the Fire: in it they will abide.

2:218           Those who believed and those who fled (their homes) and strove hard in Allah’s way — these surely hope for the mercy of Allah. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

2:219           They ask you about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: In both of them is a great sin and (some) advantage for people, and their sin is greater than their advantage. And they ask you as to what they should spend. Say: What you can spare. Thus does Allah make clear to you the messages that you may ponder

2:220           on this world and the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning the orphans. Say: To set right their affairs is good; and if you mix with them, they are your brethren. And Allah knows him who makes mischief from him who sets (affairs) right. And if Allah pleased, He would have made matters difficult for you. Surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

2:221           And do not marry female idolaters until they believe; and certainly a believing maid is better than a female idolater even though she please you. Nor marry (believing women) to idolaters until they believe; and certainly a believing slave is better than an idolater, even though he please you. These invite to the Fire and Allah invites to the Garden and to forgiveness by His will and He makes clear His messages to people that they may be mindful.

Section 28 (Divorce)

2:222           And they ask you about menstruation. Say: It is harmful; so keep aloof from women during menstrual discharge and do not approach them (for intercourse) until they are clean. But when they have cleansed themselves, go to them as Allah has commanded you. Surely Allah loves those who turn much (to Him), and He loves those who purify themselves.

2:223           Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth when you like, and send (good deeds) beforehand for yourselves; and have regard for your duty to Allah and know that you will meet Him. And give good news to the believers.

2:224           And do not make Allah by your oaths a hindrance to your doing good and keeping your duty and making peace between people. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

2:225           Allah will not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He will call you to account for what your hearts have earned. And Allah is Forgiv­ing, Forbearing.

2:226           Those who swear that they will not have sexual relations with their wives should wait four months; then if they go back, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

2:227           And if they resolve on a divorce, Allah is surely Hearing, Knowing.

2:228           Divorced women should keep themselves in waiting for three courses. And it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have a better right to take them back in the meanwhile if they wish for reconciliation. And women have rights similar to those against them in a just manner, and men are a degree above them. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Section 29 (Divorce)

2:229           Divorce may be (pronounced) twice; then keep (them) in good fellowship or let (them) go with kindness. And it is not lawful for you to take any part of what you have given them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the limits of Allah. Then if you fear that they cannot keep within the limits of Allah, there is no blame on them for what she gives up to become free thereby. These are the limits of Allah, so do not exceed them; and whoever exceeds the limits of Allah, these are the wrongdoers.

2:230           So if he divorces her (the third time), she shall not be lawful to him afterwards until she marries another husband. If he divorces her, there is no blame on them both if they return to each other (by marriage), if they think that they can keep within the limits of Allah. And these are the limits of Allah which He makes clear for a people who know.

2:231           And when you divorce women and they reach their prescribed time, then retain them with kindness or let them go with kindness and do not retain them for injury so that you exceed the limits. And whoever does this, he indeed wrongs his own soul. And do not take Allah’s messages for a mockery, and remember Allah’s favour to you, and what He has revealed to you of the Book and the Wisdom, instructing you by it. And keep your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is the Knower of all things.

Section 30 (Remarriage of Divorced Women and Widows)

2:232           And when you divorce women and they end their term, do not prevent them from marrying their husbands if they agree among themselves in a lawful manner. With this is instructed he among you who believes in Allah and the Last Day. This is more virtuous for you and purer. And Allah knows while you do not know.

2:233           And mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years, for him who desires to complete the time of suckling. And their maintenance and their clothing must be borne by the father according to usage. No soul shall be burdened beyond its capacity. Neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor a father on account of his child; and a similar duty (devolves) on the (father’s) heir. But if both desire weaning by mutual consent and counsel, there is no blame on them. And if you wish to engage a wet-nurse for your children, there is no blame on you so long as you pay what you promised according to usage. And keep your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Seer of what you do.

2:234           And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind, such women should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days; when they reach their term, there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a lawful manner. And Allah is Aware of what you do.

2:235           And there is no blame on you concerning what you speak indirectly in the asking of (such) women in marriage or keep (the proposal) concealed within your minds. Allah knows that you will have them in your minds, but do not give them a promise in secret unless you speak in a lawful manner. And do not confirm the marriage tie until the prescribed period reaches its end. And know that Allah knows what is in your minds, so beware of Him; and know that Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.

Section 31 (Provision for Divorced Women and Widows)

2:236           There is no blame on you if you divorce women while yet you have not touched them, nor appointed for them a portion. And provide for them, the wealthy according to his means and the restricted one according to his means, a provision according to usage. (This is) a duty on the doers of good.

2:237           And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have appoin­ted for them a portion, (pay) half of what you have appointed unless they forgo or he forgoes in whose hand is the marriage tie. And it is nearer to dutifulness that you forgo. Nor neglect the giving of free gifts between you. Surely Allah is Seer of what you do.

2:238           Guard the prayers and the most excellent prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

2:239           But if you are in danger (say your prayers) on foot or on horseback. And when you are secure, remember Allah as He has taught you what you did not know.

2:240           And those of you who die and leave wives behind, should make a bequest in favour of their wives of maintenance for a year without turning (them) out. Then if they themselves go away, there is no blame on you for what they do of lawful deeds con­cerning themselves. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

2:241           And for divorced women, provision (must be made) in kindness. This is incumbent on those who have regard for duty.

2:242           Allah thus makes clear to you His messages that you may understand.

Section 32 (Fighting in the Cause of Truth)

2:243           Have you not considered those who went forth from their homes, and they were thousands, for fear of death. Then Allah said to them, Die. Then He gave them life. Surely Allah is gracious to people, but most people are not grateful.

2:244           And fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

2:245           Who is it that will offer to Allah a goodly gift, so He multiplies it to him manifold? And Allah receives and amplifies, and to Him you shall be returned.

2:246           Have you not thought of the leaders of the Children of Israel after Moses? When they said to a prophet of theirs: Raise up for us a king, that we may fight in the way of Allah. He said: May it not be that you will not fight if fighting is ordained for you? They said: And what reason have we that we should not fight in Allah’s way and we have indeed been deprived of our homes and our children? But when fighting was ordained for them, they turned back, except a few of them. And Allah is Knower of the wrongdoers.

2:247           And their prophet said to them: Allah has raised Saul to be a king over you. They said: How can he have kingdom over us while we have a greater right to kingdom than he, and he has not been granted abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him above you, and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique. And Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases. And Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.

2:248           And their prophet said to them: Surely the sign of his kingdom is that there shall come to you the heart in which there is tranquillity from your Lord and the best of what the followers of Moses and the follow­ers of Aaron have left, the angels bearing it. Surely in this there is a sign for you if you are believers.

Section 33 (Fighting in the Cause of Truth)

2:249           So when Saul set out with the forces, he said: Surely Allah will try you with a river. Whoever drinks from it, he is not of me, and whoever does not taste it, he is surely of me, except he who takes a handful with his hand. But they drank of it except a few of them. So when he had crossed it, he and those who believed with him, they said: We have today no power against Goliath and his forces. Those who were sure that they would meet their Lord said: How often has a small group overcome a numerous army by Allah’s permission! And Allah is with the steadfast.

2:250           And when they went out against Goliath and his forces, they said: Our Lord, pour out patience on us and make our steps firm and help us against the disbelieving people.

2:251           So they put them to flight by Allah’s per­mission. And David killed Goliath, and Allah gave him kingdom and wisdom, and taught him of what He pleased. And if it were not for Allah’s repelling some people by others, the earth would certainly be in a state of disorder; but Allah is full of grace to the worlds.

2:252           These are the messages of Allah — We recite them to you with truth; and surely you are one of the messengers.

Part 3

2:253           We have made some of these messengers to excel others. Among them are they to whom Allah spoke, and some of them He exalted by (many) degrees of rank. And We gave clear arguments to Jesus son of Mary, and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. And if Allah had pleased, those after them would not have fought with one another after clear arguments had come to them, but they disagreed; so some of them believed and some of them denied. And if Allah had pleased they would not have fought with one another, but Allah does what He intends.

Section 34 (Compulsion in Religion forbidden)

2:254           O you who believe, spend (on good works) out of what We have given you before the day comes in which there is no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And the disbelievers — they are the wrongdoers.

2:255           Allah — there is no god but He, the Ever-living, the Self-subsisting by Whom all subsist. Slumber does not overtake Him, nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and what­ever is in the earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him but by His permission?  He knows what is before them and what is behind them. And they encompass nothing of His knowledge except what He pleases. His knowledge extends over the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of them both does not tire Him. And He is the Most High, the Great.

2:256           There is no compulsion in religion — the right way is indeed clearly distinct from error. So whoever disbelieves in the devil and believes in Allah, he indeed lays hold on the firmest handle which shall never break. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

2:257           Allah is the Friend of those who believe — He brings them out of darkness into light. And those who disbelieve, their friends are the devils who take them out of light into darkness. They are the companions of the Fire; in it they abide.

Section 35 (How Dead Nations are raised to Life)

2:258           Have you not thought of him who disputed with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him kingdom? When Abraham said, My Lord is He Who gives life and causes to die, he said: I give life and cause death. Abraham said: Surely Allah causes the sun to rise from the East, so you make it rise from the West. Thus he who disbelieved was baffled. And Allah does not guide the unjust people.

2:259           Or like him who passed by a town, and it had fallen in upon its roofs. He said: When will Allah give it life after its death? So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him. He said: How long have you remained? He said: I have remained a day, or part of a day. He said: No, you have remained a hundred years; but look at your food and drink — years have not passed over it! And look at your donkey! That We may make you a sign to people. And look at the bones, how We set them together then clothe them with flesh. So when it became clear to him, he said: I know that Allah is Powerful over all things.

2:260           And when Abraham said, My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead, He said: Do you not believe? He said: Yes, but that my heart may be at ease. He said: Then take four birds, then tame them to incline to you, then place on every mountain a part of them, then call them, they will come to you flying; and know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Section 36 (Spending Money in the Cause of Truth)

2:261           The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is as the parable of a grain growing seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. And Allah multiplies (further) for whom He pleases. And Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.

2:262           Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, then do not follow up what they have spent with reproach or injury, their reward is with their Lord, and they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.

2:263           A kind word with forgiveness is better than charity followed by injury. And Allah is Self-sufficient, Forbearing.

2:264           O you who believe, do not make your charity worthless by reproach and injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen by people and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. So his parable is as the parable of a smooth rock with earth upon it, then heavy rain falls upon it, so it leaves it bare! They are not able to gain anything of what they earn. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

2:265           And the parable of those who spend their wealth to seek Allah’s pleasure and for the strengthening of their souls is as the parable of a garden on elevated ground, upon which heavy rain falls, so it brings forth its fruit twofold; but if heavy rain does not fall on it, light rain (is sufficient). And Allah is Seer of what you do.

2:266           Does one of you like to have a garden of palms and vines with streams flowing in it — he has in it all kinds of fruits — and old age has overtaken him and he has weak offspring, when a whirlwind with fire in it strikes it so it becomes blasted. Thus Allah makes the messages clear to you that you may reflect.

Section 37 (Spending in the Cause of Truth)

2:267           O you who believe, spend (on good works) out of the good things that you earn and out of what We bring forth for you from the earth, and do not aim at the bad to spend from it, while you would not take it yourselves unless you turned a blind eye to it. And know that Allah is Self-sufficient, Praiseworthy.

2:268           The devil threatens you with poverty and commands you to be miserly, and Allah promises you forgiveness from Himself and abundance. And Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing;

2:269           He grants wisdom to whom He pleases. And whoever is granted wisdom, he indeed is given a great good. And none are mindful but those who have understanding.

2:270           And whatever you spend in charity or (what­ever) vow you vow, Allah surely knows it. And the wrongdoers shall have no helpers.

2:271           If you manifest charity, how excellent it is! And if you hide it and give it to the poor, it is good for you. And it will do away with some of your evil deeds; and Allah is Aware of what you do.

2:272           Their guidance is not your duty, but Allah guides whom He pleases. And whatever good thing you spend, it is to your good. And you do not spend but to seek Allah’s pleasure. And whatever good thing you spend, it will be paid back to you in full, and you will not be wronged.

2:273           (Charity is) for the poor who are confined in the way of Allah, they cannot go about in the land; the ignorant man thinks them to be rich on account of (their) abstaining (from begging). You can recognize them by their mark — they do not beg of people demandingly. And whatever good thing you spend, surely Allah is Knower of it.

Section 38 (Usury prohibited)

2:274           Those who spend their wealth by night and day, privately and publicly, their reward is with their Lord; and they have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

2:275           Those who swallow usury cannot arise except as he arises whom the devil prostrates by (his) touch. That is because they say, Trading is only like usury. And Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury. To whomsoever then the exhortation has come from his Lord, and he refrains, he shall have what has already passed. And his affair is in the hands of Allah. And whoever returns (to it) — these are the companions of the Fire: in it they will abide.

2:276           Allah will blot out usury, and He causes charity to prosper. And Allah does not love any ungrateful sinner.

2:277           Those who believe and do good deeds and keep up prayer and give the due charity — their reward is with their Lord; and they have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

2:278           O you who believe, keep your duty to Allah and relin­quish what remains (due) from usury, if you are believers.

2:279           But if you do not, then be apprised of war from Allah and His Messenger; and if you repent, then you shall have your capital. Wrong not, and you shall not be wronged.

2:280           And if (the debtor) is in difficulty, let there be postponement till (he is in) ease. And that you forgo it as charity is better for you, if only you knew.

2:281           And guard yourselves against a day in which you will be returned to Allah. Then every soul will be paid in full what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.

Section 39 (Contracts and Evidence)

2:282           O you who believe, when you contract a debt for a fixed time, write it down. And let a scribe write it down between you with fairness; nor should the scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him, so let him write. And let him who owes the debt dictate, and he should observe his duty to Allah, his Lord, and not diminish anything from it. But if he who owes the debt is unsound in understanding or weak, or (if) he is not able to dictate himself, let his guardian dictate with fairness. And call to witness from among your men two witnesses; but if there are not two men, then one man and two women from among those whom you choose to be witnesses, so that if one of the two commits error, the one may remind the other. And the witnesses must not refuse when they are summoned. And do not be averse to writing it whether it is small or large along with the time of its falling due. This is more equitable in the sight of Allah and makes testimony surer and the best way to keep away from doubts. But when it is ready mer­chandise which you give and take among yourselves from hand to hand, there is no blame on you in not writing it down. And have wit­nesses when you sell to one another. And let no harm be done to the scribe or to the witnesses. And if you do (it), then surely it is a transgression on your part. And keep your duty to Allah. And Allah teaches you. And Allah is Knower of all things.

2:283           And if you are on a journey and you cannot find a scribe, a security may be taken into possession. But if one of you trusts another, then he who is trusted should deliver his trust, and let him keep his duty to Allah, his Lord. And do not conceal testimony. And whoever conceals it, his heart is surely sinful. And Allah is Knower of what you do.

Section 40 (Muslims shall be made Victorious)

2:284           To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and what­ever is in the earth. And whether you manifest what is in your minds or hide it, Allah will call you to account according to it. So He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases. And Allah is Powerful over all things.

2:285           The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. They all believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His messengers. We make no distinction between any of His messengers. And they say: We hear and obey; our Lord, Your forgiveness (do we crave), and to You is the eventual course.

2:286           Allah does not impose on any soul a duty beyond its ability. To its benefit is what (good) it earns, and to its detriment is what (evil) it works. Our Lord, do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake. Our Lord, do not lay on us a burden as You did lay on those before us. Our Lord, do not impose on us (afflictions) which we have not the strength to bear. And pardon us! And grant us protection! And have mercy on us! You are our Patron, so grant us victory over the disbelieving people.

 

Chapter 3

ĀlImrān: The Family of Amran

Introduction by the translator

The name of this chapter is taken from the mention of Imrān in v. 33, who is Amran of the Bible, the father of Moses and Aaron. It deals with the depar­ture of prophethood from the Mosaic dispensation. It opens with a rule of interpretation for Divine books, which is that any allegorical statement must be interpreted so as not to contradict the clear principles laid down by Divine revelation. This is a preliminary to a discussion of Christian doctrines, which are based on wrong interpretations of certain allegorical statements. The chapter then deals with: the last Divine elect of the Israelites, including Jesus, after whom the spiritual kingdom was granted to the Muslims, religious contro­versy with the Jews and Christians, and their oppo­sition to Islam, testi­mony to the truth of Islam in previous scriptures, the need for Muslim unity, the need for Muslims to show perseverance in suffering as in the battle of Uhud, and how they will triumph in the end after their struggles. Almost the entire chapter was revealed in 3 A.H.

Section 1 (Rule of Interpretation)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

3:1                   I, Allah, am the Best Knower,

3:2                   Allah, (there is) no god but He, the Ever-living, the Self-subsisting, by Whom all subsist.

3:3                   He has revealed to you the Book with truth, verifying what is (already) before it, and He revealed the Torah and the Gospel

3:4                   before, a guidance for the people, and He sent the Criterion. Those who disbelieve in the messages of Allah — for them is a severe punish­ment. And Allah is Mighty, the Lord of retribution.

3:5                   Surely nothing in the earth or in the heaven is hidden from Allah.

3:6                   He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no god but He, the Mighty, the Wise.

3:7                   He it is Who has revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive — they are the basis of the Book — and others are allegorical. Then those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part of it which is allegorical, seeking to mislead, and seeking to give it (their own) interpretation. And none knows its interpreta­tion except Allah, and those firmly rooted in knowledge. They say: We believe in it, it is all from our Lord. And none are mindful except those who have understanding.

3:8                   Our Lord, do not make our hearts to deviate after You have guided us and grant us mercy from Yourself; surely You are the most liberal Giver.

3:9                   Our Lord, surely You are the Gatherer of people on a day about which there is no doubt. Surely Allah will not fail in (His) promise.

Section 2 (Unity of God as Basis of all Religions)

3:10               Those who disbelieve, neither their wealth nor their child­ren will avail them at all against Allah. And they will be fuel for fire —

3:11               as was the case of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them! They rejected Our messages, so Allah destroyed them on account of their sins. And Allah is Severe in retribution.

3:12               Say to those who disbelieve: You will be defeated, and driven together to hell; and evil is the resting-place.

3:13               Indeed there was a sign for you in the two armies (which) met together in encounter — one party fighting in the way of Allah and the other dis­believing, whom they saw twice as many as themselves with the sight of the eye. And Allah strengthens with His aid whom He pleases. There is surely a lesson in this for those who have eyes.

3:14               The love of desires is made attractive to people — of women and sons and hoarded treasures of gold and silver and well-bred horses and cattle and crop produce. This is the provision of the life of this world. And Allah — with Him is the good goal (of life).

3:15               Say: Shall I tell you of what is better than these? For those who guard against evil are Gardens with their Lord, in which rivers flow, to abide in them, and pure companions and Allah’s goodly pleasure. And Allah is Seer of the servants.

3:16               Those who say: Our Lord, we believe, so forgive our sins and save us from the punish­ment of the fire.

3:17               The patient and the truthful and the obedient and those who spend (on good works) and those who ask Divine protection in the morning times.

3:18               Allah bears witness that there is no god but He, and (so do) the angels and those possessed of knowledge, maintaining justice. There is no god but He, the Mighty, the Wise.

3:19               Surely the (true) religion with Allah is Islam. And those who were given the Book differed only after knowledge had come to them, out of envy among themselves. And whoever disbelieves in the messages of Allah — Allah indeed is Quick at reckoning.

3:20               But if they dispute with you say: I submit myself entirely to Allah and (so does) he who follows me. And say to those who have been given the Book and the Unlearned (people): Do you submit yourselves? If they submit, then indeed they follow the right way; and if they turn back, your duty is only to deliver the message. And Allah is Seer of the servants.

Section 3 (Kingdom granted to another People)

3:21               Those who disbelieve in the messages of Allah and would kill the prophets unjustly and kill those among people who command (the doing of) justice, announce to them a painful punishment.

3:22               Those are they whose deeds will be fruitless in this world and the Hereafter, and they will have no helpers.

3:23               Have you not seen those who are given a portion of the Book? They are invited to the Book of Allah that it may decide between them, then some of them turn back and they withdraw.

3:24               This is be­cause they say: The Fire shall not touch us but for a few days; and what they forge deceives them regarding their religion.

3:25               Then how will it be when We gather them together on a day about which there is no doubt. And every soul shall be fully paid what it has earned, and they shall not be wronged?

3:26               Say: O Allah, Owner of the Kingdom, You give the king­dom to whom You please, and take away the kingdom from whom You please, and You exalt whom You please and degrade whom You please. In Your hand is the good. Surely You are Powerful over all things.

3:27               You make the night to pass into the day and You make the day to pass into the night; and You bring forth the living from the dead and You bring forth the dead from the living; and You give sustenance to whom You please without measure.

3:28               The believers should not take the disbelievers as allies rather than believers. And whoever does this has no connection with Allah — except that you guard yourselves against them, guarding carefully. And Allah cautions you against His retribu­tion. And to Allah is the eventual coming.

3:29               Say: Whether you hide what is in your hearts or manifest it, Allah knows it. And He knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And Allah is Powerful over all things.

3:30               On the day when every soul will find present whatever good it has done, and whatever evil it has done, it will wish that between it and that (evil) there were a long distance. And Allah cautions you against His retribu­tion. And Allah is Compassionate to the servants.

Section 4 (Last Members of a Chosen Race)

3:31               Say: If you love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you, and grant you protection from your sins. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

3:32               Say: Obey Allah and the Messenger; but if they turn back, Allah surely does not love the disbelievers.

3:33               Truly Allah chose Adam and Noah and the descendants of Abraham and the descendants of Amran above the nations,

3:34               offspring, one of the other. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

3:35               When a woman of Amran said: My Lord, I vow to You what is in my womb, to be devoted (to Your service), so accept (it) from me; surely You, only You, are the Hearing, the Knowing.

3:36               So when she gave birth to it, she said: My Lord, I have given birth to a female — and Allah knew best what she had given birth to — and the male is not like the female, and I have named it Mary, and I commend her and her offspring into Your protection from the accursed devil.

3:37               So her Lord accepted her with a goodly acceptance and made her grow up a goodly growing, and gave her into the charge of Zacharias. Whenever Zacharias entered the sanctuary to (see) her, he found food with her. He said: Mary, from where does this come to you? She said: It is from Allah. Surely Allah gives to whom He pleases without measure.

3:38               There did Zacharias pray to his Lord. He said: My Lord, grant me from Yourself goodly offspring; surely You are the Hearer of prayer.

3:39               So the angels called to him as he stood praying in the sanctuary: Allah gives you the good news of John, verifying a word from Allah, and honourable and chaste and a prophet from among the good ones.

3:40               He said: My Lord, how can I have a son when old age has already come upon me, and my wife is barren? He said: Even thus does Allah do what He pleases.

3:41               He said: My Lord, appoint a sign for me. Said He: Your sign is that you do not speak to people for three days except by signs. And remember your Lord much and glorify (Him) in the evening and early morning.

Section 5 (Birth of Jesus and his Ministry)

3:42               And when the angels said: O Mary, surely Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the world.

3:43               O Mary, be obedient to your Lord and humble your­self and bow down with those who bow.

3:44               This is among the tidings of things unseen which We reveal to you. And you were not with them when they cast their pens (to decide) which of them should have Mary in his charge, and you were not with them when they con­tended with one another.

3:45               When the angels said: O Mary, surely Allah gives you good news with a word from Him (of one) whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, worthy of regard in this world and the Hereafter, and one of those who are drawn near (to Allah),

3:46               and he will speak to the people when in the cradle and when of old age, and (he will be) one of the good ones.

3:47               She said: My Lord, how can I have a son and man has not yet touched me? He said: Even so; Allah creates what He pleases. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, Be, and it is.

3:48               And He will teach him the Book and the Wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel,

3:49               and (make him) a messenger to the Child­ren of Israel (saying): I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I determine for you out of dust (a thing) like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s per­mission, and I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allah’s permission; and I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses. Surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers.

3:50               And (I have come) verifying what is (already) before me of the Torah, and I allow you part of what was forbidden to you; and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so keep your duty to Allah and obey me.

3:51               Surely Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him. This is the right path.

3:52               But when Jesus perceived disbelief on their part, he said: Who will be my helpers in Allah’s way? The disciples said: We are Allah’s helpers, we believe in Allah, and (ask you to) bear witness that we are submitting ones.

3:53               Our Lord, we believe in what You have revealed and we follow the messenger, so write us down with those who bear witness.

3:54               And (the Jews) planned and Allah (also) planned. And Allah is the Best of planners.

Section 6 (Jesus cleared of False Charges)

3:55               When Allah said: O Jesus, I will cause you to die and exalt you in My presence  and clear you of those who disbelieve and make those who follow you above those who disbelieve to the day of Resurrection. Then to Me is your return, so I shall decide between you in that in which you differ.

3:56               Then as to those who disbelieve, I shall punish them with severe punishment in this world and the Hereafter, and they will have no helpers.

3:57               And as to those who believe and do good deeds, He will pay them fully their rewards. And Allah does not love the unjust.

3:58               This We recite to you of the messages and the Reminder full of wisdom.

3:59               The likeness of Jesus with Allah is truly as the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then said to him, Be, and he was.

3:60               (This is) the truth from your Lord, so do not be one of the disputers.

3:61               Whoever then disputes with you in this matter after the knowledge that has come to you, say: Come! Let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our people and your people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and invoke the curse of Allah on the liars.

3:62               Surely this is the true account, and there is no god but Allah. And Allah, He surely is the Mighty, the Wise.

3:63               But if they turn away, then surely Allah knows the mischief-makers.

Section 7 (Controversy with Jews and Christians)

3:64               Say: O People of the Book, come to an equitable word between us and you, that we shall serve none but Allah and that we shall not set up any partner with Him, and that some of us shall not take others for lords besides Allah. But if they turn away, then say: Bear witness, we are Muslims.

3:65               O People of the Book, why do you dispute about Abraham, when the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed till after him? Do you not understand?

3:66               Look! You are they who disputed about that of which you had know­ledge; why then do you dispute about that of which you have no knowledge? And Allah knows while you do not know.

3:67               Abraham was not a Jew nor a Christian, but he was (an) upright (man), a Muslim; and he was not of those who set up partners (with Allah).

3:68               The nearest of people to Abraham are surely those who follow him and this Prophet and those who believe. And Allah is the Friend of the believers.

3:69               Some of the People of the Book desire that they should lead you astray; and they lead astray only themselves, but they do not perceive.

3:70               O People of the Book, why do you disbelieve in the messages of Allah while you witness (their truth)?

3:71               O People of the Book, why do you mix the truth with falsehood, and hide the truth while you know?

Section 8 (Machinations to discredit Islam)

3:72               And a group of the People of the Book say: Affirm belief in what has been revealed to those who believe, in the first part of the day, and disbelieve in the latter part of it, perhaps they may turn back.

3:73               And do not believe except in him who follows your religion. Say: True guidance — Allah’s guidance — is that one may be given the like of what you were given; or they would prevail on you in argument before your Lord. Say: Grace is surely in Allah’s hand. He gives it to whom He pleases. And Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.

3:74               He specially chooses for His mercy whom He pleases. And Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

3:75               And among the People of the Book is he who, if you entrust him with a heap of wealth, would pay it back to you; and among them is he who, if you entrust him with a dinar, would not pay it back to you, unless you kept on demanding it. This is because they say there is no blame on us in the matter of the unlearned people and they forge a lie against Allah while they know.

3:76               No, whoever fulfils his promise and keeps his duty — then Allah surely loves the dutiful.

3:77               Those who take a small price for the covenant of Allah and their own oaths — they have no portion in the Hereafter, and Allah will not speak to them, nor will He look upon them on the day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and for them is a painful punishment.

3:78               And certainly there are some of them who lie about the Book that you may consider it to be (a part) of the Book while it is not (a part) of the Book; and they say, It is from Allah, while it is not from Allah; and they forge a lie against Allah while they know.

3:79               It is not for a mortal that Allah should give him the Book and the judgment and the prophethood, then he should tell people: Be my servants besides Allah’s; but (he would say): Be wor­ship­pers of the Lord because you teach the Book and because you study (it);

3:80               nor would he command you to take the angels and the prophets for lords. Would he command you to disbelieve after you submit?

Section 9 (Covenant of the Prophets)

3:81               And when Allah made a covenant through the prophets: Certainly what I have given you of Book and Wisdom — then a Messenger comes to you verifying what is (already) with you, you shall believe in him, and you shall aid him. He said: Do you affirm and accept My compact in this (matter)? They said: We do affirm. He said: Then bear witness, and I (too) am a bear­er of wit­ness with you.

3:82               Whoever then turns back after this, these are the transgressors.

3:83               Do they then seek other than Allah’s religion? And to Him submits whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and to Him they will be returned.

3:84               Say: We believe in Allah and (in) what is revealed to us, and (in) what was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and (in) what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we submit.

3:85               And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.

3:86               How shall Allah guide a people who disbelieved after their believing, and (after) they had borne witness that the Messenger was true, and clear arguments had come to them? And Allah does not guide the unjust people.

3:87               As for these, their reward is that on them is the curse of Allah and the angels and of people, all together —

3:88               abiding in it. Their punishment shall not be lighten­ed, nor shall they be given respite —

3:89               except those who repent after that and amend, for surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

3:90               Those who disbelieve after their believing, then increase in dis­belief, their repentance is not accepted, and these are they that go astray.

3:91               Those who disbelieve and die while they are dis­believers, the earth full of gold will not be accepted from anyone of them, though he should offer it as ransom. These it is for whom is a painful punish­ment, and they shall have no helpers.

Part 4

Section 10 (Ever-living Testimony to Truth of Islam)

3:92               You cannot attain to righteousness unless you spend (on good works) out of what you love. And what you spend, Allah surely knows it.

3:93               All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, before the Torah was revealed, except what Israel forbade himself. Say: Bring the Torah and read it, if you are truthful.

3:94               So who­ever forges a lie against Allah after this, these are the wrongdoers.

3:95               Say: Allah speaks the truth; so follow the religion of Abraham, the upright one. And he was not one of those who set up partners (with Allah).

3:96               Certainly the first house appointed for mankind is the one at Bakkah, blessed and a guidance for the nations.

3:97               In it are clear signs: (It is) the Place of Abraham; and whoever enters it is safe; and pilgrimage to the House is a duty which people owe to Allah — whoever can find a way to it. And whoever disbelieves, surely Allah is above need of the worlds.

3:98               Say: O People of the Book, why do you disbelieve in the messages of Allah? And Allah is a witness of what you do.

3:99               Say: O People of the Book, why do you hinder those who believe from the way of Allah, seeking (to make) it crooked, while you are witnesses? And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

3:100           O you who believe, if you obey some of those who have been given the Book, they will turn you back as disbelievers after your belief.

3:101           And how can you disbelieve while to you are recited the mess­ages of Allah, and among you is His Messenger? And who­ever holds fast to Allah, he indeed is guided to a right path.

Section 11 (Muslims exhorted to remain United)

3:102           O you who believe, keep your duty to Allah, as it ought to be kept, and do not die except as Muslims.

3:103           And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and do not be disunited. And remember Allah’s favour to you when you were enemies, then He united your hearts so by His favour you became brethren. And you were on the brink of a pit of fire, then He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes clear to you His messages that you may be guided.

3:104           And from among you there should be a community who invite to good and enjoin the right and forbid the wrong. And these are they who are successful.

3:105           And do not be like those who became divided and disagreed after clear arguments had come to them. And for them is a grievous punishment.

3:106           On the day when (some) faces will brighten and (some) faces will darken. Then as to those whose faces are darkened: Did you disbelieve after your belief? So taste the punishment because you disbelieved.

3:107           And as to those whose faces are brightened, they shall be in Allah’s mercy. In it they shall abide.

3:108           These are the messages of Allah which We recite to you with truth. And Allah desires no injustice to (His) creatures.

3:109           And to Allah be­longs what­­ever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And to Allah are all affairs returned.

Section 12 (Relations of Muslims with Jews)

3:110           You are the best nation raised up for mankind: you enjoin good and forbid evil and you believe in Allah. And if the People of the Book had believed, it would have been better for them. Some of them are believers but most of them are transgressors.

3:111           They will not harm you except a slight hurt. And if they fight you, they will turn (their) backs to you. Then they will not be helped.

3:112           Degradation will be their lot wherever they are found, except under a covenant with Allah and a covenant with people, and they shall incur the wrath of Allah, and humiliation will be made to cling to them. This is because they disbelieved in the messages of Allah and killed the prophets unjustly. This is because they disobeyed and exceeded the limits.

3:113           They are not all alike. Of the People of the Book some are upright — they recite Allah’s messages in the night-time and they adore (Him).

3:114           They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin good and forbid evil and hasten in (doing) good deeds. And those are among the right­eous.

3:115           And whatever good they do, they will not be denied it. And Allah knows those who keep their duty.

3:116           Those who disbelieve, neither their wealth nor their children will avail them at all against Allah. And these are the com­panions of the Fire; in it they abide.

3:117           The likeness of what they spend in the life of this world is as the likeness of wind in which is intense cold; it strikes the harvest of a people who are unjust to them­selves and destroys it. And Allah did not wrong them but they wronged themselves.

3:118           O you who believe, do not take for intimate friends others than your own people: they spare no pains to cause you loss. They love whatever distresses you. Vehement hatred has already appeared from out of their mouths, and what their hearts conceal is greater still. Indeed We have made the messages clear to you, if you understand.

3:119           Look! You are the ones who will love them while they do not love you, and you believe in the Book, (in) the whole of it. And when they meet you they say, We believe, and when they are alone, they bite (their) finger tips in rage against you. Say: Die in your rage. Surely Allah is Knower of what is in the hearts.

3:120           If good befalls you, it grieves them, and if an evil afflicts you, they rejoice at it. And if you are patient and keep your duty, their struggle will not injure you in any way. Surely Allah encompasses what they do.

Section 13 (The Battle of Uhud)

3:121           And when you went forth early in the morning from your family, to assign to the believers their positions for the battle. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

3:122           When two parties from among you thought of showing cowardice, and Allah was the Guardian of them both. And in Allah should the believers trust.

3:123           And Allah certainly helped you at Badr when you were weak. So keep your duty to Allah that you may give thanks.

3:124           When you said to the believers: Is it not sufficient for you that your Lord should help you with three thousand angels sent down? 

3:125           Indeed, if you are steadfast and keep your duty, and they come upon you in a headlong manner, your Lord will assist you with five thousand of havoc-making angels.

3:126           And Allah made it only as good news for you, and that your hearts might be at ease by it. And help comes only from Allah, the Mighty, the Wise,

3:127           that He may cut off a part of those who disbelieve or humble them so that they should return in failure.

3:128           You have no concern in the matter whether He turns to them (mercifully) or punishes them; surely they are wrongdoers.

3:129           And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 14 (What Success meant for Muslims)

3:130           O you who believe, do not devour usury, doubling and redoubling, and keep your duty to Allah, that you may be success­ful.

3:131           And guard yourselves against the fire which has been prepared for the disbelievers.

3:132           And obey Allah and the Messen­ger, that you may be shown mercy.

3:133           And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord and a Garden, as wide as the heavens and the earth; it is prepared for those who keep their duty:

3:134           Those who spend in ease as well as in adversity and those who restrain (their) anger and pardon people. And Allah loves the doers of good (to others).

3:135           And those who, when they commit an indecency or wrong their souls, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins. And who forgives sins but Allah? And they do not persist knowingly in what they do.

3:136           Their reward is protection from their Lord, and Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide in them. And excellent is the reward of the workers!

3:137           Indeed there have been examples before you; so travel in the earth and see what was the end of the deniers.

3:138           This is a clear statement for mankind, and a guidance and an admonition to those who would keep their duty.

3:139           And do not be weak-hearted, nor grieve, and you will have the upper hand if you are believers.

3:140           If a wound has afflicted you, a wound like it has also afflicted the (disbelieving) people. And We bring these days to people by turns, that Allah may know  those who believe and (He may) take wit­nesses from among you. And Allah does not love the wrong­doers,

3:141           and that He may purge those who believe and deprive the disbelievers of blessings.

3:142           Do you think that you will enter the Garden while Allah has not yet known those from among you who strive hard (nor) known the steadfast?

3:143           And certainly you desired death before you met it. So indeed you have seen it now as you look.

Section 15 (Sufferings to be met with Perseverance)

3:144           And Muhammad is but a messenger — messengers have already passed away before him. If then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels?  And he who turns back upon his heels will do no harm at all to Allah. And Allah will reward the grateful.

3:145           And no soul can die but with Allah’s permission — the term is fixed. And whoever desires the reward of this world, We give him of it, and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, We give him of it. And We shall reward the grateful.

3:146           And how many a prophet has fought, with whom were many worshippers of the Lord. So they did not lose heart on account of what befell them in Allah’s way, nor did they weaken, nor did they disgrace themselves. And Allah loves the steadfast.

3:147           And their cry was only that they said: Our Lord, grant us pro­tection from our sins and our extravagance in our affair, and make firm our feet and grant us victory over the disbelieving people.

3:148           So Allah gave them the reward of the world and a good reward of the Hereafter. And Allah loves the doers of good (to others).

Section 16 (Causes of Misfortune in Battle of Uhud)

3:149           O you who believe, if you obey those who disbelieve, they will make you turn back upon your heels, so you will turn back losers.

3:150           Rather, Allah is your Patron, and He is the Best of the helpers.

3:151           We will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve because they set up partners with Allah for which He has sent down no authority, and their abode is the Fire. And evil is the abode of the wrongdoers.

3:152           And Allah certainly made good His promise to you when you slew them by His permission, until you became weak-hearted and disputed about the affair and disobeyed after He had shown you what you loved. Some of you desired this world, and some of you desired the Hereafter. Then He turned you away from them that He might try you; and He has indeed pardoned you. And Allah is Gracious to the believers.

3:153           When you went away far, and paid no heed to anyone, and the Messenger was calling you in your rear. So He gave you (another) grief for (your) first grief that you might not grieve at what escaped you, nor (at) what befell you. And Allah is Aware of what you do.

3:154           Then after grief He sent down security on you, slumber overcoming a group of you, while (there was) another group whom their own minds had made anxious — they entertained about Allah thoughts of ignorance quite unjustly. They said: Have we any hand in the affair? Say: The affair is wholly (in the hands) of Allah. They hide within themselves what they would not reveal to you. They say: If we had any hand in the affair, we would not have been slain here. Say: Had you remained in your houses, those for whom slaughter was ordained would have gone forth to the places where they would be slain. And (this hap­pened) that Allah might test what was in your minds and that He might purge what was in your hearts. And Allah is Knower of what is in the minds.

3:155           Those of you who turned back on the day when the two armies met, only the devil sought to cause them to make a slip on account of some deeds they had done, and certainly Allah has pardoned them. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.

Section 17 (Battle of Uhud afforded a Distinction)

3:156           O you who believe, do not be like those who disbelieve and say of their brethren when they travel in the earth or engage in fighting: If they had been with us, they would not have died, or been killed; that Allah may make it a regret in their hearts. And Allah gives life and causes death. And Allah is Seer of what you do.

3:157           And if you are killed in Allah’s way or you die, surely Allah’s protection and (His) mercy are better than what they amass.

3:158           And if you die or you are killed, to Allah you are gathered.

3:159           Thus it is by Allah’s mercy that you are gentle to them. And if you had been rough, hard-hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you. So pardon them and ask pro­tec­tion for them, and consult them in (important) matters. But when you have determined, put your trust in Allah. Surely Allah loves those who trust (in Him).

3:160           If Allah helps you, there is none that can overcome you; and if He forsakes you, who is there that can help you after Him? And in Allah should the believers put their trust.

3:161           And it is not for a prophet to act dishonestly. And who­ever acts dishonestly will bring his dishonesty on the day of Resurrection. Then shall every soul be paid back fully what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.

3:162           Is then he who follows the pleasure of Allah like him who incurs Allah’s displeasure, and his abode is hell? And it is an evil destination.

3:163           There are grades with Allah. And Allah is Seer of what they do.

3:164           Certainly Allah conferred a favour on the believers when He raised among them a Messenger from among themselves, reci­ting to them His messages and purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the Wisdom, although before that they were surely in manifest error.

3:165           What! When a misfortune befell you, and you had inflicted twice as much, you say: From where is this? Say: It is from yourselves. Surely Allah is Powerful over all things.

3:166           And what befell you on the day when the two armies met was by Allah’s permission, that He might know the believers,

3:167           and that He might know the hypocrites. And it was said to them: Come, fight in Allah’s way, or defend yourselves. They said: If we knew fighting, we would have followed you. They were on that day nearer to disbelief than to belief; they say with their mouths what is not in their hearts. And Allah best knows what they conceal.

3:168           Those who said of their brethren whilst they (themselves) held back: If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed. Say: Avert death from yourselves, if you are truthful.

3:169           And do not think of those who are killed in Allah’s way as dead. Rather, they are alive being provided sustenance from their Lord,

3:170           rejoicing in what Allah has given them out of His grace, and they rejoice for the sake of those who, (being left) behind them, have not yet joined them, that they have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

3:171           They rejoice for Allah’s favour and (His) grace, and that Allah does not waste the reward of the believers.

Section 18 (Uhud no gain to the Enemy)

3:172           Those who responded to the call of Allah and the Messen­ger after the misfortune had befallen them — for such among them who do good and keep their duty is a great reward.

3:173           Those to whom people said: Surely men have gathered against you, so fear them; but this increased their faith, and they said: Allah is sufficient for us and He is an excellent Guardian.

3:174           So they returned with favour from Allah and (His) grace; no evil touched them, and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

3:175           It is the devil who only frightens his friends, but do not fear them, and fear Me, if you are believers.

3:176           And do not let those grieve you who run into disbelief hastily; surely they can do no harm to Allah. Allah does not intend to assign them any portion in the Hereafter; and for them is a grievous punishment.

3:177           Those who buy disbelief at the price of faith can do no harm to Allah, and for them is a painful punish­ment.

3:178           And those who disbelieve should not think that our grant­ing them respite is good for themselves. We grant them respite only that they may add to their sins; and for them is a humiliating punishment.

3:179           Allah will not leave the believers in the condition in which you are until He separates the evil from the good. Nor is Allah going to make you acquainted with the unseen, but Allah chooses of His messengers whom He pleases. So believe in Allah and His messengers. And if you believe and keep your duty, you will have a great reward.

3:180           And those who are miserly in spending what Allah has granted them out of His grace should not think that it is good for them. Rather, it is evil for them. They shall have a collar of their miserliness on their necks on the day of Resurrection. And Allah’s is the heritage of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Aware of what you do.

Section 19 (Carpings of the People of the Book)

3:181           Allah has certainly heard the saying of those who said: Allah is poor and we are rich. We shall record what they say, and their killing the prophets unjustly, and We shall say: Taste the punishment of burning.

3:182           This is for what your own hands have sent ahead, and because Allah is not in the least unjust to the ser­vants.

3:183           Those who say: Allah has enjoined us that we should not believe in any messenger until he brings us an offering which is consumed by fire. Say: Indeed messengers came to you before me with clear arguments and with what you demand. Why then did you try to kill them, if you are truthful?

3:184           But if they reject you, so indeed were rejected before you messengers who came with clear arguments and scriptures and the illuminating Book.

3:185           Every soul must taste of death. And you will be paid your reward fully only on the day of Resurrection. Then whoever is removed far from the Fire and is made to enter the Garden, he indeed attains the object. And the life of this world is nothing but a provision of vanities.

3:186           You will certainly be tried in your property and your persons. And you will certainly hear from those who have been given the Book before you and from the idolaters much abuse. And if you are patient and keep your duty, surely this is an affair of great resolution.

3:187           And when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Book: You shall explain it to people and shall not hide it. But they threw it behind their backs and took a small price for it. And evil is what they buy.

3:188           Do not think that those who exult in what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done — do not think them to be safe from the punish­ment; and for them is a painful punishment.

3:189           And Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Power­ful over all things.

Section 20 (Ultimate Triumph of the Faithful)

3:190           In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alter­nation of the night and the day, there are surely signs for those who have understanding,

3:191           those who remember Allah, standing and sitting and (lying) on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord, You have not created this in vain! Glory be to You! Save us from the punishment of the Fire.

3:192           Our Lord, whomsoever You make enter the Fire, him You indeed bring to disgrace. And there will be no helpers for the wrongdoers.

3:193           Our Lord, surely we have heard a Crier calling to the faith, saying: Believe in your Lord. So we do believe. Our Lord, grant us protection from our sins and remove our evils and make us die with the righteous.

3:194           Our Lord, grant us what You have promised us by Your messengers and do not disgrace us on the day of Resurrection. Surely You never fail in (Your) promise!

3:195           So their Lord accepted their prayer, (saying): I will not let the work of any worker among you to be lost, whether male or female; each of you is as the other. So those who fled and were driven forth from their homes and persecuted in My way and who fought and were slain, I shall truly remove their evil and make them enter Gardens in which rivers flow — a reward from Allah. And with Allah is the best reward.

3:196           Do not let control in the land, of those who disbelieve, deceive you.

3:197           A brief enjoyment! Then their abode is hell. And evil is the resting-place.

3:198           But those who keep their duty to their Lord, for them are Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide therein; an entertainment from their Lord. And what Allah has in store for the righteous is best.

3:199           And among the People of the Book are those who believe in Allah and (in) what has been revealed to you and (in) what has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allah — they do not take a small price for the messages of Allah. These it is that have their reward with their Lord. Surely Allah is Swift to take account!

3:200           O you who believe, be steadfast and try to excel in steadfastness and guard (the frontiers). And keep your duty to Allah that you may be successful.

 

Chapter 4

Al-Nisā’: Women

Introduction by the translator

This chapter deals chiefly with the rights of women. The battle of Uhud, dealt with in the last chapter, had left a large number of orphans and widows among the Muslims, and this chapter opens with the subject of duties towards them followed by rights of women generally. During the battle of Uhud the hypocrites had deserted the Muslims, and this chapter then deals with the subject of hypocrisy. Following the battle of Uhud had come the final rupture with the Jews as they had sided with the enemy, and the chapter towards its end speaks of their transgressions against the Israelite prophets and their allegations against Jesus. This chapter was mainly revealed in 4 A.H.

Section 1 (Duties of Guardians to Orphans)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

4:1                   O people, keep your duty to your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind), and spread from these two many men and women. And keep your duty to Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship. Surely Allah is ever a Watcher over you.

4:2                   And give to orphans their property, and do not substitute worthless (things) for (their) good (ones), nor devour their pro­perty (adding) to your own property. This is surely a great sin.

4:3                   And if you fear that you cannot do justice to orphans, marry such women as seem good to you, two, or three, or four; but if you fear that you will not do justice, then (marry) only one or what your right hands possess. This is more proper that you may not do injustice.

4:4                   And give women their dowries as a free gift. But if they of themselves are pleased to give you a portion from it, consume it with enjoyment and pleasure.

4:5                   And do not make over your property, which Allah has made a (means of) support for you, to the weak of understanding, and maintain them out of it, and clothe them and give them a good education.

4:6                   And test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage. Then if you find in them maturity of intellect, make over to them their property, and do not consume it extravagantly and hastily against their growing up. And whoever is rich, let him abstain, and whoever is poor let him consume reasonably. And when you make over to them their property, call witnesses in their presence. And Allah is enough as a Reckoner.

4:7                   For men is a share of what the parents and the near relatives leave, and for women a share of what the parents and the near relatives leave, whether it is little or much — an appointed share.

4:8                   And when relatives  and the orphans and the needy are present at the division, give them out of it and speak to them kind words.

4:9                   And let those fear who, if they should leave behind them weakly offspring, would fear on their account; so let them observe their duty to Allah and let them speak right words.

4:10               Those who swallow the property of the orphans unjustly, they swallow only fire into their bellies. And they will burn in blazing fire.

Section 2 (Law of Inheritance)

4:11               Allah commands you concerning your children: for the male is the equal of the portion of two females; but if there are more than two females, two-thirds of what the deceased leaves is theirs; and if there is one, for her is the half. And as for his parents, for each of them is the sixth of what he leaves, if he has a child; but if he has no child and (only) his two parents inherit him, for his mother is the third; but if he has brothers, for his mother is the sixth, after (payment of) a bequest he may have bequeathed or a debt. Your parents and your children, you do not know which of them is the nearer to you in benefit. This is an ordinance from Allah. Surely Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

4:12               And yours is half of what your wives leave if they have no child; but if they have a child, your share is a fourth of what they leave after (payment of) any bequest they may have bequeathed or a debt; and theirs is the fourth of what you leave if you have no child, but if you have a child, their share is the eighth of what you leave after (payment of) a bequest you may have bequeathed or a debt. And if a man or a woman, having no children, leaves pro­perty to be inherited and he (or she) has a brother or a sister, then for each of them is the sixth; but if they are more than that, they shall be sharers in the third after (payment of) a bequest that may have been bequeathed or a debt not injuring (others). This is an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Knowing, Forbearing.

4:13               These are Allah’s limits. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, He will admit him to Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide in them. And this is the mighty achievement.

4:14               And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and goes beyond His limits, He will make him enter fire to abide in it, and for him is a humiliating punishment.

Section 3 (Treatment of Women)

4:15               And as for those of your women who are guilty of an indecency, call to witness against them four (witnesses) from among you; so if they bear witness, confine them to the houses until death takes them away or Allah opens a way for them.

4:16               And as for the two of you who are guilty of it, give them both a slight punish­ment; then if they repent and amend, turn aside from them. Surely Allah is ever Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

4:17               Repentance with Allah is only for those who do evil in ignorance, then turn (to Allah) soon, so these it is to whom Allah turns (mercifully). And Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

4:18               And repent­ance is not for those who go on doing evil deeds, until when death comes to one of them, he says: Now I repent; nor (for) those who die while they are disbelievers. For such We have prepared a pain­ful punishment.

4:19               O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to take women as heritage against (their) will. Nor should you cause them hard­ship by taking part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of manifest indecency. And treat them kindly. Then if you hate them, it may be that you dislike a thing while Allah has placed abundant good in it.

4:20               And if you wish to have (one) wife in the place of another and you have given one of them a heap of gold, take nothing from it. Would you take it by slandering (her) and (doing her) manifest wrong?

4:21               And how can you take it when you have been intimate with each other and they have taken from you a strong covenant?

4:22               And do not marry women whom your fathers married, except what has already passed. This surely is indecent and hate­ful; and it is an evil way.

Section 4 (What Women may be taken in Marriage)

4:23               Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your paternal aunts, and your maternal aunts, and brother’s daughters and sister’s daughters, and your mothers that have suckled you, and your foster-sisters, and mothers of your wives, and your stepdaughters who are in your guardianship (born) of your wives with whom you have had sexual relations — but if you have not had sexual relations with them, there is no blame on you — and the wives of your sons who are of your own loins; and that you should have two sisters together, except what has already passed. Surely Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful,

Part 5

4:24               And all married women except those whom your right hands possess (are forbidden); (this is) Allah’s ordinance to you. And lawful for you are (all women) besides those, provided that you seek (them) with your property, taking (them) in marriage, not committing fornication. Then as to those whom you profit by (by marrying), give them their dowries as appointed. And there is no blame on you about what you mutually agree after what is appoin­ted (of dowry). Surely Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

4:25               And whoever among you cannot afford to marry free believing women, (let him marry) such of your believing maidens as your right hands possess. And Allah knows best your faith — you are (sprung) the one from the other. So marry them with the permission of their masters, and give them their dowries justly, they being chaste, not fornicating, nor taking lovers in secret; then if they are guilty of adultery when they are taken in marriage, they shall suffer half the punishment for free married women. This is for him among you who fears falling into evil. And that you abstain is better for you. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 5 (Women’s Rights over their Earnings)

4:26               Allah desires to explain to you, and to guide you into the ways of those before you, and to turn to you (mercifully). And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

4:27               And Allah desires to turn to you (mercifully). And those who follow (their) lusts desire that you should deviate (with) a great deviation.

4:28               Allah desires to make light your burdens, and man is created weak.

4:29               O you who believe, do not swallow up your property among yourselves by false means except that it be trading by your mutual consent. And do not kill your people. Surely Allah is ever Merci­ful to you.

4:30               And whoever does this aggressively and unjustly, We shall soon cast him into fire. And this is ever easy for Allah.

4:31               If you shun the great things which you are forbidden, We shall do away with your evil (inclinations) and make you enter an honourable place of entering.

4:32               And do not hanker after what Allah has given some of you above others. For men is the benefit of what they earn. And for women is the benefit of what they earn. And ask Allah of His grace. Surely Allah is ever Knower of all things.

4:33               And to everyone We have appointed heirs of whatever parents and near relatives leave. And as to those with whom your right hands have ratified agree­ments, give them their due. Surely Allah is ever Wit­ness over all things.

Section 6 (Disagreement between Husband and Wife)

4:34               Men are the maintainers of women, with what Allah has given some of them above others and with what they spend out of their wealth. So the good women are obedient (to Allah), guard­ing the unseen as Allah has guarded. And (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the beds and turn them away (from wrongdoing). So if they obey you, do not seek a way against them. Surely Allah is ever Exalted, Great.

4:35               And if you fear a breach between the two, appoint an arbiter from his people and an arbiter from her people. If they both desire agreement, Allah will effect harmony between them. Surely Allah is ever Knowing, Aware.

4:36               And serve Allah, and do not set up any partner with Him, and be good to the parents and to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the neighbour of (your) kin and the alien neigh­bour, and the companion in a journey and the traveller and those whom your right hands possess. Surely Allah does not love such as are proud, boastful,

4:37               who are miserly and tell people to be miserly and hide what Allah has given them out of His grace. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment —

4:38               and those who spend their wealth to be seen by people and do not believe in Allah nor in the Last Day. And as for him whose companion is the devil, an evil companion is he!

4:39               And what (harm) would it do them if they believe in Allah and the Last Day and spend (on good works) out of what Allah has given them? And Allah is ever Knower of them.

4:40               Surely Allah does not wrong (anyone even by) the weight of an atom; and if it is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.

4:41               But how will it be when We bring from every people a witness and bring you as a witness against these? 

4:42               On that day will those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger desire that the earth were levelled with them. And they can hide no fact from Allah.

Section 7 (Purification of the Soul)

4:43               O you who believe, do not go near prayer when you are intoxi­cated till you know what you say, nor after sexual inter­course — except you are merely passing by  — until you have bathed. And if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you has come from the toilet, or you have had (sexual) contact with women, and you cannot find water, then resort to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands (with it). Surely Allah is ever Pardoning, Forgiving.

4:44               Do you not see those to whom a portion of the Book was given? They buy error and desire to make you go astray from the (right) way.

4:45               And Allah best knows your enemies. And Allah is sufficient as a Friend and Allah is sufficient as a Helper.

4:46               Some of those who are Jews alter words from their places  and say, We have heard and we disobey; and (say), Hear without being made to hear, and (say), Rā‘i-nā, distorting with their tongues and slandering religion. And if they had said, We hear and we obey, and listen, and unẓur-nā, it would have been better for them and more upright; but Allah has cursed them on account of their disbelief, so they do not believe except a little.

4:47               O you who have been given the Book, believe in what We have revealed, verifying what you (already) have, before We destroy the leaders and turn them on their backs, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers. And the command of Allah is ever executed.

4:48               Surely Allah does not forgive that a partner should be set up with Him, and forgives all besides that to whom He pleases. And whoever sets up a partner with Allah, he devises indeed a great sin.

4:49               Have you not seen those who attribute purity to them­selves?  Rather, Allah purifies whom He pleases, and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.

4:50               See how they forge lies against Allah! And sufficient is this as a manifest sin.

Section 8 (Kingdom granted to Abraham’s Descendants)

4:51               Have you not seen those to whom a portion of the Book was given? They believe in sorcery and diviners  and say of those who disbelieve: These are better guided in the path than those who believe.

4:52               Those are they whom Allah has cursed. And whomever Allah curses, you will not find a helper for him.

4:53               Or have they a share in the kingdom? But then they would not give to people even the speck on a date-stone.

4:54               Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them of His grace? But indeed We have given to Abraham’s children the Book and the Wisdom, and We have given them a grand kingdom.

4:55               So some of them believe in him, and some of them turn away from him. And Hell is suffi­cient to burn.

4:56               Those who disbelieve in Our Messages, We shall make them enter Fire. As often as their skins are burned, We shall change them for other skins, that they may taste the punishment. Surely Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.

4:57               And those who believe and do good deeds, We shall make them enter Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide in them forever. They will have therein pure com­panions and We shall make them enter a pleasant shade.

4:58               Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to those worthy of them, and that when you judge between people, you judge with justice. Surely Allah instructs you with what is excellent. Surely Allah is ever Hearing, Seeing.

4:59               O you who believe, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you; then if you quarrel about anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. This is best and more suitable to (achieve) the end.

Section 9 (The Prophet must be obeyed)

4:60               Have you not seen those who assert that they believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you? They desire to seek the judgment of the devil, though they have been commanded to deny him. And the devil desires to lead them far astray.

4:61               And when it is said to them, Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger, you see the hypocrites turning away from you with aversion.

4:62               But how is it that when a mis­fortune befalls them on account of what their hands have already done, they come to you swearing by Allah: We desired nothing but good and concord?

4:63               These are they, the secrets of whose hearts Allah knows; so turn aside from them and admonish them and speak to them effective words concerning themselves.

4:64               And We sent no messenger but that he should be obeyed by Allah’s command. And if they had, when they wronged them­selves, come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah, and the Messenger had (also) asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Oft-returning (to mercy), merciful.

4:65               But no, by your Lord! they do not believe until they make you a judge of what is in dispute between them, then find no reluctance in their hearts as to what you decide and submit with full submission.

4:66               And if We had ordained for them: Lay down your lives or go forth from your homes, they would not have done it except a few of them. And if they had done what they are exhorted to do, it would certainly have been better for them and more strengthening,

4:67               and then We would certainly have given them from Ourselves a great reward,

4:68               and We would certainly have guided them in the right path.

4:69               And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, they are with those upon whom Allah has bestowed favours from among the prophets and the truthful and the faithful and the righteous, and a goodly company are they!

4:70               Such is the grace from Allah, and Allah is sufficient as Knower.

Section 10 (Believers must defend Themselves)

4:71               O you who believe, take your precautions, then go forth in detachments or go forth in a body.

4:72               And among you is he who would hang back. Then if a misfortune befalls you, he says: Allah indeed bestowed a favour on me as I was not present with them.

4:73               And if bounty from Allah comes to you, he would cry, as if there were no friendship between you and him: If only I had been with them, then I should have achieved a mighty success!

4:74               So let those fight in the way of Allah who sell this world’s life for the Here­after. And whoever fights in the way of Allah, whether he is killed or is victorious, We shall grant him a mighty reward.

4:75               And what reason have you not to fight in the way of Allah, and of the weak among the men and the women and the children, who say: Our Lord, take us out of this town, whose people are oppressors, and grant us from Yourself a friend, and grant us from Yourself a helper!

4:76               Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of the devil. So fight against the friends of the devil; surely the struggle of the devil is ever weak.

Section 11 (Attitude of the Hypocrites)

4:77               Have you not seen those to whom it was said: Withhold your hands, and keep up prayer and give the due charity. But when fighting is prescribed for them, then some of them fear men as they ought to fear Allah, or with a greater fear, and say: Our Lord, why have You ordained fighting for us? Would You not grant us respite for a little while? Say: The enjoyment of this world is short, and the Hereafter is better for him who keeps his duty. And you will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.

4:78               Wherever you are, death will overtake you, though you are in towers, raised high. And if good befalls them, they say: This is from Allah; and if a misfortune befalls them, they say: This is from you. Say: All is from Allah. But what is the matter with these people that they make no effort to understand anything?

4:79               What­ever good befalls you (O man), it is from Allah, and whatever mis­fortune befalls you, it is from yourself. And We have sent you (O Pro­phet) to man­kind as a Messenger. And Allah is sufficient as a witness.

4:80               Whoever obeys the Messenger, he indeed obeys Allah. And whoever turns away, We have not sent you as a keeper over them.

4:81               And they say: Obedience. But when they go out from your presence, a group of them plan by night doing otherwise than what you say. And Allah writes down what they plan by night, so turn aside from them and trust in Allah. And Allah is sufficient as hav­ing charge of affairs.

4:82               Will they not then meditate on the Quran? And if it were from any other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy.

4:83               But if any news of security or fear comes to them, they spread it about. And if they had referred it to the Messenger and to those in authority among them, those of them who can search out knowledge of it would have known it. And if it were not for the grace of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would certainly have followed the devil except a few.

4:84               Fight then in Allah’s way — you are not responsible except for yourself; and urge on the believers. It may be that Allah will restrain the fighting of those who disbelieve. And Allah is stronger in prowess and stronger to give exemplary punishment.

4:85               Whoever intercedes in a good cause has a share of it, and whoever intercedes in an evil cause has a portion of it. And Allah is ever Keeper over all things.

4:86               And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet with one better than it, or return it. Surely Allah ever takes account of all things.

4:87               Allah, there is no god but He — He will certainly gather you together on the day of Resurrection, there is no doubt in it. And who is more true in word than Allah?

Section 12 (How to deal with the Hypocrites)

4:88               Why should you, then, be two parties in relation to the hypocrites while Allah has made them return (to disbelief) for what they have earned? Do you desire to guide him whom Allah leaves in error? And whomsoever Allah leaves in error you cannot find a way for him.

4:89               They long that you should disbelieve as they have disbelieved so that you might be on the same level; so do not take from among them friends until they flee (their homes) in Allah’s way. Then if they turn back (to hostility), seize them and kill them wherever you find them, and take no friend nor helper from among them,

4:90               except those who join a people between whom and you there is an alliance, or who come to you, their hearts shrinking from fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had pleased, He would have given them power over you, so that they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah allows you no way against them.

4:91               You will find others who desire to be secure from you and secure from their own people. Whenever they are made to return to hostility, they are plunged into it. So if they do not withdraw from you, nor offer you peace and restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them. And against these We have given you a clear authority.

Section 13 (Murderer of a Muslim)

4:92               And a believer would not kill a believer except by mis­take. And he who kills a believer by mistake should free a believ­ing slave, and blood-money should be paid to his people unless they forgo it as charity. But if he is from a tribe hostile to you and he is a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is sufficient). And if he is from a tribe between whom and you there is a covenant, the blood-money should be paid to his people along with the free­ing of a believing slave; but he who has not the means should fast for two months successively: a penance from Allah. And Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

4:93               And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell, abiding in it; and Allah is furious with him and He has cursed him and prepared for him a grievous punish­ment.

4:94               O you who believe, when you go forth (to fight) in Allah’s way, make investigation, and do not say to anyone who offers you salutation, You are not a believer, seeking the good of this world’s life. But with Allah there are abundant gains. You too were such before, then Allah conferred a benefit on you; so make investi­ga­tion. Surely Allah is ever Aware of what you do.

4:95               Those who hold back from among the believers, not disabled by injury, and those who strive hard in Allah’s way with their property and their persons, are not equal. Allah has made those who strive with their property and their persons to excel those who hold back by a (high) degree. And to each Allah has promised good. And Allah has granted to those who strive above those who hold back a mighty reward —

4:96               (high) degrees from Him and protection and mercy. And Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 14 (Muslims who remained with the Enemy)

4:97               (As for) those whom the angels cause to die while they are unjust to themselves, (the angels) will say: What were you doing? They will say: We were weak in the earth. (The angels) will say: Was not Allah’s earth spacious, so that you could have migrated in it? So these it is whose refuge is hell — and it is an evil destination.

4:98               Except the weak from among the men and the women and the children who do not have the means, nor can they find a way (to escape);

4:99               so these, it may be that Allah will pardon them. And Allah is ever Pardoning, Forgiving.

4:100           And whoever flees in Allah’s way, he will find in the earth many a place of escape and abundant resources. And whoever goes forth from his home flee­ing to Allah and His Messenger, then death overtakes him, his reward is indeed with Allah. And Allah is ever Forgiving, Merci­ful.

Section 15 (Prayer when Fighting)

4:101           And when you journey in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve will give you trouble. Surely the disbelievers are an open enemy to you.

4:102           And when you are among them and lead the prayer for them, let a group of them stand up with you, and let them take their arms. Then when they have performed their prostration, let them go to your rear, and let another group who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, and let them take their pre­cautions and their arms. Those who disbelieve long that you may neglect your arms and your baggage, that they may attack you with a sudden united attack. And there is no blame on you, if you are inconvenienced on account of rain or if you are sick, to put away your arms; and take your precautions. Surely Allah has pre­pared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers.

4:103           So when you have finished the prayer, remember Allah standing and sitting and reclining. But when you are secure (from danger) keep up (regular) prayer. Prayer indeed has been enjoined on the believers at fixed times.

4:104           And do not be weak-hearted in pursuit of the enemy. If you suffer they (too) suffer as you suffer, and you hope from Allah what they do not hope. And Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

Section 16 (Hypocrites are Dishonest)

4:105           Surely We have revealed the Book to you with truth that you may judge between people by means of what Allah has taught you. And do not be one pleading the cause of the dishonest,

4:106           and ask the forgiveness of Allah. Surely Allah is ever For­giving, Merciful.

4:107           And do not contend on behalf of those who act unfaithfully to their souls. Surely Allah does not love him who is treacherous, sinful:

4:108           They seek to hide from people and they cannot hide from Allah, and He is with them when they counsel by night matters which do not please Him. And Allah ever encom­passes what they do.

4:109           Look! You are they who may contend on their behalf in this world’s life, but who will contend with Allah on their behalf on the day of Resurrection, or who will have charge of their affairs?

4:110           And whoever does evil or wrongs his soul, then asks forgiveness of Allah, will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.

4:111           And whoever commits a sin, commits it only against himself. And Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

4:112           And whoever commits a fault or a sin, then accuses of it one innocent, he indeed takes upon him­self the burden of a slander and a manifest sin.

Section 17 (Secret Counsels of the Hypocrites)

4:113           And if it were not for Allah’s grace upon you and His mercy, a group of them had certainly aimed to ruin you. And they ruin only themselves, and they cannot harm you in any way. And Allah has revealed to you the Book and the Wisdom, and taught you what you did not know, and Allah’s grace on you is very great.

4:114           There is no good in most of their secret counsels except (in) him who enjoins charity or goodness or reconciliation between people. And whoever does this, seeking Allah’s pleasure, We shall give him a mighty reward.

4:115           And whoever acts hostilely to the Messenger after guidance has become manifest to him and follows other than the way of the believers, We turn him to that to which he (himself) turns and make him enter hell; and it is an evil destination.

Section 18 (Idolatry condemned)

4:116           Surely Allah does not forgive setting up partners with Him, and He forgives all besides this to whom He pleases. And whoever sets up a partner with Allah, he indeed goes far astray.

4:117           Besides Him they call on nothing but female divinities and they call on nothing but a rebellious devil,

4:118           whom Allah has cursed. And he said: Certainly I will take of Your servants an app­ointed portion;

4:119           and certainly I will lead them astray and excite in them vain desires and bid them so that they will slit the ears of the cattle, and bid them so that they will alter Allah’s creation. And whoever takes the devil for a friend, forsaking Allah, he indeed suffers a manifest loss.

4:120           He promises them and excites vain desires in them. And the devil promises them only to deceive.

4:121           These — their refuge is hell, and they will find no way of escape from it.

4:122           And those who believe and do good, We shall make them enter Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide in them forever. It is Allah’s promise, in truth. And who is more truthful in word than Allah?

4:123           It will not be in accordance with your vain desires nor the vain desires of the People of the Book. Whoever does evil, will be recompensed for it and will not find for himself besides Allah a friend or a helper.

4:124           And whoever does good deeds, whether male or female, and is a believer — these will enter the Garden, and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.

4:125           And who is better in religion than he who submits himself entirely to Allah while doing good (to others) and follows the faith of Abraham, the upright one? And Allah took Abraham for a friend.

4:126           And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And Allah ever encompasses all things.

Section 19 (Equitable Dealings with Orphans and Widows)

4:127           And they ask you a decision about women. Say: Allah makes known to you His decision concerning them; and what is recited to you in the Book is concerning widowed women, whom you do not give what is appointed for them, while you are not inclined to marry them, nor to the weak among children, and that you should deal justly with orphans. And whatever good you do, Allah is surely ever Knower of it.

4:128           And if a woman fears ill-usage from her husband or desertion, there is no blame on the two of them if they effect a reconciliation between them. And recon­ciliation is better. And greed is met with in (people’s) minds. And if you do good (to others) and keep your duty, surely Allah is ever Aware of what you do.

4:129           And you cannot do justice between wives, even though you wish (it), but do not be disinclined (from one) with total disinclination, so that you leave her in suspense. And if you are reconciled and keep your duty, surely Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

4:130           And if they separate, Allah will render them both free from want out of His ampleness. And Allah is ever Ample-giving, Wise.

4:131           And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And certainly We charged those who were given the Book before you, and (We also charge) you, to keep your duty to Allah. And if you disbelieve, surely to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And Allah is ever Self-sufficient, Praiseworthy.

4:132           And to Allah belongs what­ever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And Allah is sufficient as having charge of affairs.

4:133           If He please, He will take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is ever Powerful to do that.

4:134           Whoever desires the reward of this world — then with Allah is the reward of this world and the Hereafter. And Allah is ever Hearing, Seeing.

Section 20 (Hypocrisy condemned)

4:135           O you who believe, be maintainers of justice, bearers of witness for Allah, even if it is against your own selves or (your) parents or near relatives — whether he is rich or poor, Allah has a better right over them both. So do not follow (your) low desires, that you deviate. And if you distort (the truth) or turn away (from it), surely Allah is ever Aware of what you do.

4:136           O you who believe, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book which He has revealed to His Messenger and the Book which He revealed before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah and His angels and His Books and His messengers and the Last Day, he indeed strays far away.

4:137           Those who believe then disbelieve, again believe and again disbelieve, then increase in disbelief, Allah will never forgive them nor guide them in the (right) way.

4:138           Give news to the hypocrites that for them is a painful punishment —

4:139           those who take disbelievers for friends rather than believers. Do they seek for might from them? Might surely belongs wholly to Allah.

4:140           And indeed He has revealed to you in the Book that when you hear Allah’s messages disbelieved in and mocked at, do not sit with them until they enter into some other discourse, for then indeed you would be like them. Surely Allah will gather together the hypocrites and the disbelievers all in hell —

4:141           those who wait (for misfortunes) for you. Then if you have a victory from Allah they say: Were we not with you? And if there is a chance for the disbelievers, they say: Did we not prevail over you and defend you from the believers? So Allah will judge between you on the day of Resurrection. And Allah will by no means give the disbelie­vers a way against the believers.

Section 21 (End of the Hypocrites)

4:142           The hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, and He will pay them back their deceit. And when they stand up for prayer, they stand up sluggishly — they do it only to be seen by people and they remember Allah but little,

4:143           wavering between that (and this) — (belonging) neither to these nor to those. And whomsoever Allah leaves in error, you will not find a way for him.

4:144           O you who believe, do not take the disbelievers for friends instead of the believers. Do you desire to give Allah a manifest proof against yourselves?

4:145           The hypocrites are surely in the lowest depths of the Fire, and you will find no helper for them,

4:146           except those who repent and amend and hold fast to Allah and are sincere in their obedience to Allah — these are with the believers. And Allah will soon grant the believers a mighty reward.

4:147           Why should Allah punish you if you are grateful and believe? And Allah is ever Multiplier of rewards, Knowing.

Part 6

4:148           Allah does not love the public utterance of hurtful speech, except by one who has been wronged. And Allah is ever Hearing, Knowing.

4:149           If you do good openly or keep it secret or pardon an evil, Allah surely is ever Pardoning, Powerful.

4:150           Those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and desire to make a distinction between Allah and His messengers and say: We believe in some and disbelieve in others; and desire to take a course in between —

4:151           these are truly disbelievers; and We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

4:152           And those who believe in Allah and His messengers and make no distinction between any of them, to them He will grant their rewards. And Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 22 (Transgressions of the Jews)

4:153           The People of the Book ask you to bring down to them a Book from heaven; indeed they demanded of Moses a greater thing than that, for they said: Show us Allah manifestly. So destructive punishment overtook them on account of their wrong­doing. Then they took the calf (for a god), after clear signs had come to them, but We pardoned this. And We gave Moses clear authority.

4:154           And We raised the mountain above them at their covenant. And We said to them: Enter the gate submissively. And We said to them: Do not violate the Sabbath; and We took from them a firm covenant.

4:155           Then for their breaking their covenant and their disbelief in the messages of Allah and their killing the prophets unjustly and their saying, Our hearts are securely covered; no, Allah has sealed them on account of their disbelief, so they do not believe but a little;

4:156           and for their disbelief and for their uttering against Mary a grievous slander;

4:157           and for their saying: We have killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the messenger of Allah, and they did not kill him, nor did they cause his death on the cross, but he was made to appear to them as such. And certainly those who differ concerning it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge about it, but only follow a conjecture, and they did not kill him for certain;

4:158           rather, Allah exalted him in His presence. And Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.

4:159           And there is none of the People of the Book but will believe in this before his death; and on the day of Resurrection he will be a witness against them.

4:160           So for the wrongdoing of the Jews, We forbade them the good things which had been made lawful for them, and for their hindering many (people) from Allah’s way.

4:161           And for their taking usury — though indeed they were forbidden it — and their devouring the property of people falsely. And We have prepared for the disbelievers from among them a painful punishment.

4:162           But the firm in knowledge among them and the believers believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you, and those who keep up prayer and give the due charity and the believers in Allah and the Last Day — these it is to whom We shall give a mighty reward.

Section 23 (Previous Revelation and the Quran)

4:163           Surely We have revealed to you as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him, and We revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and We gave to David a scripture.

4:164           And (We sent) messengers We have mentioned to you before and messengers We have not mentioned to you. And to Moses Allah addressed His word, speaking (to him) —

4:165           messengers, bearers of good news  and warners, so that the people may have no plea against Allah after the (coming of) messengers. And Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.

4:166           But Allah bears witness by what He has revealed to you that He has revealed it with His knowledge, and the angels (also) bear witness. And Allah is sufficient as a witness.

4:167           Those who disbelieve and hinder (others) from Allah’s way, they indeed have gone astray, straying far.

4:168           Those who dis­believe and act unjustly, Allah will never forgive them, nor guide them to a path,

4:169           except the path of hell, to abide in it for a long time. And that is easy to Allah.

4:170           O mankind, the Messenger has indeed come to you with truth from your Lord, so believe, it is better for you. And if you disbelieve, then surely to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. And Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

4:171           O People of the Book, do not exa­g­gerate in the matter of your religion nor speak anything about Allah but the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only a messenger of Allah and His word which He communicated to Mary and a mercy from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers. And do not say, Three. Refrain (from it), it is better for you. Allah is only one God. Far be it from His glory to have a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And sufficient is Allah as having charge of affairs.

Section 24 (Prophethood of Jesus)

4:172           The Messiah does not disdain to be a servant of Allah, nor do the angels who are near to Him. And whoever disdains His service and is proud, He will gather them all together to Himself.

4:173           Then as for those who believe and do good, He will pay them fully their rewards and give them more out of His grace. And as for those who disdain and are proud, He will punish them with a painful punishment, and they will find for themselves besides Allah no friend nor helper.

4:174           O people, manifest proof has indeed come to you from your Lord and We have sent down to you a clear light.

4:175           Then as for those who believe in Allah and hold fast by Him, He will admit them to His mercy and grace, and guide them to Himself on a right path.

4:176           They ask you for a decision. Say: Allah gives you a deci­sion concerning the person who has neither parents nor children. If a man dies (and) he has no son and he has a sister, hers is half of what he leaves, and he shall be her heir if she has no son. But if there are two (sisters), they shall have two-thirds of what he leaves. And if there are (both) brothers and sisters, then for the male is the like of the portion of two females. Allah makes clear to you, in case you go astray. And Allah is Knower of all things.

 

Chapter 5

Al-Mā’idah: Food

Introduction by the translator

The name of this chapter refers to the demand for food, or physical sus­tenance, by the followers of Jesus and the granting of Jesus’ prayer for his earlier and later followers (verses 112–115). Not only physical food, but God sent down for them spiritual food in the form of the Quran, which “perfected” religion (v. 3). The chapter deals with the deviation of the Jews and Chris­tians from the truth and their hostility towards Islam. It contains directions for Muslims on several points and warns them to avoid the errors into which previous nations fell. It ends with a refutation of the doctrine of Jesus’ divi­nity and gives hope of the deliverance of his followers from this wrong belief. This chapter was mainly revealed in 5–7 A.H. However, v. 3, speaking of the perfection of religion in Islam, was revealed during the Holy Prophet’s last pilgrimage to Makkah in 10 A.H.

Section 1 (Perfection of Religion in Islam)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

5:1                   O you who believe, fulfil the obligations. The cattle quadrupeds are allowed to you except what is recited to you, not violating the prohibition against game when you are on the pil­gri­mage. Surely Allah orders what He pleases.

5:2                   O you who believe, do not violate the signs of Allah, nor the Sacred Month, nor the offerings, nor the victims with gar­lands, nor those repairing to the Sacred House seeking the grace and pleasure of their Lord. And when you are free from pilgri­mage obligations, then hunt. And do not let hatred of a people — because they hindered you from the Sacred Mosque — incite you to transgress. And help one another in righteousness and piety, and do not help one another in sin and aggression, and keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is Severe in retribution.

5:3                   Forbidden to you is what dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal), and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall, and that killed by goring with the horn, and what wild beasts have eaten — except what you slaughter; and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols), and (it is for­bidden) that you seek to divide by arrows;  that is a trans­gression. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so do not fear them, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favour to you and chosen for you Islam as a religion. But whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining wilfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

5:4                   They ask you as to what is allowed them. Say: The good things are allowed to you, and what you have taught the beasts and birds of prey, training them to hunt — you teach them of what Allah has taught you; so eat of what they catch for you and mention the name of Allah over it; and keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is Swift in reckoning.

5:5                   This day (all) good things are made lawful for you. And the food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And so are the chaste from among the believing women and the chaste from among those who have been given the Book before you, when you give them their dowries, taking (them) in marriage, not fornicating nor taking them for lovers in secret. And whoever denies faith, his work indeed is fruitless; and in the Hereafter he is among the losers.

Section 2 (Duty of Uprightness)

5:6                   O you who believe, when you rise up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if you are under an obliga­tion, then wash (your body). And if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you has come from the toilet, or you have had (sexual) contact with women, and you cannot find water, then resort to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands with it. Allah does not desire to place a burden on you but He wishes to purify you, and that He may complete His favour on you, so that you may give thanks.

5:7                   And remember Allah’s favour on you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said: We have heard and we obey. And keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is Knower of what is in the hearts.

5:8                   O you who believe, be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice; and do not let hatred of a people incite you not to act equitably. Be just; that is nearer to observance of duty. And keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is Aware of what you do.

5:9                   Allah has promised to those who believe and do good deeds: For them is forgiveness and a mighty reward.

5:10               And those who disbelieve and reject Our messages, such are the companions of the flaming fire.

5:11               O you who believe, remember Allah’s favour on you when a people had determined to stretch out their hands against you, but He withheld their hands from you; and keep your duty to Allah. And on Allah let the believers rely.

Section 3 (Christian Violation of the Covenant)

5:12               And certainly Allah made a covenant with the Children of Israel, and We raised up among them twelve chieftains. And Allah said: Surely I am with you. If you keep up prayer and give the due charity and believe in My messengers and assist them and offer to Allah a goodly gift, I will certainly cover your evil deeds, and make you enter Gardens in which rivers flow. But whoever among you disbelieves after that, he indeed strays from the right way.

5:13               But on account of their breaking their covenant We cursed them and hardened their hearts. They alter words from their places and neglect a portion of what they were reminded of. And you will always discover treachery in them excepting a few of them — so pardon them and forgive. Surely Allah loves those who do good (to others).

5:14               And with those who say, We are Christians, We made a covenant, but they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of, so We stirred up enmity and hatred among them to the day of Resurrection. And Allah will soon inform them of what they did.

5:15               O People of the Book, indeed Our Messenger has come to you, making clear to you much of what you concealed of the Book and passing over much. Indeed, there has come to you from Allah, a Light and a clear Book,

5:16               by which Allah guides such as follow His pleasure into the ways of peace, and brings them out of dark­ness into light by His will, and guides them to the right path.

5:17               They indeed disbelieve who say: Surely, Allah — He is the Messiah, son of Mary. Say: Who then could control anything as against Allah when He wished to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, and his mother and all those on the earth? And Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them. He creates what He pleases. And Allah is Powerful over all things.

5:18               And the Jews and the Christians say: We are the sons of Allah and His beloved ones. Say: Why does He then punish you for your sins? Rather, you are mortals from among those whom He has created. He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases. And Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and to Him is the eventual coming.

5:19               O People of the Book, indeed Our Messenger has come to you explaining to you after a cessation of the messengers, in case you say: No bearer of good news came to us nor a warner. So indeed a bearer of good news and a warner has come to you. And Allah is Powerful over all things.

Section 4 (Israelites’ Violation of the Covenant)

5:20               And when Moses said to his people: My people, remember the favour of Allah to you when He raised prophets among you and made you kings and gave you what He did not give to any other of the nations.

5:21               My people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has ordained for you and do not turn your backs, for then you will turn back losers.

5:22               They said: Moses, in it are a powerful people, and we shall not enter it until they go out from it; if they go out from it, then surely we will enter.

5:23               Two men of those who feared, on whom Allah had bestowed a favour, said: Enter upon them by the gate, for when you enter it you will surely be victo­rious; and put your trust in Allah, if you are believers.

5:24               They said: Moses, we will never enter it so long as they are in it; go therefore you and your Lord, and fight; surely here we sit.

5:25               He said: My Lord, I have control of none but my own self and my brother; so distinguish between us and the transgressing people.

5:26               He said: It will surely be forbidden to them for forty years — they will wander about in the land. So do not grieve for the trans­gressing people.

Section 5 (Cain and Abel)

5:27               And relate to them with truth the story of the two sons of Adam, when they offered an offering, but it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. He said: I will certainly kill you. (The other) said: Allah accepts only from the dutiful.

5:28               If you stretch out your hand against me to kill me I shall not stretch out my hand against you to kill you. Surely I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds:

5:29               I would rather that you should bear the sin against me and your own sin, thus you would be one of the companions of the Fire; and that is the recompense of the unjust.

5:30               At length his mind made it easy for him to kill his brother, so he killed him; then he became one of the losers.

5:31               Then Allah sent a crow scratching the ground to show him how to cover the dead body of his brother. He said: Woe is me! Am I not able to be as this crow and cover the dead body of my brother? So he became regretful.

5:32               For this reason We prescribed for the Children of Israel that whoever kills a person, unless it is for manslaughter or for mischief in the land, it is as though he had killed all mankind. And whoever saves a life, it is as though he had saved the lives of all mankind. And certainly Our messengers came to them with clear arguments, but even after that many of them commit excesses in the land.

5:33               The only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive to make mischief in the land  is that they should be murdered, or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides, or they should be imprisoned. This shall be a disgrace for them in this world, and in the Hereafter they shall have a grievous punishment,

5:34               except those who repent before you overpower them; so know that Allah is For­giving, Merciful.

Section 6 (Punishment of Offenders)

5:35               O you who believe, keep your duty to Allah, and seek means of nearness to Him, and strive hard in His way that you may be successful.

5:36               Those who disbelieve, even if they had all that is in the earth, and as much as it again, to ransom themselves with it from the punishment of the day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them; and theirs is a painful punishment.

5:37               They would desire to come forth from the Fire, and they will not come forth from it, and theirs is a lasting punishment.

5:38               And (as for) the man and the woman addicted to theft, cut off their hands as a penalty for what they have earned — an exemplary punishment from Allah. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

5:39               But whoever repents after his wrongdoing and reforms, Allah will turn to him (mercifully). Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

5:40               Do you not know that Allah is He to Whom belongs the king­dom of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whom He pleases, and forgives whom He pleases. And Allah is Powerful over all things.

5:41               O Messenger, do not let those grieve you who hasten to disbelief, from among those who say with their mouths, We believe, and their hearts do not believe, and from among those who are Jews — they are listeners for the sake of a lie, listeners for another people who have not come to you. They alter words after they are put in their (proper) places, saying: If you are given this, take it, and if you are not given this, be cautious. And he for whom Allah intends temptation, you control nothing for him against Allah. Those are they whose hearts Allah does not intend to purify. For them is disgrace in this world, and for them a grievous punishment in the Hereafter.

5:42               Listeners for the sake of a lie, devourers of forbidden things, so if they come to you, judge between them or turn away from them. And if you turn away from them, they cannot harm you at all. And if you judge, judge between them with equity. Surely Allah loves the equitable.

5:43               And how do they make you a judge and they have the Torah in which is Allah’s judgment? Yet they turn away after that! And these are not believers.

Section 7 (The Quran and Previous Scriptures)

5:44               Surely We revealed the Torah, having guidance and light. By it did the prophets who submitted themselves (to Allah) judge for the Jews, and the rabbis and the doctors of law, because they were required to guard the Book of Allah, and they were wit­nesses of it. So do not fear the people and fear Me, and do not take a small price for My messages. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, those are the disbelievers.

5:45               And We prescribed to them in it that life is for life, and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth, and for wounds retaliation. But whoever forgoes it, it shall be an expiation for him. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, those are the wrongdoers.

5:46               And We sent after them in their footsteps Jesus, son of Mary, verifying what was (already) before him of the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel containing guidance and light, and verifying what was before it of the Torah, and a guidance and an admonition for the dutiful.

5:47               And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed in it. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, those are the transgressors.

5:48               And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is (already) before it of the Book and a guardian over it, so judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires, (turning away) from the truth that has come to you. For everyone of you We appointed a law and a way. And if Allah had pleased He would have made you a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you. So vie with one another in good works. To Allah you will all return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed;

5:49               and that you should judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires, and be cautious of them that they do not seduce you from part of what Allah has revealed to you. Then if they turn away, know that Allah desires to afflict them for some of their sins. And surely many of the people are trans­gressors.

5:50               Is it then the judgment of ignorance that they desire? And who is better than Allah to judge for a people who are sure?

Section 8 (Relations of Muslims with Enemies)

5:51               O you who believe, do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are friends of each other. And whoever among you takes them for friends he is indeed one of them. Surely Allah does not guide the unjust people.

5:52               But you see those in whose hearts is a disease, hastening towards them, saying: We fear that a calamity may befall us. Maybe Allah will bring the victory or a commandment from Himself, so they will regret what they hid in their souls.

5:53               And those who believe will say: Are these they who swore by Allah with their most forcible oaths that they were surely with you? Their deeds will be fruitless, so they will be losers.

5:54               O you who believe, if anyone of you should turn back from his religion, then Allah will bring a people whom He loves and who love Him, humble towards the believers, mighty against the dis­believers, striving hard in Allah’s way and not fearing the censure of any censurer. This is Allah’s grace — He gives it to whom He pleases. And Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.

5:55               Only Allah is your Friend and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayer and give the due charity, and they bow down.

5:56               And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe for friend — surely the party of Allah, they shall triumph.

Section 9 (Those who mock)

5:57               O you who believe, do not take for friends those who take your religion as a mockery and a sport, from among those who were given the Book before you and the disbelievers; and keep your duty to Allah if you are believers.

5:58               And when you call to prayer they take it as a mockery and a sport. That is because they are a people who do not understand.

5:59               Say: O People of the Book, do you find fault with us for only that we believe in Allah and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed before, while most of you are trans­gressors?

5:60               Say: Shall I inform you of those worse than this in retribution from Allah? They are those whom Allah has cursed and upon whom He brought His wrath and of whom He made apes and swine, and who serve the devil. These are in a worse plight and further astray from the straight path.

5:61               And when they come to you, they say, We believe, and surely they come in unbelief and they go forth in it. And Allah knows best what they conceal.

5:62               And you see many of them hastening to (commit) sin and trans­gression, and their devouring unlawful gain. Certainly evil is what they do.

5:63               Why do not the rabbis and the doctors of law prohibit them from their sinful utterances and their devouring unlaw­ful gain? Certainly evil are the works they do.

5:64               And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up. Their own hands are fettered and they are cursed for what they say. No, both His hands are spread out. He disburses as He pleases. And what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and disbelief. And We have cast among them enmity and hatred till the day of Resurrection. Whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land. And Allah does not love the mischief-makers.

5:65               And if the People of the Book had believed and kept their duty We would certainly have removed from them their evils, and made them enter gardens of bliss.

5:66               And if they had observed the Torah and the Gospel and what is revealed to them from their Lord, they would certainly have eaten from above them and from beneath their feet. Some of them keep to the mode­rate course; but most of them — evil is what they do.

Section 10 (Christian Deviation from the Truth)

5:67               O Messenger, deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do not, you have not delivered His message. And Allah will protect you from people. Surely Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

5:68               Say: O People of the Book, you follow no good till you observe the Torah and the Gospel and what is revealed to you from your Lord. And surely what has been revealed to you from your Lord will make many of them increase in inordinacy and dis­belief; so do not grieve for the disbelieving people.

5:69               Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Sabians and the Christians — whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does good — they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.

5:70               Certainly We made a covenant with the Children of Israel and We sent to them messengers. Whenever a messenger came to them with what their souls did not desire, some (of them) they called liars and some they (even) sought to kill.

5:71               And they thought that there would be no affliction, so they became blind and deaf; then Allah turned to them (mercifully) but many of them (again) became blind and deaf. And Allah is Seer of what they do.

5:72               Certainly they disbelieve who say: Allah, He is the Messiah, son of Mary. And the Messiah said: O Children of Israel, serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Surely whoever sets up part­ners with Allah, Allah has forbidden to him the Garden and his abode is the Fire. And for the wrongdoers there will be no helpers.

5:73               Certainly they disbelieve who say: Allah is the third of the three. And there is no God but One God. And if they do not refrain from what they say, a painful punishment will surely befall such of them as disbelieve.

5:74               Will they not then turn to Allah and ask His forgiveness? And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

5:75               The Messiah, son of Mary, was only a messenger — messengers had indeed passed away before him. And his mother was a truthful woman. They both used to eat food. See how We make the messages clear to them, then see how they are turned away (from truth)!

5:76               Say: Do you serve besides Allah that which controls for you neither harm nor benefit? And Allah — He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

5:77               Say: O People of the Book, do not exaggerate in the matter of your religion unjustly, nor follow the low desires of people who went astray before and led many astray, and went astray from the right path.

Section 11 (Christian Nearness to Islam)

5:78               Those who disbelieved from among the Children of Israel were cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary. This was because they disobeyed and exceeded the limits.

5:79               They did not forbid one another the hateful things they did. Evil indeed was what they did.

5:80               You see many of them befriending those who disbelieve. Certainly evil is what their souls send ahead for them, so that Allah is displeased with them, and in punishment will they abide.

5:81               And if they believed in Allah and the Prophet and what is revealed to him, they would not take them for friends, but most of them are transgressors.

5:82               You will certainly find the most violent of people in enmity against the believers to be the Jews and the idolaters; and you will find the nearest in friendship to the believers to be those who say, We are Christians. That is because there are priests and monks among them and because they are not proud.

Part 7

5:83               And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messen­ger you see their eyes overflow with tears because of the truth they recognize. They say: Our Lord, we believe, so write us down with the witnesses.

5:84               And what (reason) have we that we should not believe in Allah and in the Truth that has come to us, while we earnestly desire that our Lord should make us enter with the righteous people?

5:85               So Allah rewarded them for what they said, with Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide in them. And that is the reward of the doers of good.

5:86               And those who dis­believe and reject Our messages, such are the companions of the flaming fire.

Section 12 (Warning of Sins of Previous People)

5:87               O you who believe, do not forbid the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, nor exceed the limits. Surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits.

5:88               And eat of the lawful and good (things) that Allah has given you, and keep your duty to Allah, in Whom you believe.

5:89               Allah will not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He will call you to account for the making of deliberate oaths; so its expiation is the feeding of ten poor persons with the average (food) you feed your families with, or their clothing, or the freeing of a slave. But whoever does not find (means) should fast for three days. This is the expiation of your oaths when you swear. And keep your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His messages that you may give thanks.

5:90               O you who believe, intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows  are only an uncleanness, the devil’s work; so shun it that you may succeed.

5:91               The devil desires only to create enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you back from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then keep back? 

5:92               And obey Allah and obey the Messenger and be cautious. But if you turn back then know that the duty of Our Messenger is only to deliver the message clearly.

5:93               On those who believe and do good there is no blame for what they eat, when they keep their duty and believe and do good deeds, then keep their duty and believe, then keep their duty and do good (to others). And Allah loves the doers of good.

Section 13 (Inviolability of the Ka‘bah)

5:94               O you who believe, Allah will certainly try you in respect of some game which your hands and your lances can reach, that Allah may know who fears Him in secret. Whoever exceeds the limit after this, for him is a painful punishment.

5:95               O you who believe, do not kill game while you are on pilgrimage. And who­ever among you kills it intentionally, the compensation of it is the like of what he killed, from the cattle, as two just persons among you judge, as an offering to be brought to the Ka‘bah, or the expiation of it is the feeding of the poor or equivalent of it in fasting, that he may taste the unwholesome result of his deed. Allah pardons what happened in the past. And whoever returns (to it), Allah will punish him. And Allah is Mighty, Lord of retri­bution.

5:96               Lawful to you is the game of the sea and its food, a provision for you and for the travellers, and the game of the land is forbidden to you so long as you are on pilgrimage, and keep your duty to Allah, to Whom you shall be gathered.

5:97               Allah has made the Ka‘bah, the Sacred House, a means of support for the people, and the sacred month and the offerings and the victims with garlands. That is that you may know that Allah knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, and that Allah is Knower of all things.

5:98               Know that Allah is Severe in retribution and that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

5:99               The duty of the Messenger is only to deliver the message. And Allah knows what you do openly and what you hide.

5:100           Say: The bad and the good are not equal, though the abundance of the bad may make you wonder. So keep your duty to Allah, you people of understanding, that you may succeed.

Section 14 (Some Directions for Muslims)

5:101           O you who believe, do not ask about things which, if made known to you, would give you trouble; and if you ask about them when the Quran is being revealed, they will be made known to you. Allah pardons this; and Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.

5:102           A people before you indeed asked such questions, then became disbelievers in them.

5:103           Allah has not ordained a baḥīrah or a sā’ibah or a waṣīlah or a ḥāmī, but those who disbelieve fabricate a lie against Allah. And most of them do not understand.

5:104           And when it is said to them, Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messen­ger, they say: Sufficient for us is that on which we found our fathers. What! even though their fathers knew nothing and had no guidance!

5:105           O you who believe, take care of your souls — he who goes astray cannot harm you when you are on the right way. To Allah you will all return, so He will inform you of what you did.

5:106           O you who believe, call to witness between you, when death draws near to one of you, at the time of making the will, two just persons from among you, or two others from among others than you, if you are travelling in the land and the calamity of death befalls you. You should detain them after the prayer. Then if you doubt (them), they shall both swear by Allah (saying): We will not take for it a price even for a relative, nor will we hide the testimony of Allah, for then certainly we shall be sinners.

5:107           If it is discovered that they are guilty of a sin, two others shall stand up in their place from among those against whom the first two have been guilty of a sin; so they shall swear by Allah: Certainly our testimony is truer than the testimony of those two, and we have not exceeded the limit, for then surely we should be unjust.

5:108           Thus it is more probable that they will give true testimony or fear that other oaths will be taken after their oaths. And keep your duty to Allah and listen. And Allah does not guide the trans­gressing people.

Section 15 (Christian Love of the Material Life)

5:109           On the day when Allah will gather together the messen­gers and say: What was the response you received? They will say: We have no knowledge. Surely You are the great Knower of the unseen.

5:110           When Allah will say: O Jesus, son of Mary, remember My favour to you and to your mother, when I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit; you spoke to people in the cradle and in old age, and when I taught you the Book and the Wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel, and when you determined out of dust (a thing) like the form of a bird by My permission, then you breathed into it and it became a bird by My permission; and you healed the blind and the leprous by My permission; and when you raised the dead by My permission; and when I withheld the Children of Israel from you when you came to them with clear arguments — but those of them who disbelieved said: This is nothing but clear enchantment.

5:111           And when I revealed to the disciples, saying, Believe in Me and My messenger, they said: We believe, and (ask You to) bear witness that we are submitting ones.

5:112           When the disciples said: Jesus, son of Mary, is your Lord able to send down food  to us from heaven? He said: Keep your duty to Allah if you are believers.

5:113           They said: We desire to eat of it, and that our hearts should be satisfied, and that we may know that you have indeed spoken truth to us, and that we may be witnesses of it.

5:114           Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Allah, our Lord, send down to us food from heaven which should be to us an ever-recurring happiness  to the first of us and the last of us, and a sign from You, and give us sus­tenance and You are the Best of the sustainers.

5:115           Allah said: Surely I will send it down to you, but whoever disbelieves after­wards from among you, I will punish him with a punishment with which I will not punish anyone among the nations.

Section 16 (False Doctrines introduced after Jesus’ Death)

5:116           And when Allah will say: O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to people, Take me and my mother for two gods besides Allah? He will say: Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right to (say). If I had said it, You would indeed have known it. You know what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in Your mind. Surely You are the great Knower of the unseen.

5:117           I said to them nothing but what You commanded me: Serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord; and I was a witness of them so long as I was among them, but when You caused me to die You were the Watcher over them. And You are Witness of all things.

5:118           If You punish them, surely they are Your servants; and if You protect them, surely You are the Mighty, the Wise.

5:119           Allah will say: This is a day when their truth will profit the truthful ones. For them are Gardens in which rivers flow, abiding therein forever. Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Allah. That is the mighty achievement.

5:120           Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and whatever is in them; and He is Powerful over all things.

 

Chapter 6

Al-An‘ām: Cattle

Introduction by the translator

The name of this chapter refers to certain superstitious and idolatrous prac­tices of the pre-Islamic Arabs (v. 142–144) which were to be abolished to establish the doctrine of Divine Unity. The chapter deals with this doctrine at length, presents evidence to prove its truth and declares its ultimate triumph over idolatry and all other kinds of polytheism. This chapter was re­vealed at Makkah in the last year of the phase of the Holy Prophet’s life there.

Section 1 (Ultimate Triumph of Divine Unity)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

6:1                   Praise be to Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made darkness and light. Yet those who disbelieve set up equals to their Lord.

6:2                   He it is Who created you from dust, then He decreed a term. And there is a term named with Him; still you doubt.

6:3                   And He is Allah in the heavens and in the earth. He knows your secret (thoughts) and your open (words), and He knows what you earn.

6:4                   And no message comes to them of the messages of their Lord but they turn away from it.

6:5                   So they rejected the truth when it came to them, but soon will come to them the news of what they mocked.

6:6                   Do they not see how many a generation We destroyed before them, whom We had established in the earth as We have not established you, and We sent clouds pouring abundant rain on them, and We made rivers flow beneath them? Then We des­troyed them for their sins, and raised up after them another generation.

6:7                   And if We had sent down to you a writing on paper, then they had touched it with their hands, those who disbelieve would have said: This is nothing but clear enchantment.

6:8                   And they say: Why has not an angel been sent down to him? And if We send down an angel, the matter would be decided and then they would not be given respite.

6:9                   And if We had made him an angel, We would certainly have made him a man, and (thus) made confused to them what they confuse.

6:10               And messengers before you were indeed mocked, but that which they derided befell those of them who scoffed.

Section 2 (Greatness of Divine Mercy)

6:11               Say: Travel in the land, then see what was the end of the rejectors.

6:12               Say: To whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth? Say: To Allah. He has ordained mercy on Himself. He will certainly gather you on the day of Resurrection — there is no doubt about it. Those who have lost their souls, they will not believe.

6:13               And to Him belongs whatever dwells in the night and the day. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

6:14               Say: Shall I take for a friend other than Allah, the Origina­tor of the heavens and the earth, and He feeds and is not fed? Say: I am commanded to be the first of those who submit. And do not be of those who set up partners (with Allah).

6:15               Say: Surely I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the punishment of a grievous day.

6:16               He from whom it is averted on that day, Allah indeed has had mercy on him. And this is a manifest achievement.

6:17               And if Allah touch you with affliction, there is none to remove it but He. And if He touch you with good, He is Powerful over all things.

6:18               And He is the Supreme, above His servants. And He is the Wise, the Aware.

6:19               Say: What thing is of most weight in testimony? Say: Allah is witness between you and me. And this Quran has been revealed to me that with it I may warn you and whomsoever it reaches. Do you really bear witness that there are other gods with Allah? Say: I do not bear witness. Say: He is only One God, and surely I am innocent of what you set up (with Him).

6:20               Those whom We have given the Book recognize him as they recognize their sons. Those who have lost their souls, they will not believe.

Section 3 (Polytheists’ Witness against themselves)

6:21               And who is more unjust than one who forges a lie about Allah, or calls His messages a lie? Surely the wrongdoers will not be successful.

6:22               And on the day We gather them all together, then We shall say to those who set up partners (with Allah): Where are your associate-gods whom you asserted?

6:23               Then their excuse would be nothing but that they would say: By Allah, our Lord! we did not set up partners.

6:24               See how they lie against their own souls, and what they forged shall fail them!

6:25               And some of them listen to you and We have cast veils over their hearts so that they do not understand it and a deafness into their ears. And (even) if they see every sign they will not believe in it. So much so that when they come to you they only dispute with you — those who disbelieve say: This is nothing but stories of the ancients.

6:26               And they forbid (others) from it, and they keep away from it; and they ruin none but their own souls while they do not per­ceive.

6:27               And if you could see when they are made to stand before the Fire, and say: If only we were sent back, we would not reject the messages of our Lord but would be from among the believers.

6:28               No, what they concealed before will become manifest to them. And if they were sent back, they would certainly go back to what they are forbidden, and surely they are liars.

6:29               And they say: There is nothing but our life of this world and we shall not be raised again.

6:30               And if you could see when they are made to stand before their Lord! He will say: Is not this the truth? They will say: Certainly, by our Lord! He will say: Taste then the punishment because you disbelieved.

Section 4 (Rejection of the Truth)

6:31               They are losers indeed who reject the meeting with Allah, until when the hour comes upon them suddenly, they will say: O our grief for our neglecting it! And they bear their burdens on their backs. Now surely evil is what they bear!

6:32               And this world’s life is but an idle sport and play. And certainly the abode of the Hereafter is better for those who keep their duty. Do you not then understand?

6:33               We know indeed that what they say grieves you, for surely they do not call you a liar, but the wrongdoers deny the mess­ages of Allah.

6:34               And messengers indeed were rejected before you, but they were patient when rejected and persecuted, until Our help came to them. And there is none to change the words of Allah. And there has already come to you some infor­ma­tion about the messengers.

6:35               And if their turning away is hard on you, then, if you can, seek an opening into the earth or a ladder to heaven, to bring them a sign! And if Allah pleased, He would certainly have gathered them all to guidance, so do not be from among the igno­rant.

6:36               Only those accept who listen. And (as for) the dead, Allah will raise them, then to Him they will be returned.

6:37               And they say: Why has not a sign been sent down to him from his Lord? Say: Surely Allah is Able to send down a sign, but most of them do not know.

6:38               And there is no animal in the earth, nor a bird that flies on its two wings, but (they are) communities like yourselves. We have not neglected anything in the Book. Then to their Lord will they be gathered.

6:39               And those who reject Our messages are deaf and dumb, in darkness. Whom Allah plea­ses He leaves in error. And whom He pleases He places on the right way.

6:40               Say: See, if the punishment of Allah overtake you or the hour come upon you, will you call on others than Allah, if you are truthful?

6:41               No, Him you call upon, so He removes that for which you pray, if He pleases, and you forget what you set up as partners (with Him).

Section 5 (Consequences of Rejection)

6:42               And indeed We sent (messengers) to nations before you then We seized them with distress and affliction that they might humble themselves.

6:43               Yet why did they not, when Our punishment came to them, humble themselves? But their hearts hardened and the devil made all that they did seem good to them.

6:44               Then, when they neglected what they had been admonished with, We opened for them the gates of all things. Until, when they rejoiced in what they were given, We seized them suddenly; then they were in utter despair!

6:45               So the roots of the people who did wrong were cut off. And praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

6:46               Say: Have you considered that if Allah should take away your hearing and your sight and seal your hearts, who is the god besides Allah that can bring it to you? See how We repeat the messages yet they turn away!

6:47               Say: See, if the punishment of Allah should overtake you suddenly or openly, will any be des­troyed but the wrongdoing people?

6:48               And We do not send messengers but as bearers of good news and warners; then whoever believes and acts aright, they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

6:49               And as for those who reject Our messages, punish­ment will afflict them because they transgressed.

6:50               Say: I do not say to you, I have with me the treasures of Allah, nor do I know the unseen, nor do I say to you that I am an angel; I follow only what is revealed to me. Say: Are the blind and the seeing alike? Do you not then reflect? 

Section 6 (Reward of Believers)

6:51               And warn with it those who fear that they will be gathered to their Lord — there is no protector for them, nor any intercessor besides Him — so that they may keep their duty.

6:52               And do not drive away those who call upon their Lord, morning and evening, desiring only His pleasure. Neither are you accountable for them at all, nor are they accountable for you at all, that you should drive them away and thus be one of the wrongdoers.

6:53               And thus do We try some of them by others so that they say: Are these they upon whom Allah has conferred benefit from among us?  Does not Allah best know the grateful?

6:54               And when those who believe in Our messages come to you, say: Peace be on you, your Lord has ordained mercy on Himself, (so) that if anyone of you does evil in ignorance, then turns after that and acts aright, then He is For­giving, Merciful.

6:55               And thus do We make distinct the messages so that the way of the guilty may become clear.

Section 7 (Divine Judgment)

6:56               Say: I am forbidden to serve those whom you call upon besides Allah. Say: I do not follow your low desires, for then indeed I should go astray and should not be of the guided ones.

6:57               Say: Surely I have manifest proof from my Lord and you call it a lie. I do not have with me (the power to bring) what you seek to hasten. The judgment is only Allah’s. He relates the truth and He is the Best of deciders.

6:58               Say: If I had with me (the power to bring) what you seek to hasten, the matter would have certainly been decided between you and me. And Allah best knows the wrongdoers.

6:59               And with Him are the treasures of the unseen — none knows them but He. And He knows what is in the land and the sea. And no leaf falls but He knows it, nor is there a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything green or dry, but (it is all) in a clear book.

6:60               And He it is Who takes your souls at night, and He knows what you earn by day, then He raises you up in it that an appointed term may be fulfilled. Then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you did.

Section 8 (Divine Judgment)

6:61               And He is the Supreme above His servants, and He sends keepers over you; until when death comes to one of you, Our messengers cause him to die, and they are not remiss.

6:62               Then are they sent back to Allah, their Master, the True one. Now surely His is the judgment and He is swiftest in taking account.

6:63               Say: Who is it that delivers you from the calamities of the land and the sea? (When) you call upon Him, in humility and in secret: If He deliver us from this, we will certainly be of the grateful ones.

6:64               Say: Allah delivers you from this and from every distress, yet you set up partners (with Him).

6:65               Say: He has the power to send on you a punishment from above you or from beneath your feet, or to throw you into confusion, (making you) of different factions, and make some of you taste the violence of others. See how We repeat the messages that they may under­stand!

6:66               And your people call it a lie and it is the Truth. Say: I am not put in charge of you.

6:67               For every prophecy is a term, and you will soon come to know (it).

6:68               And when you see those who talk nonsense about Our messages, withdraw from them until they enter into some other discourse. And if the devil cause you to forget, then do not sit after recollection with the unjust people.

6:69               And those who keep their duty are not accountable for them at all but (theirs) is only to remind; perhaps they may guard against evil.

6:70               And leave those who take their religion for a play and an idle sport, and whom this world’s life has deceived, and remind (people) with this (message) in case a soul be destroyed for what it has earned. It has besides Allah no friend nor intercessor, and though it offer every compensation, it will not be accepted from it. Those are they who are destroyed for what they earn. For them is a drink of boiling water and a painful punishment, because they disbelieved.

Section 9 (Abraham’s Argument for Divine Unity)

6:71               Say: Shall we call, besides Allah, on that which does not benefit us nor harm us, and shall we be turned back on our heels after Allah has guided us? Like one whom the devils cause to follow his low desires, in bewilderment in the earth — he has companions who call him to the right way (saying), Come to us. Say: Surely the guidance of Allah, that is the (true) guidance. And we are commanded to submit to the Lord of the worlds,

6:72               and that you should keep up prayer and keep your duty to Him. And He it is to Whom you shall be gathered.

6:73               And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth with truth. And when He says, Be, it is. His word is the truth and His is the kingdom on the day when the trumpet is blown. The Knower of the unseen and the seen; and He is the Wise, the Aware.

6:74               And when Abraham said to his sire, Āzar: Do you take idols for gods? Surely I see you and your people in manifest error.

6:75               And thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and that he might have certainty.

6:76               So when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star. He said: Is this my Lord?  So when it set, he said: I do not love the setting ones.

6:77               Then when he saw the moon rising, he said: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me, I should certainly be of the people who are in error.

6:78               Then when he saw the sun rising, he said: Is this my Lord? Is this the greatest? So when it set, he said: My people, I am clear of what you set up (with Allah).

6:79               Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him Who originated the heavens and the earth, and I am not of those who set up partners (with Allah).

6:80               And his people disputed with him. He said: Do you dispute with me respecting Allah and He has guided me indeed? And I do not fear in any way those that you set up with Him, unless my Lord please. My Lord comprehends all things in His knowledge. Will you not then be mindful?

6:81               And how should I fear what you have set up (with Him), while you do not fear to set up partners with Allah for which He has sent down to you no authority? Which then of the two parties is surer of security, if you know?

6:82               Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with wrong­doing — for them is security and they go aright.

Section 10 (Prophets among Abraham’s Descendants)

6:83               And this was Our argument which We gave to Abraham against his people. We exalt in degrees whom We please. Surely your Lord is Wise, Knowing.

6:84               And We gave him Isaac and Jacob. Each did We guide; and Noah did We guide before, and of his descendants, David and Solomon and Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron. And thus do We reward those who do good (to others),

6:85               and Zacharias and John and Jesus and Elias; each one (of them) was of the righteous,

6:86               and Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot; and each one (of them) We made to excel the people;

6:87               and some of their fathers and their descendants and their brethren. And We chose them and guided them to the right way.

6:88               This is Allah’s guidance with which He guides whom He pleases of His servants. And if they had set up partners (with Him), all that they did would have been fruitless.

6:89               These are they to whom We gave the Book and authority and prophecy. There­fore if these disbelieve in it, We have indeed entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers in it.

6:90               These are they whom Allah guided, so follow their guidance. Say: I do not ask you for any reward for it. It is nothing but a Reminder for the nations.

Section 11 (Truth of Divine Revelation)

6:91               And they do not honour Allah with the honour due to Him, when they say: Allah has not revealed anything to a mortal. Say: Who revealed the Book which Moses brought, a light and a gui­dance to people — you make it into (scattered) papers, which you show and you conceal much? And you are taught what neither you nor your fathers knew. Say: Allah. Then leave them sporting in their idle talk.

6:92               And this is a Blessed Book We have revealed, verifying what is (already) before it, and that you may warn the mother-town  and those around it. And those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they keep a guard over their prayers.

6:93               And who is more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah, or says, Revelation has been granted to me, while nothing has been revealed to him; and he who says: I can reveal the like of what Allah has revealed?  And if you could see when the wrong­doers are in the agonies of death and the angels stretch forth their hands, (saying): Yield up your souls. This day you are awarded a punishment of disgrace because you spoke against Allah other than truth, and (because) you scorned His messages.

6:94               And cer­tainly you have come to Us one by one as We created you at first, and you have left behind your backs what We gave you. And We do not see with you your intercessors about whom you asserted that they were (Allah’s) partners in respect to you. Certainly the ties between you are now cut off and what you asserted has failed you.

Section 12 (Ultimate Triumph of the Truth)

6:95               Surely Allah causes the grain and the date-stone to germi­nate. He brings forth the living from the dead and He is the bringer forth of the dead from the living. That is Allah. How are you then turned away (from truth)!

6:96               He is the cleaver of the daybreak; and He has made the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knowing.

6:97               And He it is Who has made the stars for you that you might follow the right way by them in the darkness of the land and the sea. Indeed We have made plain the signs for a people who know.

6:98               And He it is Who has brought you into being from a single soul, then there is (for you) an abode and a repository. Indeed We have made plain the signs for a people who under­stand.

6:99               And He it is Who sends down water from the clouds, then We bring forth with it buds of all (plants), then We bring forth from it green (foliage), from which We produce clustered grain; and of the date-palm, of the sheaths of it, come forth clusters (of dates) within reach; and gardens of grapes and the olive and the pomegranate, alike and unlike. Look at the fruit of it when it bears fruit and the ripening of it. Surely there are signs in this for a people who believe!

6:100           And they regard the jinn to be partners with Allah, and He created them, and they falsely attribute to Him sons and daughters without knowledge. Glory be to Him, and supreme­ly exalted is He above what they ascribe (to Him)!

Section 13 (Gradual Progress)

6:101           Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort? And He created everything, and He is the Knower of all things.

6:102           That is Allah, your Lord. There is no god but He, the Creator of all things; there­fore serve Him, and He has charge of all things.

6:103           Vision cannot comprehend Him, and He comprehends (all) vision; and He is the Knower of subtleties, the Aware.

6:104           Clear proofs have indeed come to you from your Lord; so whoever sees, it is for the good of his own soul; and whoever is blind, it is to its harm. And I am not a keeper over you.

6:105           And thus do We repeat the messages, and that they may say, You have studied; and that We may make it clear to a people who know.

6:106           Follow what is revealed to you from your Lord — there is no god but He; and turn away from those who set up partners (with Allah).

6:107           And if Allah had pleased, they would not have set up others (with Him). And We have not appointed you a keeper over them, and you are not in charge of them.

6:108           And do not abuse those whom they call upon besides Allah, in case, exceeding the limits, they abuse Allah through ignorance. Thus to every people have We made their deeds seem good; then to their Lord is their return so He will inform them of what they did.

6:109           And they swear their strongest oaths by Allah that if a sign comes to them they would certainly believe in it. Say: Signs are with Allah. And what should make you know that when they come they do not believe? 

6:110           And We turn their hearts and their sights, just as they did not believe in it the first time; and We leave them in their inordinacy, blindly wandering on.

Part 8

Section 14 (Idolaters’ Opposition)

6:111           And even if We send down to them the angels and the dead speak to them and We bring together all things before them, they would not believe unless Allah please, but most of them are ignorant.

6:112           And thus did We make for every prophet an enemy, the devils from among the people and the jinn, some of them inspiring others with gilded speech to deceive (them). And if your Lord pleased, they would not do it, so leave them alone with what they forge —

6:113           And that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to it, and that they may be pleased with it, and that they may earn what they are earning.

6:114           Shall I then seek a judge other than Allah, when He it is Who has sent down to you the Book fully explained. And those whom We have given the Book know that it is revealed by your Lord with truth, so do not be one of the disputers.

6:115           And the word of your Lord has been accomplished truly and justly. There is none who can change His words; and He is the Hearer, the Knower.

6:116           And if you obey most of those in the earth, they will lead you astray from Allah’s way. They follow nothing but con­jecture, and they only lie.

6:117           Surely your Lord — He knows best who goes astray from His way, and He knows best the guided ones.

6:118           Eat, then, of that on which Allah’s name has been men­tioned, if you are believers in His messages.

6:119           And what reason have you that you should not eat of that on which Allah’s name is mentioned, when He has already made plain to you what He has forbidden to you — except what you are compelled to. And surely many lead (people) astray by their low desires through ignorance. Surely your Lord — He best knows the transgressors.

6:120           And avoid open sins and secret ones. Surely they who earn sin will be rewarded for what they have earned.

6:121           And do not eat of that on which Allah’s name has not been mentioned, and that is surely a transgression. And certainly the devils inspire their friends to contend with you; and if you obey them, you will surely be those who set up partners (with Allah).

Section 15 (The Chief Opponents)

6:122           Is he who was dead, then We raised him to life and made for him a light by which he walks among the people, like him whose likeness is that of one in darkness from which he cannot come forth?  Thus their doings are made to seem good to the dis­believers.

6:123           And thus have We made in every town the leaders of its guilty ones, that they may make plans in it. And they plan only against themselves, and they do not perceive.

6:124           And when a message comes to them they say: We will not believe till we are given the like of what Allah’s messengers are given. Allah best knows where to place His message. Humiliation from Allah and severe punish­ment will surely befall the guilty for their planning.

6:125           So whomsoever Allah intends to guide, He expands his breast for Islam, and whomsoever He intends to leave in error, He makes his breast close (and) narrow as though he were ascending upwards. Thus does Allah lay uncleanness on those who do not believe.

6:126           And this is the path of your Lord, (a) straight (path). Indeed We have made the messages clear for a people who are mindful.

6:127           Theirs is the abode of peace with their Lord, and He is their Friend because of what they do.

6:128           And on the day when He will gather them all together: O assembly of jinn, you took away a great part of the people. And their friends from among the people will say: Our Lord, some of us profited by others and we have reached our appointed term which You appointed for us. He will say: The Fire is your abode — you shall abide in it, except as Allah please. Surely your Lord is Wise, Knowing.

6:129           And thus do We make some of the wrong­doers to befriend others on account of what they earn.

Section 16 (Evils of Idolatry)

6:130           O community of jinn and people, did not messengers come to you from among you, relating to you My messages and warning you of the meeting of this day of yours?  They will say: We bear witness against ourselves. And this world’s life deceived them, and they will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers.

6:131           This is because your Lord would not destroy towns unjustly while their people are negligent.

6:132           And for all are degrees according to their doings. And your Lord is not heedless of what they do.

6:133           And your Lord is the Self-sufficient One, the Lord of mercy. If He please, He may remove you, and make whom He pleases successors after you, just as He raised you up from the offspring of other people.

6:134           Surely what you are pro­mised will come to pass, and you cannot escape (it).

6:135           Say: My people, act according to your ability, I too am acting; so you will soon come to know for whom is the (good) end of the abode. Surely the wrong­doers will not succeed.

6:136           And they set apart a portion for Allah out of what He has created of crops and cattle, and say: This is for Allah — so they assert — and this for our associate-gods. Then that which is for their associate-gods does not reach Allah, and that which is for Allah reaches their associate-gods. Evil is what they judge.

6:137           And thus their associate-gods have made it seem good to many idolaters the killing of their children, that they may cause them to perish and obscure for them their religion. And if Allah had pleased, they would not have done it, so leave them alone with what they forge.

6:138           And they say: Such and such cattle and crops are prohi­bited — none shall eat them except such as we please — so they assert — and cattle whose backs are forbidden, and cattle on which they would not mention Allah’s name  — forging a lie against Him. He will recompense them for what they forge.

6:139           And they say: What is in the wombs of such and such cattle is reserved for our males, and forbidden to our wives, and if it be stillborn, they are partners in it. He will reward them for their (false) attribution. Surely He is Wise, Knowing.

6:140           They are losers indeed who kill their children foolishly without knowledge, and forbid what Allah has provided for them, forging a lie against Allah. They indeed go astray, and are not guided.

Section 17 (Idolaters’ Self-imposed Prohibitions)

6:141           And He it is Who produces gardens, trellised and untrellised, and palms and seed-produce of which the fruits are of various sorts, and olives and pomegranates like and unlike. Eat of its fruit when it bears fruit, and pay the due of it on the day of its reaping, and do not be extravagant. Surely He does not love the extravagant;

6:142           and of the cattle (He has created) some for burden and some for slaughter. Eat of what Allah has given you and do not follow the footsteps of the devil. Surely he is your open enemy —

6:143           eight in pairs — of the sheep two and of the goats two. Say: Has He forbidden the two males or the two females or what the wombs of the two females contain? Inform me with know­ledge, if you are truthful;

6:144           and of the camels two and of the cows two. Say: Has He forbidden the two males or the two females or what the wombs of the two females contain? Or were you witnesses when Allah enjoined you this? Who is then more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah to lead people astray without know­ledge? Surely Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

Section 18 (Prohibited Foods)

6:145           Say: I do not find in what is revealed to me anything forbidden for an eater to eat of, except if it is what dies of itself, or blood poured forth, or flesh of swine — for that surely is unclean — or what is a transgression, other than the name of Allah having been invoked on it. But whoever is driven by necessity, not desiring nor exceeding the limit, then surely your Lord is For­giving, Merciful.

6:146           And to those who are Jews We forbade every animal having claws, and We forbade them the fat of oxen and sheep, except such as was on their backs or the entrails or what was mixed with bones. This was a punishment We gave them on account of their rebellion, and We are surely Truthful.

6:147           But if they reject you, then say: Your Lord is the Lord of all-encompass­ing mercy; and His punishment cannot be averted from the guilty people.

6:148           Those who set up partners (with Allah) say: If Allah pleased we would not have set up partners (with Him) nor our fathers, nor would we have made anything unlawful. Thus did those before them reject (the truth) until they tasted Our punish­ment. Say: Have you any knowledge so you would bring it forth to us? You only follow a conjecture and you only tell lies.

6:149           Say: Then Allah’s is the conclusive argument; so if He had pleased, He would have guided you all.

6:150           Say: Bring your witnesses who bear witness that Allah forbade this. If they bear witness, then do not bear witness with them. And do not follow the low desires of those who reject Our messages and those who do not believe in the Hereafter, and they make (others) equal with their Lord.

Section 19 (Guiding Rules of Life)

6:151           Say: Come! I will recite what your Lord has forbidden to you: Set up no partner with Him, and do good to parents, nor kill your children for (fear of) poverty — We provide for you and for them, nor go near to indecencies, open or secret, nor kill the soul which Allah has made sacred except in the course of justice. This He enjoins upon you that you may understand.

6:152           And do not app­roach the property of the orphan except in the best manner, until he attains his maturity. And give full measure and weight with equity — We do not impose on any soul a duty beyond its ability. And when you speak, be just, even (against) a relative. And fulfil Allah’s covenant. This He enjoins on you that you may be mind­ful;

6:153           and (know) that this is My path, the right one, so follow it, and do not follow (other) ways, for they will lead you away from His way. This He enjoins on you that you may keep your duty.

6:154           Again, We gave the Book to Moses to complete (Our blessings) on him who would do good, and making plain all things and a guidance and a mercy, so that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord.

Section 20 (The Goal for the Faithful)

6:155           And this is a Book We have revealed, full of blessings; so follow it and keep your duty that mercy may be shown to you,

6:156           in case you say that the Book was revealed only to two parties before us and we were truly unaware of what they read,

6:157           or, you say: If the Book had been revealed to us, we would have been better guided than they. So indeed clear proof has come to you from your Lord, and guidance and mercy. Who is then more unjust than he who rejects Allah’s messages and turns away from them? We reward those who turn away from Our messages with an evil punishment because they turned away.

6:158           They only wait that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come. On the day when some of the signs of your Lord come, its faith will not benefit a soul which did not believe before, nor earned good through its faith. Say: Wait; we too are waiting.

6:159           As for those who split up their religion and became sects, you have no concern with them. Their affair is only with Allah, then He will inform them of what they did.

6:160           Whoever brings a good deed will have tenfold like it, and whoever brings an evil deed, will be recompensed only with the like of it, and they shall not be wronged.

6:161           Say: As for me, my Lord has guided me to the right path — a right religion, the faith of Abraham, the upright one, and he was not of those who set up partners (with Allah).

6:162           Say: My prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are surely for Allah, the Lord of the worlds —

6:163           no partner has He. And this am I commanded, and I am the first of those who submit.

6:164           Say: Shall I seek a Lord other than Allah, while He is the Lord of all things? And no soul earns (evil) but against itself. Nor does a bearer of burden bear another’s burden. Then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed.

6:165           And He it is Who has made you successors in the land and exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by what He has given you. Surely your Lord is Quick in retribution, and He is surely the Forgiving, the Merciful.

 

Chapter 7

Al-A‘rāf: The Elevated Places

Introduction by the translator

The title of this chapter is taken from the mention of The Elevated Places (v. 46) on which stand the perfect righteous servants of Allah. The main theme of this chapter is the truth of Divine revelation. It illustrates this by referring to the histories of several prophets, warning that the opponents of the Holy Prophet would meet the same fate as the opponents of the earlier prophets if they did not mend their ways. The chapter goes on to relate the history of Moses, as the Prophet Muhammad appeared in the likeness of Moses accor­d­ing to prophecies in the Torah. Towards the end, it gives the essence of the last and present chapter. This chapter was revealed at Makkah, just prior to the Emigration of the Holy Prophet.

Section 1 (Opponents’ Doom)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

7:1                   I, Allah, am the Best Knower, the Truthful.

7:2                   A Book revealed to you — so let there be no worry in your heart con­cerning it  — that you may warn with it, and a Reminder to the believers.

7:3                   Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow besides Him any guardians; little mindful are you!

7:4                   And how many a town have We destroyed! So Our punish­ment came to it by night or while they slept at midday.

7:5                   Yet their cry, when Our punishment came to them, was nothing but that they said: Surely we were wrongdoers.

7:6                   Then certainly We shall question those to whom messengers were sent, and We shall ques­tion the messengers,

7:7                   then surely We shall recount to them with knowledge, and We are never absent.

7:8                   And the judging on that day will be just; so as for those whose good deeds are heavy, they are the successful.

7:9                   And as for those whose good deeds are light, those are they who ruined their souls because they disbelieved in Our messages.

7:10               And certainly We established you in the earth and made in it means of livelihood for you; little thanks you give!

Section 2 (The Devil’s Opposition to Man)

7:11               And We indeed created you, then We fashioned you, then We said to the angels: Be submissive to Adam. So they sub­mitted, but not Iblīs; he was not of those who submitted.

7:12               He said: What hindered you from submitting when I commanded you? He said: I am better than he; You have created me of fire, while him You did create of dust.

7:13               He said: Then get forth from this (state), for it is not for you to behave proudly in it. Go forth, therefore, surely you are a degraded one.

7:14               He said: Grant me respite till the day when they are raised.

7:15               He said: Surely you are granted respite.

7:16               He said: As You have judged me to be in error, I will certainly lie in wait for them in Your straight path,

7:17               then I shall certainly come upon them from in front of them and from behind them, and from their right and from their left; and You will not find most of them thankful.

7:18               He said: Get out of it, despised, driven away. Whoever of them will follow you, I will certainly fill hell with you all.

7:19               And (We said): O Adam, dwell you and your wife in the garden, and eat from wherever you wish, but do not go near this tree or you would be from among the unjust.

7:20               But the devil made an evil suggestion to them that he might make manifest to them their shame that had been hidden from them, and he said: Your Lord has only forbidden you this tree that you may not become angels or become immortals.

7:21               And he swore to them both: Surely I am a sincere adviser to you —

7:22               thus he caused them to fall by deceit. So when they had tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they both began to cover themselves with the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them: Did I not forbid you that tree, and say to you that the devil is surely your open enemy?

7:23               They said: Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves; and if You do not forgive us and have mercy on us, we shall certainly be from among the losers.

7:24               He said: Go forth — some of you are enemies of others. And there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

7:25               He said: In it shall you live, and in it shall you die, and from it shall you be raised.

Section 3 (Warning against the Devil’s Insinuations)

7:26               O children of Adam, We have indeed sent down to you clothing to cover your shame and (clothing) for beauty; and clothing that guards against evil — that is the best. This is of the messages of Allah that they may be mindful.

7:27               O children of Adam, do not let the devil seduce you, as he expelled your parents from the garden, pulling off from them both their clothing that he might show them their shame. He surely sees you, he as well as his company, from where you do not see them. Surely We have made the devils to be the friends of those who do not believe.

7:28               And when they commit an indecency they say: We found our fathers doing this, and Allah has commanded us to do it. Say: Surely Allah does not command indecency. Do you say of Allah what you do not know?

7:29               Say: My Lord commands (the doing of) justice. And set upright your faces at every time of prayer and call on Him, being sincere to Him in obedience. As He brought you into being, so shall you return.

7:30               Some has He guided, and others — error is justly their due. Surely they took the devils for friends instead of Allah, and they think that they are rightly guided.

7:31               O children of Adam, attend to your adornment at every time of prayer, and eat and drink and do not be extravagant; surely He does not love the extravagant.

Section 4 (Messengers sent for Uplift of Humanity)

7:32               Say: Who has forbidden the adornment of Allah, which He has brought forth for His servants, and the good provisions? Say: These are for the believers in the life of this world, purely (theirs) on the day of Resurrection. Thus do We make the mess­ages clear for a people who know.

7:33               Say: My Lord forbids only indecencies, such of them as are apparent and such as are con­cealed, and sin and unjust rebellion, and that you set up with Allah partners for which He has sent down no authority, and that you say of Allah what you do not know.

7:34               And every nation has a term; so when its term comes they cannot postpone it an hour, nor can they bring it forward.

7:35               O children of Adam, if messengers come to you from among you relating to you My messages, then whoever guards against evil and acts aright — they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

7:36               And those who reject Our messages and turn away from them haughtily — these are the companions of the Fire; they shall abide in it.

7:37               Who is then more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah or rejects His messages? These — their portion of the Book shall reach them; until when Our messengers come to them caus­ing them to die, they say: Where are those you used to call upon besides Allah? They would say: They are gone away from us. And they shall bear witness against themselves that they were dis­belie­vers.

7:38               He will say: Enter into the Fire among the nations of jinn and people that have passed away before you. Every time a nation enters, it curses its sister; until when they all follow one another into it, the last of them will say with regard to the first of them: Our Lord, these led us astray, so give them a double punishment of the Fire. He will say: Each one has double but you do not know.

7:39               And the first of them will say to the last of them: You have no preference over us, so taste the punishment for what you earned.

Section 5 (Those who accept the Message)

7:40               Those who reject Our messages and turn away from them haughtily, the doors of heaven will not be opened for them, nor will they enter the Garden until the camel pass through the eye of the needle. And thus do We reward the guilty.

7:41               They shall have a bed of hell and over them coverings (of it). And thus do We recom­pense the wrongdoers.

7:42               And as for those who believe and do good — We do not impose on any soul a duty beyond its scope — they are the owners of the Garden; in it they abide.

7:43               And We shall remove whatever of bitterness is in their hearts — rivers flow be­neath them. And they say: All praise is due to Allah, Who guided us to this! And we would not have found the way if Allah had not guided us. Certainly the messengers of our Lord brought the truth. And it will be cried out to them: This is the Garden which you are made to inherit for what you did.

7:44               And the owners of the Garden call out to the companions of the Fire: We have found what our Lord promised us to be true; have you, too, found what your Lord promised to be true? They will say: Yes. Then a crier will cry out among them: The curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers,

7:45               who hinder (people) from Allah’s way and seek to make it crooked, and they are disbelievers in the Here­after.

7:46               And between them is a veil. And on the Elevated Places are men who know all by their marks. And they call out to the owners of the Garden: Peace be on you! They have not yet entered it, though they hope.

7:47               And when their eyes are turned towards the companions of the Fire, they say: Our Lord, do not place us with the unjust people.

Section 6 (Helplessness of Opponents)

7:48               And the owners of the Elevated Places call out to men whom they recognize by their marks, saying: Of no avail were to you your amassings and your arrogance.

7:49               Are these they about whom you swore that Allah would not bestow mercy on them? Enter the Garden; you have no fear, nor shall you grieve.

7:50               And the companions of the Fire call out to the owners of the Garden: Pour on us some water or some of what Allah has provided for you. They say: Surely Allah has forbidden them both to the disbelievers,

7:51               who take their religion for an idle sport and a play, and this world’s life deceives them. So this day We shall forsake them, as they neglected the meeting of this day of theirs, and as they denied Our messages.

7:52               And certainly We have brought them a Book which We make clear with knowledge, a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.

7:53               Do they wait only for its final sequel? On the day when its final sequel comes, those who neglected it before will say: Indeed the messengers of our Lord brought the truth. Are there any intercessors on our behalf so that they should intercede for us? Or could we be sent back so that we should do (deeds) other than those which we did? Indeed they have lost their souls, and what they forged has failed them.

Section 7 (The Righteous will prosper)

7:54               Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and He is established on the Throne of Power. He makes the night cover the day, which it pursues incessantly. And (He created) the sun and the moon and the stars, made subservient by His command. Surely His is the creation and the command. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of the worlds!

7:55               Call on your Lord humbly and in secret. Surely He does not love the transgressors.

7:56               And do not make mischief in the earth after its reformation, and call on Him, fearing and hoping. Surely the mercy of Allah is near to the doers of good.

7:57               And He it is Who sends forth the winds bearing good news before His mercy; till, when they bear a laden cloud, We drive it to a dead land, then We send down water on it, then bring forth thereby fruits of all kinds. Thus do We bring forth the dead that you may be mindful.

7:58               And the good land — its vegetation comes forth (abundantly) by the permission of its Lord. And that which is inferior — (its vegetation) comes forth but scantily. Thus do We repeat the messages for a people who give thanks.

Section 8 (Noah)

7:59               Certainly We sent Noah to his people, so he said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. Indeed I fear for you the punishment of a grievous day.

7:60               The chiefs of his people said: Surely we see you in clear error.

7:61               He said: My people, there is no error in me, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds.

7:62               I deliver to you the messages of my Lord, and I offer you good advice, and I know from Allah what you do not know.

7:63               Do you wonder that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from among you, that he may warn you and that you may guard against evil, and that mercy may be shown to you?

7:64               But they called him a liar, so We delivered him and those with him in the ark, and We drowned those who rejected Our messages. Surely they were a blind people!

Section 9 (Hūd)

7:65               And to Ād (We sent) their brother Hūd. He said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. Will you not then guard against evil?

7:66               The chiefs of those who disbelieved from among his people said: Certainly we see you in folly, and we certainly think you to be a liar.

7:67               He said: My people, there is no folly in me, but I am a messenger of the Lord of the worlds.

7:68               I deliver to you the messages of my Lord and I am a faithful adviser to you.

7:69               Do you wonder that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from among you that he may warn you? And remember when He made you successors after Noah’s people and increased you in excellence of make. So remember the boun­ties of Allah, that you may be successful.

7:70               They said: Have you come to us that we may serve Allah alone, and give up what our fathers used to serve? Then bring us what you threaten us with, if you are truthful.

7:71               He said: Indeed uncleanness and wrath from your Lord have come upon you. Do you dispute with me about names which you and your fathers have named?  Allah has not sent any authority for them. So wait; I too am waiting along with you.

7:72               So We delivered him and those with him by mercy from Us, and We cut off the roots of those who rejected Our messages and were not believers.

Section 10 (Sālih and Lot)

7:73               And to Thamūd (We sent) their brother Sālih. He said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. Clear proof has indeed come to you from your Lord. This is Allah’s she-camel — a sign for you — so leave her alone to pasture in Allah’s earth, and do her no harm or a painful punishment will afflict you.

7:74               And remember when He made you successors after Ād and settled you in the land — you make mansions on its plains and carve out houses in the mountains. So remember Allah’s bounties and do not act corruptly in the land, making mischief.

7:75               The arro­gant chiefs of his people said to those who were weak, to those who believed from among them: Do you know that Sālih is one sent by his Lord? They said: Surely we are believers in that with which he has been sent.

7:76               Those who were arrogant said: Surely we are disbelievers in what you believe.

7:77               Then they hamstrung the she-camel and revolted against their Lord’s commandment, and said: Sālih, bring us what you threaten us with, if you are one of the messengers.

7:78               So the earth­quake seized them, and they were motionless bodies in their abodes.

7:79               So he turned away from them and said: My people, indeed I delivered to you the message of my Lord and gave you good advice, but you do not love good advisers.

7:80               And (We sent) Lot, when he said to his people: Do you commit foul deeds which no one in the world did before you?

7:81               Surely you come to males with lust instead of females. Indeed, you are a people exceeding bounds.

7:82               And the answer of his people was only that they said: Turn them out of your town; surely they are a people who aspire to purity!

7:83               So We delivered him and his followers, except his wife — she was among those who remained behind.

7:84               And We rained upon them a rain. See, then, what was the end of the guilty!

Section 11 (Shuaib)

7:85               And to Midian (We sent) their brother Shuaib. He said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. Clear proof indeed has come to you from your Lord, so give full measure and weight and do not diminish to people their things, nor make mischief in the land after its reform. This is better for you, if you are believers.

7:86               Nor lie in wait on every road, threat­en­ing and turning away from Allah’s way him who believes in Him and seeking to make it crooked. And remember when you were few, then He multiplied you, and see what was the end of the mis­chief-makers!

7:87               And if there are some of you who believe in what I am sent with, and others who do not believe, then wait patiently till Allah judges between us; and He is the Best of judges.

Part 9

7:88               The arrogant chiefs of his people said: We will certainly turn you out, Shuaib, and those who believe with you from our town, or you shall come back to our religion. He said: Even though we dislike (it)?

7:89               Indeed we should have forged a lie against Allah, if we go back to your religion after Allah has deli­vered us from it. And it is not for us to go back to it, unless Allah our Lord please. Our Lord comprehends all things in His know­ledge. In Allah do we trust. Our Lord, decide between us and our people with truth, and You are the Best of deciders.

7:90               And the chiefs of his people, who disbelieved, said: If you follow Shuaib, you are surely losers.

7:91               So the earthquake overtook them, and they were motion­less bodies in their homes —

7:92               Those who called Shuaib a liar were as though they had never dwelt there — those who called Shuaib a liar, they were the losers.

7:93               So he turned away from them and said: My people, indeed I delivered to you the messages of my Lord and I gave you good advice; how, then, should I be sorry for a disbelieving people?

Section 12 (Makkans warned of Punishment)

7:94               And We did not send a prophet to a town but We seized its people with distress and affliction that they might humble them­selves.

7:95               Then We changed the evil for good, till they became affluent and said: Distress and happiness did indeed touch our fathers. So We took them by surprise while they did not perceive.

7:96               And if the people of the towns had believed and kept their duty, We would certainly have opened for them blessings from the heavens and the earth. But they rejected, so We seized them for what they earned.

7:97               Are the people of the towns, then, secure from Our punishment coming to them by night while they sleep?

7:98               Or, are the people of the towns secure from Our punishment coming to them in the morning while they play?

7:99               Are they secure from Allah’s plan? But none feels secure from Allah’s plan except the people who perish.

Section 13 (Moses sent to Pharaoh with Signs)

7:100           Is it not clear to those who inherit the earth after its (former) residents that, if We please, We would afflict them for their sins, and seal their hearts so they would not hear?

7:101           Such were the towns some of whose news We have related to you. And certainly their messengers came to them with clear arguments, but they would not believe what they had rejected before. Thus does Allah seal the hearts of the disbelievers.

7:102           And We did not find in most of them (faithfulness to) covenant; and We found most of them to be transgressors.

7:103           Then, after them, We sent Moses with Our messages to Pharaoh and his chiefs, but they disbelieved them. See, then, what was the end of the mischief-makers!

7:104           And Moses said: O Pharaoh, surely I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds,

7:105           worthy of not saying anything about Allah except the truth. I have come to you indeed with clear proof from your Lord, so let the Children of Israel go with me.

7:106           He said: If you have come with a sign, produce it, if you are truthful.

7:107           So he threw down his staff, then lo! it was an obvious snake.

7:108           And he drew forth his hand, and lo! it was white to the onlookers.

Section 14 (Pharaoh summons Enchanters)

7:109           The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said: Surely this is a skilful enchanter!

7:110           He intends to turn you out of your land. (Pharaoh said:) What do you advise?

7:111           They said: Put him off and his brother, and send heralds into the cities,

7:112           to bring to you every skilful enchanter.

7:113           And the enchanters came to Pharaoh, saying: We must surely have a reward if we prevail.

7:114           He said: Yes, and you shall certainly be among those who are near (to me).

7:115           They said: Moses, will you throw, or shall we (be the first to) throw?

7:116           He said: You throw. So when they threw, they decei­ved the people’s eyes and overawed them, and they produced a mighty enchantment.

7:117           And We revealed to Moses: Throw down your staff. Then lo! it swallowed up their lies.

7:118           So the truth was established, and what they did became null.

7:119           There they were defeated, and they went back humiliated.

7:120           And the enchanters fell down prostrate —

7:121           They said: We believe in the Lord of the worlds,

7:122           the Lord of Moses and Aaron.

7:123           Pharaoh said: You believe in Him before I give you per­mission! Surely this is a plot which you have plotted in the city, to turn out of it its people, but you shall know!

7:124           I shall certainly cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, then I shall crucify you all together!

7:125           They said: Surely to our Lord do we return.

7:126           And you take revenge on us only because we believed in the messages of our Lord when they came to us. Our Lord, pour out on us patience and cause us to die in submission (to You)! 

Section 15 (Persecution of Israelites continues)

7:127           And the chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said: Will you leave Moses and his people to make mischief in the land and forsake you and your gods? He said: We will kill their sons and spare their women, and surely we are dominant over them.

7:128           Moses said to his people: Ask help from Allah and be patient. Surely the land is Allah’s — He gives it for an inheritance to such of His servants as He pleases. And the end is for those who keep their duty.

7:129           They said: We were persecuted before you came to us and since you have come to us. He said: It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you rulers in the land, then He will see how you act.

Section 16 (Moses shows more Signs)

7:130           And certainly We overtook Pharaoh’s people with droughts and shortage of fruits that they might be mindful.

7:131           But when good befell them they said: This is due to us. And when evil afflicted them, they attributed it to the ill-luck of Moses and those with him. Surely their evil fortune is only from Allah, but most of them do not know.

7:132           And they said: Whatever sign you may bring us to charm us with it — we shall not believe in you.

7:133           So We sent upon them widespread death, and the locusts and the lice and the frogs and the blood — clear signs. But they behaved haughtily and they were a guilty people.

7:134           And when the plague fell upon them, they said: Moses, pray for us to your Lord as He has made promise with you. If you remove the plague from us, we will certainly believe in you and will let the Children of Israel go with you.

7:135           But when We re­moved the plague from them till a term which they should attain, lo! they broke (their promise).

7:136           So We exacted retribution from them and drowned them in the sea, because they rejected Our signs and were heedless of them.

7:137           And We made the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern lands and the western ones which We had blessed. And the good word of your Lord was fulfilled in the Children of Israel — because of their patience. And We destroyed what Pharaoh and his people had produced and what they had built.

7:138           And We took the Children of Israel across the sea. Then they came to a people who were devoted to their idols. They said: Moses, make for us a god as they have gods. He said: Surely you are an ignorant people!

7:139           (As to) these, what they are engaged in shall be destroyed and what they do is futile.

7:140           He said: Shall I seek for you a god other than Allah, while He has made you excel (all) created things?

7:141           And when We delivered you from Pharaoh’s people, who subjected you to severe torment, killing your sons and sparing your women. And in it there was a great trial from your Lord.

Section 17 (Moses receives the Law)

7:142           And We appointed for Moses thirty nights, and completed them with ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was complete forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron: Take my place among my people, and act well and do not follow the way of the mischief-makers.

7:143           And when Moses came at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said: My Lord, show me (Yourself) so that I may look at You. He said: You cannot see Me, but look at the mountain; if it remains firm in its place, then will you see Me. So when his Lord manifested His glory to the mountain, He made it crumble and Moses fell down fainting. Then when he recovered, he said: Glory be to You! I turn to You, and I am the first of the believers.

7:144           He said: O Moses, surely I have chosen you above the people by My messages and My words. So take hold of what I give you and be of the grateful ones.

7:145           And We ordained for him in the tablets admonition of every kind and clear explanation of all things. So take hold of these (teachings) with firmness and command your people to take hold of the best of these. I shall show you the abode of the trans­gressors.

7:146           I shall turn away from My messages those who are unjustly proud in the earth. And if they see every sign, they will not believe in it; and if they see the way of rectitude, they do not take it for a way; and if they see the way of error, they take it for a way. This is because they reject Our messages and are heedless of them.

7:147           And those who reject Our messages and the meeting of the Hereafter — their deeds are fruitless. Can they be rewarded except for what they do?

Section 18 (Israelites worship a Calf)

7:148           And Moses’ people made of their ornaments a calf after him — a (lifeless) body, having a lowing sound. Could they not see that it did not speak to them, nor guided them in the way? They took it (for worship) and they were unjust.

7:149           And when they repented and saw that they had gone astray, they said: If our Lord have not mercy on us and forgive us, we shall certainly be losers.

7:150           And when Moses returned to his people, angry, grieved, he said: Evil is what you have done after me! Did you hasten on the judgment of your Lord? And he threw down the tablets and seized his brother by the head, dragging him towards him. (Aaron) said: Son of my mother, the people reckoned me weak and had almost killed me. So do not make the enemies to rejoice over me and do not count me among the unjust people.

7:151           (Moses) said: My Lord, forgive me and my brother, and admit us to Your mercy, and You are the most Merciful of those who show mercy.

Section 19 (The Torah and the Prophet’s Advent)

7:152           Those who took the calf (for a god) — wrath from their Lord, and disgrace in this world’s life, will surely come upon them. And thus do We recompense those who invent lies.

7:153           And those who do evil deeds, then repent after that and believe — your Lord after that is surely Forgiving, Merciful.

7:154           And when Moses’ anger calmed down, he took up the tablets; and in the writing thereof was guidance and mercy for those who fear their Lord.

7:155           And Moses chose of his people seventy men for Our appointment. So when the earthquake struck them, he said: My Lord, if You had pleased, You would have destroyed them before and myself (too). Will You destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? It is only Your trial. You cause to perish by it whom You please and guide whom You please. You are our Pro­tector, so forgive us and have mercy on us, and You are the Best of those who forgive.

7:156           And ordain for us good in this world’s life and in the Hereafter, for surely we turn to You. He said: I afflict with My punishment whom I please, and My mercy encom­passes all things. So I ordain it for those who keep their duty and give the due charity, and those who believe in Our messages  —

7:157           those who follow the Messenger-Prophet, the Ummī, whom they find mentioned in the Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them good and forbids them evil, and makes lawful to them the good things and prohibits for them impure things, and removes from them their burden and the shackles which were on them. So those who believe in him and honour him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him — these are the successful.

Section 20 (Divine Favours on Israelites)

7:158           Say: O mankind, surely I am the Messenger of Allah to you all, of Him Whose is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. There is no god but He; He gives life and causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummī Prophet who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him so that you may be guided aright.

7:159           And of Moses’ people is a party who guide with truth and with it they do justice.

7:160           And We divided them into twelve tribes, as nations. And We revealed to Moses when his people asked him for water: March on to the rock with your staff; so out flowed from it twelve springs. Each tribe knew its drinking-place. And We made the clouds to give shade over them and We sent to them manna and quails. Eat of the good things We have given you. And they did not do Us any harm, but they wronged their own souls.

7:161           And when it was said to them: Dwell in this town and eat from it wherever you wish, and make petition for forgiveness, and enter the gate submissively, We shall forgive you your wrongs. We shall give more to the doers of good.

7:162           But those who were unjust among them changed it for a word other than that which they were told, so We sent upon them a pestilence from heaven for their wrongdoing.

Section 21 (Israelites’ Transgressions)

7:163           And ask them about the town which stood by the sea. When they violated the Sabbath, when their fish came to them on their Sabbath day on the surface, and when it was not their Sabbath they did not come to them. Thus did We try them because they transgressed.

7:164           And when some of them said: Why do you preach to a people whom Allah would destroy or whom He would punish with a severe punishment? They said: To be free from blame before your Lord, and that perhaps they may guard against evil.

7:165           So when they neglected what they had been reminded of, We delivered those who forbade evil and We overtook those who were wrongdoers with an evil punishment because they trans­gressed.

7:166           So when they revoltingly persisted in what they had been forbidden, We said to them: Be (as) apes, despised and hated.

7:167           And when your Lord declared that He would send against them to the day of Resurrection those who would subject them to severe torment. Surely your Lord is Quick in retribution; and surely He is Forgiving, Merciful.

7:168           And We divided them in the earth into (different) groups — some of them are righteous and some of them are otherwise. And We tried them with blessings and misfortunes that they might turn.

7:169           Then after them came an evil generation who inherited the Book, taking the frail goods of this low life and saying: It will be forgiven us. And if (more) such good came to them, they would take it (too). Was not a promise taken from them in the Book that they would not speak anything about Allah but the truth? And they study what is in it. And the abode of the Hereafter is better for those who keep their duty. Do you not then understand?

7:170           And as for those who hold fast by the Book and keep up prayer — surely We do not waste the reward of the reformers.

7:171           And when We shook the mountain over them as if it were a covering, and they thought that it was going to fall down upon them: Hold on firmly what We have given you, and bear in mind what is in it, so that you may guard against evil.

Section 22 (Evidence of Divine Impress on Man’s Nature)

7:172           And when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their descendants, and made them bear witness about themselves: Am I not your Lord? They said: Yes, we bear witness. In case you should say on the day of Resurrec­tion: We were unaware of this,

7:173           or you should say: Only our fathers set up partners (with Allah) before (us), and we were (their) descendants after them. Will You destroy us for what liars did?

7:174           And thus do We make the messages clear, and that perhaps they may return.

7:175           And recite to them the news of him to whom We give Our messages, but he withdraws himself from them, so the devil follows him up, and he is of those who perish.

7:176           And if We had pleased, We would have exalted him thereby; but he clings to the earth and follows his low desire. His parable is as the parable of the dog — if you drive him away, he lolls out his tongue, and if you leave him alone, he lolls out his tongue. Such is the parable of the people who reject Our messages. So relate the narrative that they may reflect.

7:177           Evil is the likeness of the people who reject Our messages and wrong their own souls.

7:178           He whom Allah guides is on the right way; and he whom He leaves in error — they are the losers.

7:179           And certainly We have created for hell many of the jinn and the people — they have hearts with which they do not under­stand, and they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do not hear. They are as cattle; rather, they are more astray. These are the heedless ones.

7:180           And Allah’s are the best names, so call on Him thereby  and leave alone those who violate the sanctity of His names. They will be recompensed for what they do.

7:181           And of those whom We have created is a comm­unity who guide with the truth and with it they do justice.

Section 23 (The Coming of the Doom)

7:182           And those who reject Our messages — We lead them (to destruction) step by step from where they do not know.

7:183           And I grant them respite. Surely My scheme is effective.

7:184           Do they not reflect (that) there is no madness in their companion? He is only a plain warner.

7:185           Do they not consider the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what things Allah has created, and that it may be that their doom has drawn near? In what announcement after this will they then believe?

7:186           Whomsoever Allah leaves in error, there is no guide for him. And He leaves them alone in their inordinacy, blindly wandering on.

7:187           They ask you about the Hour, when will it take place? Say: Its knowledge is with my Lord only. None but He will mani­fest it at its time. It is momentous in the heavens and the earth. It will not come to you but suddenly. They ask you as if you could find out about it (by effort). Say: Its knowledge is with Allah only, but most people do not know.

7:188           Say: I do not control benefit nor harm for myself except as Allah please. And if I had known the unseen, I should have much of good, and no evil would touch me. I am but a warner and the giver of good news to a people who believe.

Section 24 (The Final Word)

7:189           He it is Who created you from a single soul, and of the same did He make his mate, that he might find comfort in her. So when he covers her she bears a light burden, then moves about with it. Then when it grows heavy, they both call upon Allah, their Lord: If You give us a good one, we shall certainly be grateful.

7:190           But when He gives them a good one, they set up with Him part­ners in what He has given them. Supremely exalted is Allah above what they set up as partners (with Him).

7:191           Do they set up (with Him) that which has not created anything, while they are them­selves created?

7:192           And they cannot give them help, nor can they help themselves.

7:193           And if you invite them to guidance, they will not follow you. It is the same to you whether you invite them or you are silent.

7:194           Those whom you call on besides Allah are slaves like your­selves; so call on them, then let them answer you, if you are truthful.

7:195           Do they have feet with which they walk, or do they have hands with which they hold, or do they have eyes with which they see, or do they have ears with which they hear? Say: Call upon your associate-gods then plot against me and give me no respite.

7:196           Surely my Friend is Allah, Who revealed the Book, and He befriends the righteous.

7:197           And those whom you call upon besides Him are not able to help you, nor can they help them­selves.

7:198           And if you invite them to guidance, they do not hear; and you see them looking towards you, yet they do not see.

7:199           Take to forgiveness and enjoin good and turn away from the ignorant.

7:200           And if a false imputation from the devil afflict you, seek refuge in Allah. Surely He is Hearing, Knowing.

7:201           Those who guard against evil, when a visitation from the devil afflicts them, they become mindful, then lo! they see.

7:202           And their brethren increase them in error, then they do not cease.

7:203           And when you do not bring them a sign, they say: Why do you not demand it? Say: I follow only what is revealed to me from my Lord. These are clear proofs from your Lord and a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.

7:204           And when the Quran is recited, listen to it and remain silent, that mercy may be shown to you.

7:205           And remember your Lord within yourself humbly and fearing, and in a voice not loud, in the morning and the evening, and do not be one of the heedless.

7:206           Surely those who are with your Lord are not too proud to serve Him, and they glorify Him and prostrate themselves before Him.

 

Chapter 8

Al-Anfāl: Voluntary Gifts

Introduction by the translator

This chapter deals with the battle of Badr, the first battle which the Muslims had to fight, and it goes under the name of Anfāl, literally voluntary gifts, because the Muslim State had at the time no treasury, nor any arsenal, nor an army and voluntary gifts were therefore called for. It was not only this battle but all the succeeding battles which Muslims had to fight were carried on only by voluntary gifts. Success in this battle, against all odds, provided proof of the truth of the Holy Prophet’s mission and thus this chapter occurs after a dis­cussion of prophethood in the last chapter. Most of this chapter was revealed in 2 A.H., while the concluding verses of sections 7 and 8 were revealed around the time of the conquest of Makkah in 8 A.H.

Section 1 (The Battle of Badr — Muslims go forth)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

8:1                   They ask you about voluntary gifts. Say: Voluntary gifts are for Allah and the Messenger. So keep your duty to Allah and set aright your differences, and obey Allah and His Messenger, if you are believers.

8:2                   They only are believers whose hearts are full of fear when Allah is mentioned, and when His messages are recited to them they increase them in faith, and in their Lord do they trust,

8:3                   those who keep up prayer and spend (on good works) out of what We have given them.

8:4                   These are the believers truly. For them are with their Lord exalted grades and protection and an honourable sustenance.

8:5                   Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with truth, though some of the believers were surely averse,

8:6                   disputing with you about the truth after it had become clear — as if they were being driven to death while they saw (it).

8:7                   And when Allah promised you one of the two parties that it should be yours, and you loved that the one not armed should be yours, and Allah desired to establish the Truth by His words, and to cut off the root of the disbelievers —

8:8                   that He might cause the Truth to triumph and bring falsehood to failure, though the guilty disliked.

8:9                   When you sought the aid of your Lord, so He answered you: I will assist you with a thousand of the angels following one an­other.

8:10               And Allah gave it only as good news, and that your hearts might be at ease by it. And victory is only from Allah; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Section 2 (The Battle of Badr — Fighting)

8:11               When He made slumber fall on you as a security from Him, and sent down upon you water from the clouds that He might purify you with it, and take away from you the uncleanness of the devil, and that He might fortify your hearts and make firm (your) feet by it.

8:12               When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, so make firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. So strike above the necks and strike every finger-tip of them.

8:13               This is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger — then surely Allah is Severe in retribution.

8:14               This — taste it, and (know) that for the disbelievers is the punishment of the Fire.

8:15               O you who believe, when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, do not turn your backs to them.

8:16               And whoever turns his back to them on that day — unless manoeuvring for battle or turning to join a company — he indeed incurs Allah’s wrath and his refuge is hell. And an evil destination it is.

8:17               So you did not kill them but Allah killed them, and you (O Prophet) did not strike when you struck (the enemy), but Allah struck (him), and that He might confer upon the believers a benefit from Himself. Surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

8:18               This  — and (know) that Allah will weaken the struggle of the disbelievers.

8:19               If you sought a judgment, the judgment has indeed come to you; and if you cease (fighting), it is better for you. And if you return (to fighting), We (too) shall return and your forces will not avail you at all, though they may be many; and (know) that Allah is with the believers.

Section 3 (The Way to Success)

8:20               O you who believe, obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn away from Him while you hear.

8:21               And do not be like those who say, We hear; and they do not hear.

8:22               Surely the vilest of beasts, in Allah’s sight, are the deaf, the dumb, who do not understand.

8:23               And if Allah had known any good in them, He would have made them hear. And if He makes them hear, they would turn away while they are averse.

8:24               O you who believe, respond to Allah and His Messenger, when he calls you to that which gives you life. And know that Allah comes in between a man and his heart, and that to Him you will be gathered.

8:25               And guard yourselves against an affliction which may not strike those of you exclusively who are wrong­doers; and know that Allah is Severe in retribution.

8:26               And remember when you were few, considered weak in the land, fearing if people should carry you off by force, He shel­tered you and strengthened you with His help, and gave you good things that you might give thanks.

8:27               O you who believe, do not be unfaithful to Allah and the Messenger, nor be unfaithful to your trusts, while you know.

8:28               And know that your wealth and your child­­ren are a temptation, and that Allah is He with Whom there is a mighty reward.

Section 4 (Muslims to be Guardians of the Sacred Mosque)

8:29               O you who believe, if you keep your duty to Allah, He will grant you a distinction and do away with your evils and protect you. And Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

8:30               And when those who disbelieved devised plans against you that they might confine you or kill you or drive you away — and they devised plans and Allah, too, had arranged a plan; and Allah is the Best of planners.

8:31               And when Our messages are recited to them, they say: We have heard. If we wished, we could say the like of it; this is nothing but the stories of the ancients.

8:32               And when they said: O Allah, if this is indeed the truth from You, then rain down on us stones from heaven or inflict on us a painful punishment.

8:33               And Allah would not punish them while you were among them; nor would Allah punish them while they seek forgiveness.

8:34               And what excuse have they that Allah should not punish them while they hinder (people) from the Sacred Mosque and they are not its (true) guardians? Its guardians are only those who keep their duty, but most of them do not know.

8:35               And their prayer at the House is nothing but whistling and clapping of hands. Taste, then, the punishment, because you disbelieved.

8:36               Surely those who disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (people) from the way of Allah. So they will go on spending it, then it will be to them a regret, then they will be overcome. And those who disbelieve will be gathered together to hell,

8:37               that Allah may separate the wicked from the good, and put the wicked upon one another, then heap them together, then cast them into hell. These indeed are the losers.

Section 5 (Badr as Sign of the Prophet’s Truth)

8:38               Say to those who disbelieve, if they cease (fighting), what is past will be forgiven them; and if they return (to it), then the example of those of old has already gone.

8:39               And fight them until there is no more persecution, and all religions are for Allah. But if they cease, then surely Allah is Seer of what they do.

8:40               And if they turn back, then know that Allah is your Patron. Most excellent the Patron and most excellent the Helper!

Part 10

8:41               And know that whatever you acquire in war, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the traveller, if you believe in Allah and in what We revealed to Our servant, on the day of Distinction, the day on which the two forces met. And Allah is Powerful over all things.

8:42               When you were on the nearer side (of the valley) and they were on the farther side, while the caravan was in a lower place than you. And if you had tried to make a mutual appointment, you would certainly have broken away from the appointment, but — in order that Allah might bring about a matter which had to be done; that he who perished by clear argument might perish, and he who lived by clear argument might live. And surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing:

8:43               When Allah showed them to you in your dream as few  — and if He had shown them to you as many, you (O Muslims) would certainly have become weak-hearted and you would have disputed about the matter, but Allah saved (you). Surely He is Knower of what is in the hearts.

8:44               And when He showed them to you, when you met, as few in your eyes, and He made you to appear few in their eyes, in order that Allah might bring about a matter which had to be done. And to Allah are all affairs returned.

Section 6 (Success does not depend on Numbers)

8:45               O you who believe, when you meet an army, be firm, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.

8:46               And obey Allah and His Messenger and do not dispute with one another so that you get weak-hearted and your power departs; and be stead­fast. Surely Allah is with the steadfast.

8:47               And do not be like those who came forth from their homes exultingly and to be seen by people, and they hinder (people) from the way of Allah. And Allah encompasses what they do.

8:48               And when the devil made their works seem good to them, and said: No man can overcome you this day, and I am your protector. But when the two armies came in sight of one another, he turned upon his heels, and said: Surely I am clear of you, I see what you do not see; surely I fear Allah. And Allah is Severe in retribution.

Section 7 (Enemy’s Strength weakened)

8:49               And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease said: Their religion has deluded them. And whoever trusts in Allah, then surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

8:50               And if you could see when the angels cause to die those who disbelieve, striking their faces and their backs, and (saying): Taste the punishment of burning.

8:51               This is for what your hands have sent ahead, and because Allah is not in the least unjust to the servants —

8:52               in the manner of the people of Pharaoh and those before them, they disbelieved in Allah’s messages, so Allah punished them for their sins. Surely Allah is Strong, Severe in retribution.

8:53               This is because Allah never changes a favour which He has conferred upon a people until they change their own condition — and because Allah is Hearing, Knowing —

8:54               in the manner of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them. They rejected the messages of their Lord, so We destroyed them for their sins. And We drowned Pharaoh’s people and they were all wrongdoers.

8:55               Surely the vilest of beasts in Allah’s sight are those who disbelieve, then they would not believe —

8:56               those with whom you make an agreement, then they break their agreement every time, and they do not keep their duty.

8:57               So if you overtake them in war, scatter by them those who are behind them, that they may be mind­ful.

8:58               And if you fear treachery on the part of a people, throw back to them (their treaty) on terms of equality. Surely Allah does not love the treacherous.

Section 8 (Peace to be secured by Strength)

8:59               And those who disbelieve should not think that they can outstrip (Us). Surely they cannot escape.

8:60               And make ready for them whatever force you can and horses tied at the frontier, to frighten thereby the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them, whom you do not know — Allah knows them. And whatever you spend in Allah’s way, it will be paid back to you fully and you will not be wronged.

8:61               And if they incline to peace, you (must) incline to it also, and trust in Allah. Surely He is the Hearer, the Knower.

8:62               And if they intend to deceive you, then surely Allah is sufficient for you. He it is Who strengthened you with His help and with the belie­vers,

8:63               and He has united their hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah united them. Surely He is Mighty, Wise.

8:64               O Prophet, Allah is sufficient for you and those who follow you from the believers.

Section 9 (Muslims to meet Overwhelming Numbers)

8:65               O Prophet, urge the believers to fight. If there are of you twenty steadfast, they shall overcome two hundred; and if there are of you a hundred, they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they are a people who do not understand.

8:66               Now Allah has lightened your burden and He knows that there is weakness in you. So if there are of you a hundred steadfast, they shall overcome two hundred; and if there are of you a thousand, they shall overcome two thousand by Allah’s permission. And Allah is with the steadfast.

8:67               It is not fit for a prophet to take captives unless he has fought and triumphed in the land. You desire the frail goods of this world, while Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

8:68               If an ordinance from Allah had not gone before, surely a great punishment would have befallen you for what you were going to do.

8:69               Eat then of the lawful and good (things) which you have acquired in war, and keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 10 (Relations of Muslim State with Others)

8:70               O Prophet, say to those of the captives who are in your hands: If Allah knows anything good in your hearts, He will give you better than what has been taken from you, and will forgive you. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

8:71               And if they intend to be treacherous to you, so indeed they have been treacherous to Allah before, but He gave (you) mastery over them. And Allah is Know­ing, Wise.

8:72               Surely those who believed and fled (their homes) and struggled hard in Allah’s way with their wealth and their lives, and those who gave shelter and helped — these are friends of one another. And those who believed and did not flee, you are not res­ponsible for their protection until they flee. And if they seek help from you in the matter of religion, it is your duty to help (them) except against a people between whom and you there is a treaty. And Allah is Seer of what you do.

8:73               And those who disbelieve are friends of one another. If you do not do it, there will be persecu­tion in the land and great mischief.

8:74               And those who believed and fled and struggled hard in Allah’s way, and those who gave shelter and helped — these are the believers truly. For them is forgiveness and an honourable provision.

8:75               And those who believed after­wards and fled and struggled hard along with you, they are of you. And the relatives are nearer to one another in the ordinance of Allah. Surely Allah is Knower of all things.

 

Chapter 9

Al-Barā’at: Immunity

Introduction by the translator

The name of this chapter (which is also called Al-Taubah or Repentance) refers to the declaration in its opening verses that Muslims were now not subject to their agreements with certain idolatrous Arab tribes who had been constantly breaking them (verses 7–13). The chapter thus first deals with the subject of agreements with them as depending on their adherence to them, and goes on to prophesy the triumph of Islam in Arabia and later in the world. It then refers to the expedition to Tabūk by Muslims undertaken at great sacrifice, and deals with the subject of those who excused themselves and the hypo­crites. At the end, Muslims are reminded of the importance of the propaga­tion of Islam and contributing towards it, which was the real object of Islam. This chapter was revealed in 9 A.H. This is the only chapter of the Quran not opening with Bismillāh, “In the name of Allah, the Bene­ficent, the Merciful”, as it is, in a sense, a continuation of the last chapter.

Section 1 (Declaration of Immunity)

9:1                   A declaration of immunity from Allah and His Messenger to those of the idolaters with whom you made an agreement.

9:2                   So go about in the land for four months and know that you cannot escape Allah and that Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.

9:3                   And an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah is free from liability to the idolaters, and so is His Messenger. So if you repent, it will be better for you; and if you turn away, then know that you will not escape Allah. And announce painful punishment to those who disbelieve —

9:4                   except those of the idolaters with whom you made an agreement, then they have not failed you in anything and have not backed up anyone against you; so fulfil their agreement to the end of their term. Surely Allah loves those who keep their duty.

9:5                   So when the sacred months have passed, kill the idolaters, wherever you find them, and take them captive and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush. But if they repent and keep up prayer and give the due charity, leave their way free. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

9:6                   And if anyone of the idola­ters seek your protection, protect him till he hears the word of Allah, then convey him to his place of safety. This is because they are a people who do not know.

Section 2 (Reasons for the Immunity)

9:7                   How can there be an agreement for the idolaters with Allah and with His Messenger, except those with whom you made an agreement at the Sacred Mosque? So as long as they are true to you, be true to them. Surely Allah loves those who keep their duty.

9:8                   How (can it be)? And if they prevail against you, they res­pect neither ties of relationship nor covenant in your case. They would please you with their mouths while their hearts refuse; and most of them are transgressors.

9:9                   They have taken a small price for the messages of Allah, so they hinder (people) from His way. Surely evil is what they do.

9:10               They respect neither ties of relationship nor covenant in the case of a believer. And these are they who go beyond the limits.

9:11               But if they repent and keep up prayer and give the due charity, they are your brethren in faith. And We make the messages clear for a people who know.

9:12               And if they break their oaths after their agreement and revile your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief — surely their oaths are nothing — so that they may cease.

9:13               Will you not fight a people who broke their oaths and aimed at the expulsion of the Messenger, and they attacked you first?  Do you fear them? But Allah has more right that you should fear Him, if you are believers.

9:14               Fight them; Allah will punish them at your hands and bring them to disgrace, and assist you against them and relieve the hearts of a believing people,

9:15               and remove the rage of their hearts. And Allah turns (mercifully) to whom He pleases. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

9:16               Do you think that you would be left alone while Allah has not yet known those of you who struggle hard and do not take anyone as an intimate friend besides Allah and His Messenger and the believers? And Allah is Aware of what you do.

Section 3 (Idolaters’ Service of the Sacred House)

9:17               The idolaters have no right to maintain the mosques of Allah, while bearing witness to disbelief against themselves. These it is whose deeds are fruitless; and in the Fire will they abide.

9:18               Only he can maintain the mosques of Allah who believes in Allah and the Last Day, and keeps up prayer and gives the due charity and fears none but Allah. So these it is who may be of the guided ones.

9:19               Do you hold the giving of drink to the pilgrims and the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque equal to (the service of) one who believes in Allah and the Last Day and strives hard in Allah’s way? They are not equal in the sight of Allah. And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

9:20               Those who believed and fled (their homes), and strove hard in Allah’s way with their wealth and their lives, are much higher in rank with Allah. And it is these that shall triumph.

9:21               Their Lord gives them good news of mercy and pleasure, from Himself, and Gardens in which lasting blessings will be theirs,

9:22               abiding in them forever. Surely Allah has a mighty reward with Him.

9:23               O you who believe, do not take your fathers and your brothers for friends if they love disbelief above faith. And who­ever of you takes them for friends, such are the wrongdoers.

9:24               Say: If your fathers and your sons and your brethren and your wives and your kinsfolk and the wealth you have acquired, and trade whose dullness you fear, and dwellings you love, are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and striving in His way, then wait till Allah brings His command to pass. And Allah does not guide the transgressing people.

Section 4 (Islam made Triumphant in Arabia)

9:25               Certainly Allah helped you in many battlefields, and on the day of Hunain, when your great numbers made you proud, but they availed you nothing, and the earth with all its vastness was narrowed for you, then you turned back retreating.

9:26               Then Allah sent down His calm upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent armies which you did not see, and punished those who disbelieved. And such is the reward of the disbelievers.

9:27               Then will Allah, after this, turn mercifully to whom He pleases. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

9:28               O you who believe, the idolaters are surely unclean, so they shall not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year of theirs. And if you fear poverty, then Allah will enrich you out of His grace, if He please. Surely Allah is Knowing, Wise.

9:29               Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden, nor follow the Religion of Truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgement of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.

Section 5 (Islam will triumph in the World)

9:30               And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah; and the Chris­tians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. These are the words of their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who dis­believed before. Allah’s curse be on them! How they are turned away (from truth)!

9:31               They take their doctors of law and their monks for lords besides Allah, and (also) the Messiah, son of Mary. And they were enjoined that they should serve one God only — there is no god but He. Glory be to Him from what they set up as partners (with Him)!

9:32               They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will allow nothing except the perfection of His light, though the disbelievers are averse.

9:33               He it is Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the Religion of Truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though those who set up partners (with Allah) are averse.

9:34               O you who believe, surely many of the doctors of law and monks eat away people’s property falsely, and hinder (them) from Allah’s way. And those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah’s way — announce to them a painful punish­ment,

9:35               on the day when it will be heated in the Fire of hell, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs will be branded with it: This is what you hoarded up for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard.

9:36               Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months by Allah’s ordinance, since the day when He created the heavens and the earth — of these four are sacred. That is the right religion; so do not wrong yourselves in regard to them. And fight the idola­ters all together as they fight you all together. And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty.

9:37               Postponing (of the sacred month) is only an addition in disbelief, by which those who disbelieve are led astray. They allow it one year and forbid it (another) year, that they may agree in the number (of months) which Allah has made sacred, and thus make lawful what Allah has forbidden. The evil of their doings is made to seem good to them. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

Section 6 (The Tabūk Expedition)

9:38               O you who believe, what (excuse) have you that when it is said to you, Go forth in Allah’s way, you should incline heavily to earth? Are you contented with this world’s life instead of the Hereafter? The provision of this world’s life is but little as com­pared with the Hereafter.

9:39               If you do not go forth, He will punish you with a painful punishment, and bring in your place a people other than you, and you can do Him no harm. And Allah is Power­ful over all things.

9:40               If you do not help him, Allah certainly helped him when those who disbelieved expelled him — he being the second of the two; when they were both in the cave, when he said to his com­panion: Do not grieve, surely Allah is with us. So Allah sent down His tranquillity on him and strengthened him with forces which you did not see, and made lowest the word of those who dis­believed. And the word of Allah, that is the uppermost. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

9:41               Go forth, light and heavy, and strive hard in Allah’s way with your wealth and your lives. This is better for you, if you know.

9:42               If it had been a near gain and a short journey, they would cer­tainly have followed you, but the hard journey was too long for them. And they will swear by Allah: If we had been able, we would have gone forth with you. They cause their own souls to perish; and Allah knows that they are liars.

Section 7 (The Hypocrites)

9:43               Allah pardon you! Why did you permit them until those who spoke the truth had become apparent to you and you had known the liars?

9:44               Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day do not ask permission from you (to stay away) from striving hard with their wealth and their persons. And Allah is Knower of those who keep their duty.

9:45               They alone ask permission from you who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day, and their hearts are in doubt, so in their doubt they waver.

9:46               And if they had intended to go forth, they would certainly have provided equipment for it; but Allah did not like their going forth. So He withheld them, and it was said: Hold back with those who hold back.

9:47               If they had gone forth with you, they would have added to you nothing but trouble, and would have hurried to and fro among you seeking (to sow) dissension among you. And among you there are those who would listen to them. And Allah well knows the wrongdoers.

9:48               Certainly they sought (to sow) dissension before, and they devised plots against you till the Truth came, and Allah’s command prevailed, though they did not like (it).

9:49               And among them is he who says: Excuse me and do not try me. Surely into trial have they already fallen, and truly hell en­com­passes the disbelievers.

9:50               If good befalls you, it grieves them; and if hardship afflicts you, they say: Indeed we had taken care of our affair before. And they turn away rejoicing.

9:51               Say: Nothing will afflict us except what Allah has ordained for us. He is our Patron; and on Allah let the believers rely.

9:52               Say: Do you await for us but one of two most excellent things? And we await for you that Allah will afflict you with punishment from Himself or by our hands. So wait; we too are waiting with you.

9:53               Say: Spend willingly or unwillingly, it will not be accepted from you. Surely you are a transgressing people.

9:54               And nothing hinders their contributions being accepted from them, except that they disbelieve in Allah and in His Messenger and they do not come to prayer except as lazy people, nor do they spend (on good works) but reluctantly.

9:55               Do not, then, let their wealth nor their children excite your admiration. Allah only wishes to punish them by means of these in this world’s life and (that) their souls may depart while they are disbelievers.

9:56               And they swear by Allah that they are truly of you. And they are not of you, but they are a people who are afraid.

9:57               If they could find a refuge or caves or a place to enter, they would certainly have turned to it, running away in all haste.

9:58               And some of them blame you in the matter of the (distribu­tion of) charity. So if they are given out of it, they are pleased, and if they are not given out of it, lo! they are enraged.

9:59               And (better it would be) if they were content with what Allah and His Messen­ger gave them, and had said: Allah is sufficient for us, Allah will soon give us (more) out of His grace and His Messenger too — surely to Allah we make petition.

Section 8 (The Hypocrites)

9:60               (The due) charity is only for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer it, and those whose hearts are made to incline (to truth), and (to free) the captives, and those in debt, and in the way of Allah and for the traveller — an ordinance from Allah. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

9:61               And some of them molest the Prophet and say, He is (all) ear. Say: A hearer of good for you — he believes in Allah and believes the faithful, and is a mercy for those of you who believe. And those who molest the Messenger of Allah, for them is a pain­ful punishment.

9:62               They swear by Allah to you to please you; and Allah — as well as His Messenger — has a greater right that they should please Him, if they are believers.

9:63               Do they not know that whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger, for him is the Fire of hell to abide in it? That is the grievous disgrace.

9:64               The hypocrites fear that a chapter may be sent down con­cerning them, telling them plainly of what is in their hearts. Say: Go on mocking, surely Allah will bring to light what you fear.

9:65               And if you ask them, they would certainly say: We were only talking idly and sporting. Say: Was it Allah and His messages and His Messenger that you mocked?

9:66               Make no excuse, you dis­believed after your believing. If We pardon some of you, We shall punish others because they are guilty.

Section 9 (The Hypocrites)

9:67               The hypocrites, men and women, are all alike. They enjoin evil and forbid good and withhold their hands. They have forsaken Allah, so He has forsaken them. Surely the hypocrites are the transgressors.

9:68               Allah promises the hypocrites, men and women, and the disbelievers the Fire of hell to abide in it. It is enough for them. And Allah curses them, and for them is a lasting punish­ment.

9:69               Like those before you — they were stronger than you in power and had more wealth and children. So they enjoyed their portion; thus have you enjoyed your portion as those before you enjoyed their portion, and you indulge in idle talk as they did. These are they whose deeds are fruitless in this world and the Here­­after, and these are they who are the losers.

9:70               Has not the story reached them of those before them — of the people of Noah and Ād and Thamūd, and the people of Abraham and the dwellers of Midian and the overthrown cities? Their messengers came to them with clear arguments. So Allah did not wrong them but they wronged themselves.

9:71               And the believers, men and women, are friends of one another. They enjoin good and forbid evil and keep up prayer and give the due charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. As for these, Allah will have mercy on them. Surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

9:72               Allah has promised to the believers, men and women, Gardens, in which rivers flow, to abide in them, and goodly dwell­ings in Gardens of perpetual abode. And greatest of all is Allah’s goodly pleasure. That is the mighty achievement.

Section 10 (The Hypocrites)

9:73               O Prophet, strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be firm against them. And their abode is hell, and evil is the destination.

9:74               They swear by Allah that they said nothing. And certainly they did speak the word of disbelief, and dis­believed after their Islam, and they aimed (to do) what they could not attain. And they sought revenge only because Allah — as well as His Messenger — had enriched them out of His grace. So if they repent, it will be good for them; and if they turn away, Allah will punish them with a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter; and they shall have in the earth neither a friend nor a helper.

9:75               And some of them made a covenant with Allah: If He give us out of His grace, we will certainly give in charity and be of the righteous.

9:76               But when He gave them out of His grace, they became miserly with it and they turned away and they are averse.

9:77               So He repaid them with hypocrisy in their hearts till the day when they meet Him, because they broke their promise with Allah and because they lied.

9:78               Do they not know that Allah knows their hidden thoughts and their secret counsels, and that Allah is the great Knower of the unseen things?

9:79               Those who taunt the free givers of charity among the believers as well as those who cannot find anything (to give) but with their hard labour — they scoff at them. Allah will pay them back their mockery; and for them is a painful punishment.

9:80               Ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them. Even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them. This is because they disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger. And Allah does not guide the transgressing people.

Section 11 (The Hypocrites)

9:81               Those who were left behind were glad on account of their remaining behind Allah’s Messenger, and they disliked to strive in Allah’s way with their property and their persons, and said: Do not go forth in the heat. Say: The Fire of hell is fiercer in heat. If only they could understand!

9:82               Then let them laugh a little and weep much — a recompense for what they earned.

9:83               So if Allah bring you back to some of them, then they ask your permission to go forth, say: Never shall you go forth with me and never shall you fight an enemy with me. You chose to sit (at home) the first time, so sit (now) with those who remain behind.

9:84               And never offer prayer for anyone of them who dies, nor stand by his grave. Surely they disbelieved in Allah and His Messen­ger and they died in transgression.

9:85               And do not let their wealth and their children excite your admiration. Allah only intends to punish them thereby in this world, and (that) their souls may depart while they are disbelievers.

9:86               And when a chapter is revealed, saying, Believe in Allah and strive hard along with His Messenger, the wealthy among them ask permission of you and say: Leave us (behind), that we may be with those who sit (at home).

9:87               They prefer to be with those who remain behind, and their hearts are sealed so they do not under­stand.

9:88               But the Messenger and those who believe with him strive hard with their property and their persons. And these it is for whom are the good things and these it is who are successful.

9:89               Allah has prepared for them Gardens in which rivers flow, to abide therein. That is the mighty achievement.

Section 12 (The Hypocrites)

9:90               And the defaulters from among the dwellers of the desert came that permission might be given to them, and they sat (at home) who lied to Allah and His Messenger. A painful punish­ment will afflict those of them who disbelieve.

9:91               No blame lies on the weak, nor on the sick, nor on those who can find nothing to spend, if they are sincere to Allah and His Messenger. There is no way (to blame) against the doers of good. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful —

9:92               nor on those to whom, when they came to you that you should carry them, you said: I cannot find anything on which to carry you. They went back, their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend.

9:93               The way (to blame) is only against those who ask permission of you, though they are rich. They have chosen to be with those who remained behind; and Allah has sealed their hearts, so they do not know.

Part 11

9:94               They will make excuses to you when you return to them. Say: Make no excuse, we shall not believe you; Allah has informed us of matters relating to you. And Allah and His Messenger will now see your actions, then you will be brought back to the Knower of the unseen and the seen, then He will inform you of what you did.

9:95               They will swear by Allah to you, when you return to them, so that you may leave them alone. So leave them alone. Surely they are unclean and their refuge is hell — a recompense for what they earned.

9:96               They will swear to you that you may be pleased with them. But if you are pleased with them, yet surely Allah is not pleased with the transgressing people.

9:97               The dwellers of the desert are hardest in disbelief and hypo­crisy, and most disposed not to know the limits of what Allah has revealed to His Messenger. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

9:98               And some of the dwellers of the desert take what they spend to be a fine, and they wait for an evil turn of fortune for you. On them is the evil turn. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

9:99               And some of the dwellers of the desert believe in Allah and the Last Day, and consider what they spend and the prayers of the Messen­ger as bring­ing them nearer to Allah. Surely they bring them nearer (to Allah); Allah will admit them into His mercy. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 13 (The Hypocrites)

9:100           And the foremost, the first of the Emigrants and the Help­ers, and those who followed them in goodness  — Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them Gardens in which rivers flow, abiding therein for­ever. That is the mighty achievement.

9:101           And some of the dwellers of the desert around you are hypo­crites; and some of the people of Madinah (also) — they persist in hypocrisy. You do not know them; We know them. We will punish them twice, then they will be turned back to a severe punishment.

9:102           And others have acknowledged their faults — they mixed a good deed with another that was evil. It may be that Allah will turn to them (mercifully). Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

9:103           Take charity out of their property — you would cleanse them and purify them thereby — and pray for them. Surely your prayer is a relief to them. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

9:104           Do they not know that Allah is He Who accepts repentance from His servants and takes the charity, and that Allah — He is the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful?

9:105           And say, Work; so Allah will see your work and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the Knower of the unseen and the seen, then He will inform you of what you did.

9:106           And others are made to await Allah’s command, whether He will punish them or turn to them (mercifully). And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

9:107           And those who built a mosque to cause harm (to Islam) and (to help) disbelief, and to cause disunion among the believers, and a refuge for him who made war against Allah and His Messen­­ger before. And they will certainly swear: We desired nothing but good. And Allah bears witness that they are certainly liars.

9:108           Never stand in it. Certainly a mosque founded on obser­vance of duty from the first day is more deserving that you should stand in it. In it are men who love to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who purify themselves.

9:109           Is he, then, who lays his foundation on duty to Allah and (His) good pleasure better, or he who lays his founda­tion on the edge of a cracking hollowed bank, so it broke down with him into the Fire of hell? And Allah does not guide the unjust people.

9:110           The building which they have built will ever continue to be a source of disquiet in their hearts, unless their hearts be torn to pieces. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

Section 14 (The Faithful)

9:111           Surely Allah has bought from the believers their persons and their property — theirs (in return) is the Garden. They fight in Allah’s way, so they kill and are killed. It is a promise which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Quran. And who is more faithful to his promise than Allah? Rejoice therefore in your bargain which you have made. And that is the mighty achievement.

9:112           They who turn (to Allah), who serve (Him), who praise (Him), who fast, who bow down, who prostrate themselves, who enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil, and who keep the limits of Allah — and give good news to the believers.

9:113           It is not for the Prophet and those who believe to ask for­giveness for those who set up partners (with Allah), even though they should be near relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of the flaming fire.

9:114           And Abraham’s asking forgiveness for his sire was only owing to a promise which he had made to him; but when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Surely Abra­ham was tender-hearted, forbearing.

9:115           And it is not (attribu­table to) Allah that He should lead a people astray after He has guided them, so far so that He makes clear to them what they should guard against. Surely Allah is Knower of all things.

9:116           Surely Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He gives life and causes death. And besides Allah you have no friend nor helper.

9:117           Certainly Allah has turned in mercy to the Prophet and the Emigrants and the Helpers who followed him in the hour of hardship, after the hearts of a group of them were about to deviate; then He turned to them in mercy. Surely to them He is Com­passionate, Merciful;

9:118           and (He turned in mercy) to the three who were left behind; until the earth, vast as it is, became narrow to them and their souls were also narrowed to them; and they knew that there was no refuge from Allah but in Him. Then He turned to them in mercy that they might turn (to Him). Surely Allah — He is the Oft-returning to mercy, the Merciful.

Section 15 (What the Faithful should do)

9:119           O you who believe, keep your duty to Allah and be with the truthful.

9:120           It was not proper for the people of Madinah and those round about them of the dwellers of the desert to remain behind the Messenger of Allah, nor to prefer their own lives to his life. That is because neither thirst nor fatigue nor hunger afflicts them in Allah’s way, nor do they tread a path which enrages the dis­believers, nor do they cause any harm to an enemy, but a good work is written down for them on account of it. Surely Allah does not waste the reward of the doers of good;

9:121           nor do they spend anything, small or great, nor do they traverse a valley but it is written down for them, that Allah may reward them for the best of what they did.

9:122           And the believers should not go forth all together. Why, then, does not a group from every party from among them go forth that they may apply themselves to obtain understanding in reli­gion, and that they may warn their people when they come back to them, that they may be cautious?

Section 16 (The Prophet’s Great Anxiety)

9:123           O you who believe, fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you and let them find firmness in you. And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty.

9:124           And whenever a chap­ter is revealed, there are some of them who say: Which of you has it strengthened in faith? So as for those who believe, it strengthens them in faith and they rejoice.

9:125           And as for those in whose hearts is a disease, it adds uncleanness to their uncleanness, and they die while they are disbelievers.

9:126           Do they not see that they are tried once or twice in every year, yet they do not repent, nor do they become mindful.

9:127           And whenever a chapter is revealed, they look at one another: Does anyone see you? Then they turn away. Allah has turned away their hearts because they are a people who do not understand.

9:128           Certainly a Messenger has come to you from among your­selves; very painful for him is your falling into distress, most concerned (he is) for you, to the believers (he is) compassionate, merciful.

9:129           But if they turn away, say: Allah is sufficient for me — there is no god but He. On Him do I rely, and He is the Lord of the mighty Throne.

 

Chapter 10

Yūnus: Jonah

Introduction by the translator

This chapter makes a brief reference to the Prophet Jonah (v. 98), which gives it its title, to indicate that as the people of Jonah benefited by his warn­ing, so would the Arabs ultimately believe in the Prophet Muhammad. While this chap­ter asserts the truth of revelation, it also lays stress on the merciful deal­ing of God with mankind. It tells us that He does not send punishment quick­ly and that evidence of His mercy is also found in nature. It also refers to the histories of Noah and Moses. This chapter was revealed during the last four years of the Makkan period of the Holy Prophet’s life.

Section 1 (Truth of Revelation)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

10:1               I, Allah, am the Seer. These are the verses of the Book, full of wisdom.

10:2               Is it a wonder to the people that We have revealed to a man from among themselves: Warn the people and give good news to those who believe that for them is advancement in excellence  with their Lord? The disbelievers say: This is surely an obvious enchanter.

10:3               Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and He is established on the Throne of Power regulating the Affair. There is no intercessor except after His per­mission. This is Allah, your Lord, therefore serve Him. Will you not be mindful?

10:4               To Him is your return, of all (of you). It is the promise of Allah (made) in truth. Surely He produces the first creation, then He reproduces it, that He may reward with equity those who believe and do good. And as for those who disbelieve, for them is a drink of hot water and a painful punishment because they disbelieved.

10:5               He it is Who made the sun a shining brightness, and the moon a light, and ordained for it stages that you might know the computation of years and the reckoning. Allah did not create this but with truth. He makes the signs clear for a people who know.

10:6               Surely in the alternation of the night and the day, and what Allah has created in the heavens and the earth, there are signs for a people who keep their duty.

10:7               Those who do not expect the meeting with Us, and are plea­sed with this world’s life and are satisfied with it, and those who are heedless of Our messages —

10:8               these, their abode is the Fire because of what they earned.

10:9               Those who believe and do good, their Lord guides them by their faith; rivers will flow beneath them in Gardens of bliss.

10:10           Their cry therein will be, Glory be to You, O Allah! and their greeting, Peace! And the last of their cry will be: Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds!

Section 2 (Punishment of Rejection)

10:11           And if Allah were to hasten for people the (consequences of) evil, as they would hasten on the good, their doom would cer­tainly have been decreed for them. But We leave those alone, who have no hope of meeting with Us, in their inordinacy, blindly wan­dering on.

10:12           And when affliction touches man, he calls on Us, whether lying on his side or sitting or standing; but, when We remove his affliction from him, he passes on as though he had never called on Us on account of an affliction that touched him. Thus what they do is made to seem good to the extravagant.

10:13           And certainly We destroyed generations before you when they did wrong, and their messengers came to them with clear arguments, yet they would not believe. Thus do We recompense the guilty people.

10:14           Then We made you rulers in the land after them, so that We might see how you act.

10:15           And when Our clear messages are recited to them, those who have no hope of meeting with Us say: Bring a Quran other than this or change it. Say: It is not for me to change it of my own accord. I follow only what is revealed to me. Indeed I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the punishment of a terrible day.

10:16           Say: If Allah had desired, I would not have recited it to you, nor would He have made it known to you. I have lived among you a lifetime before it. Do you not then understand?

10:17           Who is then more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah or calls His messages a lie? Surely the guilty never succeed.

10:18           And they serve besides Allah that which can neither harm them nor benefit them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah. Say: Would you inform Allah of what He does not know in the heavens and the earth? Glory be to Him, and sup­remely exalted is He above what they set up as partners (with Him)!

10:19           And (all) people are but a single nation, then they disagree. And if a word had not already gone forth from your Lord, the matter would have certainly been decided between them regarding that in which they disagree.

10:20           And they say: Why is not a sign sent to him from his Lord? Say: The unseen is only for Allah, so wait; I too am waiting along with you.

Section 3 (Merciful Dealing)

10:21           And when We make people taste of mercy after an afflic­tion touches them, lo! they devise plans against Our mess­ages. Say: Allah is quicker to plan. Surely Our messengers write down what you plan.

10:22           He it is Who makes you travel by land and sea; until, when you are in the ships, and they sail on with them in a pleasant breeze, and they rejoice at it, a violent wind overtakes them and waves surge in on them from all sides, and they think they are surrounded. Then they pray to Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience: If You deliver us from this, we will certainly be from among the grateful ones.

10:23           But when He delivers them, lo! they are unjustly rebellious in the earth. O people, your rebellion is against yourselves — a provision (only) of this world’s life. Then to Us is your return, so We shall inform you of what you did.

10:24           The likeness of this world’s life is only as water which We send down from the clouds, then the vegetation of the earth, of which people and cattle eat, grows luxuriantly thereby; until when the earth puts on its golden attire and it becomes adorned, and its people think that they are masters of it, Our command comes to it, by night or by day, so We render it as reaped seed-produce, as though it had not flourished yesterday. Thus do We make clear the messages for a people who reflect.

10:25           And Allah invites to the abode of peace, and guides whom He pleases to the right path.

10:26           For those who do good is good (reward) and more (than this). Neither darkness nor disgrace will cover their faces. These are the owners of the Garden; in it they will abide.

10:27           And those who earn evil, the punishment of an evil is the like of it, and humiliation will cover them — they will have none to protect them from Allah — as if their faces had been covered with slices of the dense darkness of night. These are the companions of the Fire; in it they will abide.

10:28           And on the day when We gather them all together, then We shall say to those who set up partners (with Allah): Stay where you are, you and your associate-gods. Then We shall separate them from one another, and their associate-gods will say: It was not us that you served.

10:29           So Allah is sufficient as a witness between us and you that we were quite unaware of your serving (us).

10:30           There will every soul become acquainted with what it did before, and they will be brought back to Allah, their true Patron, and what they devised will escape from them.

Section 4 (Uniqueness of Divine Gifts)

10:31           Say: Who gives you sustenance from the heaven and the earth, or who controls the hearing and the sight, and who brings forth the living from the dead, and brings forth the dead from the living? And who regulates the affair? They will say: Allah. Say then: Will you not then guard against evil?

10:32           Such then is Allah, your true Lord. And what is there after the truth but error? How then are you turned away (from truth)!

10:33           Thus does the word of your Lord prove true against those who transgress that they do not believe.

10:34           Say: Is there anyone among your associate-gods who pro­duces the first creation, then reproduces it? Say: Allah produces the first creation, then He reproduces it. How are you then turned away (from truth)!

10:35           Say: Is there any of your associate-gods who guides to the Truth? Say: Allah guides to the Truth. Is He then Who guides to the Truth more worthy to be followed, or he who cannot find the way unless he is guided? What is the matter with you? How do you judge?

10:36           And most of them follow only conjec­ture. Surely conjecture will not avail at all against the Truth. Truly Allah is Knower of what they do.

10:37           And this Quran is not such as could be forged by those besides Allah, but it is a verification of what is before it and a clear explanation of the Book, there is no doubt in it, from the Lord of the worlds.

10:38           Or say they: He has forged it? Say: Then bring a chapter like it, and call upon whom you can besides Allah, if you are truthful.

10:39           But they reject that whose knowledge they cannot encompass and whose final sequel has not yet come to them. Even thus did those before them reject; then see what was the end of the wrongdoers.

10:40           And some of them believe in it, and some of them do not believe in it. And your Lord best knows the mischief-makers.

Section 5 (The Guilty and their Punishment)

10:41           And if they reject you, say: My work is for me and your work for you. You are clear of what I do and I am clear of what you do.

10:42           And some of them listen to you. But can you make the deaf to hear, though they will not understand?

10:43           And some of them look at you. But can you show the way to the blind, though they will not see? 

10:44           Surely Allah does not wrong people in the least, but people wrong themselves.

10:45           And on the day when He will gather them, as though they had not stayed but an hour of the day, they will recognize one another. They perish indeed who reject the meeting with Allah, and they do not follow the right way.

10:46           And if We show you some­thing of what We promise them, or cause you to die (before that), yet to Us is their return, and Allah is Witness to what they do.

10:47           And for every nation there is a messenger. So when their messen­ger comes, the matter is decided between them with jus­tice, and they are not wronged.

10:48           And they say: When will this promise be fulfilled, if you are truthful?

10:49           Say: I do not control for myself any harm, or any benefit, except what Allah pleases. Every nation has a term. When their term comes, they cannot postpone it an hour, nor bring it forward.

10:50           Say: Do you see if His punishment comes to you by night or by day?  What (part) of it would the guilty hasten?

10:51           And when it comes to pass, will you believe in it? What! now! and you hastened it on.

10:52           Then will it be said to those who were unjust: Taste abiding punishment; you are not recompensed except for what you earned.

10:53           And they ask you: Is that true? Say: Yes, by my Lord! it is surely the Truth, and you will not escape.

Section 6 (Mercy takes Precedence over Punishment)

10:54           And if every soul that has done wrong had all that is in the earth, it would offer it for ransom. And they will manifest regret when they see the punishment. And it will be decided between them with justice, and they will not be wronged.

10:55           Now surely what­ever is in the heavens and the earth is Allah’s. Now surely Allah’s promise is true, but most of them do not know.

10:56           He gives life and causes death, and to Him you will be returned.

10:57           O people, an admonition has indeed come to you from your Lord and a healing for what is in the hearts; and a guidance and a mercy for the believers.

10:58           Say: In the grace of Allah and in His mercy, in that they should rejoice. It is better than what they hoard.

10:59           Say: Do you see the sustenance that Allah has sent down for you, then you make (a part) of it unlawful and (a part) lawful. Say: Has Allah commanded you or do you forge a lie against Allah?

10:60           And what do those think who forge lies against Allah of the day of Resurrection? Surely Allah is Bountiful to people, but most of them do not give thanks.

Section 7 (Good News for the Faithful)

10:61           And you are not (engaged) in any matter nor you recite concerning it any portion of the Quran, and you do no work, but We are witness of you when you are engaged in it. And not the weight of an atom in the earth or in the heaven is hidden from your Lord, nor anything less than that nor greater, but it is (all) in a clear book.

10:62           Now surely the friends of Allah, they have no fear nor do they grieve  —

10:63           those who believe and keep their duty.

10:64           For them is good news  in this world’s life and in the Hereafter. There is no changing the words of Allah. That is the mighty achieve­ment.

10:65           And do not let their speech grieve you. Surely might belongs wholly to Allah. He is the Hearer, the Knower.

10:66           Now, surely, what­ever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is Allah’s. And what do follow those who call on associate-gods besides Allah? They follow nothing but conjecture, and they only lie.

10:67           He it is Who made for you the night that you might rest there­in and the day giving light. Surely there are signs in this for a people who hear.

10:68           They say: Allah has taken a son (to Himself). Glory be to Him! He is the Self-sufficient. His is what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. You have no authority for this. Do you say against Allah what you do not know?

10:69           Say: Those who forge a lie against Allah will not succeed.

10:70           A little enjoy­ment in this world, then to Us is their return, then We shall make them taste severe punishment because they disbelieved.

Section 8 (Noah and Moses)

10:71           And recite to them the story of Noah, when he said to his people: My people, if my staying (here) and my reminding (you) by the messages of Allah is hard on you, on Allah do I rely; so decide upon your course of action and (gather) your associates. Then do not let your course of action be dubious to you, so have it executed against me and give me no respite.

10:72           But if you turn back, I ask for no reward from you. My reward is only with Allah, and I am commanded to be of those who submit.

10:73           But they rejected him, so We delivered him and those with him in the ark, and We made them rulers and drowned those who rejected Our messages. See, then, what was the end of those who were warned.

10:74           Then after him We sent messengers to their people. They came to them with clear arguments, but they would not believe what they had rejected before. Thus do We seal the hearts of those who exceed the limits.

10:75           Then after them We sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his chiefs with Our signs, but they were arrogant, and they were a guilty people.

10:76           So when the truth came to them from Us, they said: This is surely clear enchantment!

10:77           Moses said: Do you say (this) of the truth when it has come to you? Is it enchantment? And the enchanters never succeed.

10:78           They said: Have you come to us to turn us away from what we found our fathers following, and (that) greatness in the land may be for you two? And we are not going to believe in you.

10:79           And Pharaoh said: Bring to me every skilful enchanter.

10:80           So when the enchanters came, Moses said to them: Throw down what you are going to throw.

10:81           So when they had thrown down, Moses said: What you have brought is deception. Surely Allah will make it null. Surely Allah does not allow the work of mischief­-makers to thrive.

10:82           And Allah will establish the truth by His words, though the guilty dislike (it).

Section 9 (End of Opposition to Moses)

10:83           But, on account of the fear of Pharaoh and their chiefs persecu­ting them, none believed in Moses except a few of his people. And Pharaoh was truly high-handed in the land; and surely he was one committing excesses.

10:84           And Moses said: My people, if you believe in Allah, then rely on Him if you submit (to Him).

10:85           They said: On Allah we rely; our Lord, do not make us a trial for the unjust people.

10:86           And deliver us by Your mercy from the disbelieving people.

10:87           And We revealed to Moses and his brother: Take for your people houses to abide in Egypt and make your houses places of worship and keep up prayer. And give good news to the belie­vers.

10:88           And Moses said: Our Lord, surely You have given Pharaoh and his chiefs finery and riches in this world’s life, our Lord, that they may lead (people) astray from Your way. Our Lord, destroy their riches and harden their hearts, so that they do not believe till they see the painful punishment.

10:89           He said: Your prayer is accep­ted; so continue in the right way and do not follow the path of those who do not know.

10:90           And We brought the Children of Israel across the sea. Then Pharaoh and his armies followed them for oppression and tyranny, till, when drowning overtook him, he said: I believe that there is no god but He in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of those who submit.

10:91           What! Now! And indeed before (this) you disobeyed and you were a mischief-maker!

10:92           But this day We shall save you in your body that you may be a sign to those after you. And surely most of the people are heedless of Our signs.

Section 10 (Those who heed Warning will Benefit)

10:93           And certainly We lodged the Children of Israel in a goodly abode and provided them with good things. Then they did not dif­fer till the knowledge came to them. Surely your Lord will judge between them on the day of Resurrection in that in which they differed.

10:94           But if you are in doubt as to what We have reveal­ed to you, ask those who read the Book before you. Certainly the Truth has come to you from your Lord, so do not be one of the doubters,

10:95           nor be of those who reject the messages of Allah, (for) then you will be from among the losers.

10:96           Surely those against whom the word of your Lord has proved true will not believe,

10:97           though every sign should come to them, till they see the painful punishment.

10:98           And why was there not a town which believed, so that their belief should have benefited them, but the people of Jonah? When they believed, We removed from them the punishment of disgrace in this world’s life, and We gave them provision for a while.

10:99           And if your Lord had pleased, all those who are in the earth would have believed, all of them. Will you then force people till they are believers?

10:100       And it is not for any soul to believe except by Allah’s permission. And He casts uncleanness on those who will not understand.

10:101       Say: Look at what is in the heavens and the earth! And signs and warners do not avail a people who do not believe.

10:102       What do they wait for, then, but the like of the days of those who passed away before them? Say: Wait then; I too am waiting along with you.

10:103       Then We deliver Our messen­gers and those who believe — even so (now); it is binding on Us to deliver the believers.

Section 11 (Divine Judgment)

10:104       Say: O people, if you are in doubt as to my religion, (know that) I do not serve those whom you serve besides Allah, but I serve Allah, Who causes you to die; and I am commanded to be one of the believers,

10:105       and that you set yourself for the religion, being upright; and do not be of those who set up partners (with Allah).

10:106       Nor call besides Allah on that which can neither benefit you nor harm you; for if you do, you shall then be of the unjust.

10:107       And if Allah afflicts you with harm, there is none to remove it but He; and if He intends good to you, there is none to repel His grace. He brings it to whom He pleases of His servants. And He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.

10:108       Say: O people, the Truth has indeed come to you from your Lord; so whoever goes aright, goes aright only for the good of his own soul; and whoever goes astray, goes astray only to its detriment. And I am not a custodian over you.

10:109       And follow what is revealed to you and be patient till Allah give judgment, and He is the Best of the judges.

 

Chapter 11

Hūd

Introduction by the translator

The history of the Prophet Hūd is referred to in this chapter. While the last chapter dealt mostly with abstract questions relating to the truth of revelation, this chapter illustrates the truth of those questions by referring to the histories of former prophets. Thus it deals with the histories of Noah, Hūd, Sālih, Abraham, Lot and Shuaib. A cruel and persecuting enemy is warned of the fate that befell previous people. This chapter was revealed during the last four years of the period of the Holy Prophet’s life at Makkah.

Section 1 (A Warning)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

11:1               I, Allah, am the Seer. A Book, whose verses are charac­terized by wisdom, then they are made plain, from One Wise, Aware:

11:2               that you should serve none but Allah. Surely I am to you from Him a warner and a giver of good news.

11:3               And ask for­giveness of your Lord, then turn to Him. He will provide you with a goodly provision to an appointed term, and will bestow His grace on every one endowed with grace. And if you turn away, I fear for you the punishment of a great day.

11:4               To Allah is your return, and He is Powerful over all things.

11:5               Now surely they cover up their breasts to conceal (their enmity) from Him. Now surely, when they put their garments as a covering, He knows what they hide and what they make public. Surely He is Knower of what is in the breasts.

Part 12

11:6               And there is no animal in the earth but on Allah is the sus­tenance of it, and He knows its abode and its repository. All is in a clear record.

11:7               And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods; and His Throne of Power is ever on water  that He might manifest (the good qualities in) you, whoever of you is best in deeds. And if you say, You shall surely be raised up after death, those who disbelieve say: This is nothing but clear deceit.

11:8               And if We delay for them the punishment for a stated period, they will certainly say: What prevents it? Now surely on the day when it will come to them, it will not be averted from them, and what they mocked at will beset them.

Section 2 (Truth of Revelation)

11:9               And if We make man taste mercy from Us, then withdraw it from him, he is surely despairing, ungrateful.

11:10           And if We make him taste a favour after distress has afflicted him, he says: The evils are gone away from me. Certainly he is exultant, boastful,

11:11           except those who are patient and do good. For them is forgive­ness and a great reward.

11:12           Then, may it be that you will give up part of what is revealed to you and your heart will be distressed by it, because they say: Why has not a treasure been sent down for him or an angel come with him? You are only a warner. And Allah is in charge of all things.

11:13           Or, say they: He has forged it. Say: Then bring ten forged chapters like it, and call upon whom you can besides Allah, if you are truthful.

11:14           But if they do not answer you, then know that it is revealed by Allah’s knowledge, and that there is no God but He. Will you then submit?

11:15           Whoever desires this world’s life and its finery — We repay them their deeds in it, and they are not made to suffer loss in it.

11:16           These are they for whom there is nothing but Fire in the Here­after. And what they work in it is fruitless and their deeds are futile.

11:17           Is he then (like these) who has with him clear proof from his Lord, and a witness from Him recites it, and before it (is) the Book of Moses, a guide and a mercy? These believe in it. And whoever of the parties disbelieves in it, the Fire is his promised place. So do not be in doubt about it. Surely it is the truth from your Lord, but most people do not believe.

11:18           And who is more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah? These will be brought before their Lord, and the witnesses will say: These are they who lied against their Lord. Now surely the curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers,

11:19           who hinder (people) from the path of Allah and desire to make it crooked. And they are disbelievers in the Hereafter.

11:20           These will not escape in the earth, nor do they have guardians besides Allah. The punishment will be doubled for them. They could not bear to hear, and they did not see.

11:21           These are they who have lost their souls, and what they forged is gone from them.

11:22           Truly in the Hereafter they are the greatest losers.

11:23           Surely those who believe and do good and humble them­selves before their Lord, these are the owners of the Garden; in it they will abide.

11:24           The likeness of the two parties is as the blind and the deaf, and the seer and the hearer. Are they equal in con­dition? Will you not then be mindful?

Section 3 (History of Noah)

11:25           And certainly We sent Noah to his people (saying): Surely I am a plain warner to you,

11:26           to serve none but Allah. Indeed I fear for you the punishment of a painful day.

11:27           But the chiefs of his people who disbelieved said: We do not see you but (as) a mortal like us, nor do we see that any follow you but those who are the lowest of us at first thought. Nor do we see in you any superiority over us; no, we think you to be liars.

11:28           He said: My people, do you see if I have with me clear proof from my Lord, and He has granted me mercy from Himself and it has been made obscure to you? Can we compel you to (accept) it while you dislike it?

11:29           And, my people, I do not ask you for wealth (in return) for it. My reward is only with Allah, and I am not going to drive away those who believe. Surely they will meet their Lord, but I see you a people who are ignorant.

11:30           And, my people, who will help me against Allah, if I drive them away? Will you not then be mindful?

11:31           And I do not say to you that I have the treasures of Allah, nor do I know the unseen, nor do I say that I am an angel. Nor do I say about those whom your eyes scorn that Allah will not grant them (any) good — Allah knows best what is in their souls — for then indeed I should be of the wrongdoers.

11:32           They said: Noah, indeed you have disputed with us and prolonged dispute with us, so bring upon us what you threaten us with, if you are truthful.

11:33           He said: Only Allah will bring it on you, if He please, and you will not escape;

11:34           and my advice will not benefit you, if I intend to give you good advice, if Allah intends to destroy you. He is your Lord; and to Him you will be brought back.

11:35           Or do they say: He has forged it? Say: If I have forged it, on me is my guilt; and I am free of what you are guilty of.

Section 4 (History of Noah)

11:36           And it was revealed to Noah: None of your people will believe except those who have already believed, so do not grieve at what they do;

11:37           and make the ark under Our eyes and Our reve­lation, and do not speak to Me on behalf of those who are unjust. Surely they will be drowned.

11:38           And he began to make the ark. And whenever the chiefs of his people passed by him, they laughed at him. He said: If you laugh at us, surely we, too, laugh at you as you laugh (at us).

11:39           So you shall know who it is on whom will come a punishment which will disgrace him, and on whom a lasting punishment will fall.

11:40           At length when Our command came and water gushed forth from the valley, We said: Carry in it two of all things, a pair, and your own family — except those against whom the word has already gone forth — and those who believe. And only a few believed with him.

11:41           And he said: Embark in it, in the name of Allah be its sailing and its anchoring. Surely my Lord is For­giv­ing, Merciful.

11:42           And it moved on with them amid waves like mountains. And Noah called out to his son, who was apart: My son, embark with us and do not be with the disbelievers.

11:43           He said: I will take refuge on a mountain that will save me from the water. He said: There is none safe today from Allah’s command, but he on whom He has mercy. And a wave intervened between them, so he was among the drowned.

11:44           And it was said: O earth, swallow your water, and O cloud, clear away. And the water was made to subside, and the affair was decided, and it rested on the Jūdī, and it was said: Away with the wrongdoing people!

11:45           And Noah cried to his Lord and said: My Lord, surely my son is of my family, and Your promise is true, and You are the most just of the judges.

11:46           He said: O Noah, he is not of your family; he is (an embodiment of) unrighteous conduct. So do not ask of Me that of which you have no knowledge. I admo­nish you so you may not be of the ignorant ones.

11:47           He said: My Lord, I seek refuge in You from asking of You that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have mercy on me, I shall be among the losers.

11:48           It was said: O Noah, descend with peace from Us and blessing on you and on nations (spring­ing) from those with you. And there are nations whom We afford provisions, then a painful punishment from Us afflicts them.

11:49           These are announcements relating to the unseen which We reveal to you; you did not know them — (neither) you nor your people — before this. So be patient. Surely the (good) end is for the dutiful.

Section 5 (History of Hūd)

11:50           And to Ād (We sent) their brother Hūd. He said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. You are only fabricators.

11:51           My people, I ask of you no reward for it. My reward is only with Him Who created me. Do you not then under­stand?

11:52           And, my people, ask forgiveness of your Lord, then turn to Him, He will send on you clouds pouring down abundance of rain and add strength to your strength, and do not turn back, guilty.

11:53           They said: Hūd, you have brought us no clear argument, and we are not going to desert our gods for your word, and we are not believers in you.

11:54           We say nothing but that some of our gods have struck you with evil. He said: Surely I call Allah to witness, and you should bear witness too, that I am innocent of what you set up (with Allah)

11:55           besides Him. So scheme against me all together, then give me no respite.

11:56           Surely I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord. There is no living creature but He grasps it by its forelock. Surely my Lord is on the right path.

11:57           But if you turn away, then indeed I have delivered to you the message with which I am sent to you. And my Lord will bring another people in your place, and you cannot do Him any harm. Surely my Lord is the Preserver of all things.

11:58           And when Our commandment came to pass, We delivered Hūd and those who believed with him with mercy from Us; and We delivered them from a hard punishment.

11:59           And such were Ād. They denied the messages of their Lord, and disobeyed His messen­gers and followed the bidding of every insolent opposer (of truth).

11:60           And they were overtaken by a curse in this world and on the day of Resurrection. Now surely Ād disbelieved in their Lord. Now surely, away with Ād, the people of Hūd!

Section 6 (History of Sālih)

11:61           And to Thamūd (We sent) their brother Sālih. He said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. He brought you forth from the earth and made you dwell in it, so ask forgiveness of Him, then turn to Him. Surely my Lord is near, answering.

11:62           They said: Sālih, you were among us a centre of (our) hopes before this. Do you forbid us to worship what our fathers worshipped? And surely we are in grave doubt about that to which you call us.

11:63           He said: My people, do you see if I have clear proof from my Lord and He has granted me mercy from Himself — who will then help me against Allah, if I disobey Him? So you would add to me nothing but perdition.

11:64           And, my people, this is Allah’s she-camel, a sign for you, so leave her to pasture on Allah’s earth and do her no harm, or a punishment will soon come upon you.

11:65           But they hamstrung her, so he said: Enjoy yourselves in your houses for three days. That is a promise not to be belied.

11:66           So when Our commandment came to pass, We saved Sālih and those who believed with him by mercy from Us from the dis­grace of that day. Surely your Lord — He is the Strong, the Mighty.

11:67           And the cry overtook those who did wrong, so they were motion­less bodies in their abodes,

11:68           as though they had never dwelt in them. Now surely Thamūd disbelieved in their Lord. So away with Thamūd!

Section 7 (Abraham and Lot)

11:69           And certainly Our messengers came to Abraham with good news. They said: ‘Peace!’ ‘Peace!’, said he. And he made no delay in bringing a roasted calf.

11:70           But when he saw that their hands did not reach to it, he mistrusted them and conceived fear of them. They said: Do not fear; we have been sent to Lot’s people.

11:71           And his wife was standing (by), so she wondered. Then We gave her the good news of Isaac, and beyond Isaac, of Jacob.

11:72           She said: O wonder! Shall I bear a son when I am an extremely old woman, and this my husband an extremely old man? This is a wonderful thing indeed!

11:73           They said: Do you wonder at Allah’s commandment? The mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, people of the house! Surely He is Praised, Glorious.

11:74           So when fear departed from Abraham and good news came to him, he began to plead with Us for Lot’s people.

11:75           Surely Abraham was forbearing, tender-hearted, oft-returning (to Allah).

11:76           O Abraham, cease from this. Surely the decree of your Lord has gone forth and a punishment must come to them which cannot be averted.

11:77           And when Our messengers came to Lot, he was grieved for them, and he was unable to protect them, and said: This is a distressful day!

11:78           And his people came to him, (as if) driven on towards him, and they were used to the doing of evil deeds before. He said: My people, these are my daughters — they are purer for you; so guard against (the punishment of) Allah and do not disgrace me about my guests. Is there not among you any right-minded man?

11:79           They said: Certainly you know that we have no claim on your daughters, and you know what we desire.

11:80           He said: If only I had the power to repel you! — rather I shall have recourse to a strong support.

11:81           They said: Lot, we are the messengers of your Lord. They shall not reach you. So travel with your people for a part of the night — and let none of you turn back — except your wife. Surely whatsoever befalls them shall befall her. Surely their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near?

11:82           So when Our decree came to pass, We turned them upside down, and rained on them stones, as decreed, one after another,

11:83           marked (for punish­ment) with your Lord. And it is not far off from the wrongdoers.

Section 8 (History of Shuaib)

11:84           And to Midian (We sent) their brother Shuaib. He said: My people, serve Allah, you have no god other than Him. And do not give short measure and weight. I see you in prosperity, and I fear for you the punishment of an all-encompassing day.

11:85           And, my people, give full measure and weight justly, and do not defraud people of their things, nor act corruptly in the land, making mischief.

11:86           What remains with Allah is better for you, if you are believers. And I am not a keeper over you.

11:87           They said: Shuaib, does your prayer enjoin you that we should give up what our fathers worshipped or that we should not do what we please with regard to our property? So you are the one who is the forbearing, the right-directing!

11:88           He said: My people, do you see if I have a clear proof from my Lord and He has given me a goodly sustenance from Himself? And I do not desire to act in opposition to you, in what I forbid you. I desire nothing but reform, so far as I am able. And with none but Allah is the direction of my affair to a right issue. In Him I trust and to Him I turn.

11:89           And, my people, do not let opposition to me make you guilty so that there may befall you the like of what befell the people of Noah, or the people of Hūd, or the people of Sālih. Nor are the people of Lot far off from you.

11:90           And ask forgiveness of your Lord, then turn to Him. Surely my Lord is Merciful, Loving-kind.

11:91           They said: Shuaib, we do not understand much of what you say and surely we see you to be weak among us. And if it were not for your family, we would surely stone you, and you are not strong against us.

11:92           He said: My people, is my family more esteemed by you than Allah? And you neglect Him as a thing cast behind your backs! Surely my Lord encompasses what you do.

11:93           And, my people, act according to your ability, I too am acting. You will soon know upon whom will come the punishment, that will dis­grace him, and who is a liar. And watch, surely I too am watch­ing with you.

11:94           And when Our decree came to pass, We delivered Shuaib and those who believed with him by mercy from Us. And the cry overtook those who did wrong, so they were motionless bodies in their abodes,

11:95           as though they had never dwelt in them. So away with Midian, just as Thamūd perished!

Section 9 (The Wrongdoers and the Righteous)

11:96           And certainly We sent Moses with Our signs and a clear authority,

11:97           to Pharaoh and his chiefs, but they followed the bid­ding of Pharaoh; and Pharaoh’s bidding was not right-directing.

11:98           He will lead his people on the day of Resurrection, and bring them down to the Fire. And evil the place to which they are brought!

11:99           And they are followed by a curse in this (world), and on the day of Resurrection. Evil the gift which shall be given!

11:100       This is an account of the towns which We relate to you. Of them are some that stand and (others) mown down.

11:101       And We did not wrong them but they wronged themselves. And their gods whom they called upon besides Allah did not avail them in the least when the decree of your Lord came to pass. And they added to them nothing but ruin.

11:102       And such is the punishment of your Lord, when He punishes the towns while they are wrongdoers. Surely His punishment is painful, severe.

11:103       Surely there is a sign in this for him who fears the punishment of the Hereafter. That is a day on which people will be gathered together, and that is a day to be witnessed.

11:104       And We do not delay it but for an appointed term.

11:105       On the day when it comes, no soul will speak except by His permission; so (some) of them will be unhappy and (others) happy.

11:106       Then as for those who are unhappy, they will be in the Fire; for them there will be in it sighing and groaning —

11:107       abiding in it so long as the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord please. Surely your Lord is Doer of what He intends.

11:108       And as for those who are made happy, they will be in the Garden abiding in it so long as the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord please — a gift never to be cut off.

11:109       So do not be in doubt as to what these (people) worship. They worship only as their fathers worshipped before. And surely We shall pay them in full their due undiminished.

Section 10 (Believers are comforted)

11:110       And indeed We gave Moses the Book, but differences arose concerning it. And if a word had not already gone forth from your Lord, judgment would have been given between them. And they are surely in a disquieting doubt about it.

11:111       And your Lord will surely pay back to all their deeds in full. He indeed is Aware of what they do.

11:112       Continue, then, in the right way as you are commanded, as also (should) those who turn (to Allah) with you. And do not be inordinate (O people). Surely He is Seer of what you do.

11:113       And do not incline to those who do wrong, so that the fire touch you; and you have no protectors besides Allah, then you would not be helped.

11:114       And keep up prayer at the two ends of the day and in the first hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds. This is a reminder for the mindful.

11:115       And be patient, for surely Allah does not waste the reward of the doers of good.

11:116       Why were there not, then, among the generations before you, those possessing understanding who forbade mischief in the earth except a few among them whom We delivered? And the unjust pursued the enjoyment of plenty, and they were guilty.

11:117       And your Lord would not destroy towns unjustly, while their people acted well.

11:118       And if your Lord pleased, He would have made people a single nation. And they do not cease to differ,

11:119       except those on whom your Lord has mercy; and for this did He create them. And the word of your Lord is fulfilled: I will cer­tainly fill hell with jinn and people, all together.

11:120       And all We relate to you from the account of the messen­gers is to strengthen your heart with it. And in this has come to you the truth and an admonition and a reminder for the believers.

11:121       And say to those who do not believe: Act according to your power, surely we too are acting;

11:122       and wait, surely we too are waiting.

11:123       And Allah’s is the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and to Him the whole affair will be returned. So serve Him and put your trust in Him. And your Lord is not heedless of what you do.

 

Chapter 12

Yūsuf: Joseph

Introduction by the translator

This entire chapter gives a continuous account of the history of Joseph. At the beginning and the end it indicates that the purpose is to foretell the ultimate triu­mph of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and the final submission of those who were plotting against his life. It is also prophesied here that the mutual deal­ings of the Holy Prophet and his enemies would be similar to the deal­ings of Joseph and his brothers: they would persecute him but he would forgive them when they would ultimately come before him in submission. This chapter was revealed during the last four years of the period of the Holy Prophet’s life at Makkah.

Section 1 (Joseph’s Vision)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

12:1               I, Allah, am the Seer. These are the verses of the Book that makes manifest.

12:2               Surely We have revealed it — an Arabic Quran — that you may understand.

12:3               We narrate to you the best of narratives, in that We have revealed to you this Quran, though before this you were of those who are unaware.

12:4               When Joseph said to his father: My father, I saw eleven stars and the sun and the moon — I saw them making submission to me.

12:5               He said: My son, do not relate your dream to your brothers, in case they devise a plan against you. The devil indeed is an open enemy to man.

12:6               And thus will your Lord choose you and teach you the interpretation of sayings, and make His favour complete to you and to the Children of Jacob, as He made it complete before to your fathers, Abraham and Isaac. Surely your Lord is Knowing, Wise.

Section 2 (Plot against Joseph by his Brothers)

12:7               Surely in Joseph and his brothers there are signs for the inquirers.

12:8               When they said: Certainly Joseph and his brother  are dearer to our father than we, though we are a (strong) company. Surely our father is in clear error —

12:9               Kill Joseph or banish him to some (other) land, so that your father’s regard may be exclusively for you, and after that you may be a righteous people.

12:10           A speaker among them said: Do not kill Joseph, but, if you are going to do anything, cast him down to the bottom of the well. Some of the travellers may pick him up.

12:11           They said: Our father, why do you not trust us with Joseph, and surely we are his sincere well-wishers?

12:12           Send him with us tomorrow that he may enjoy himself and play, and we shall surely guard him well.

12:13           He said: Indeed it grieves me that you should take him away and I fear that the wolf may eat him while you are careless of him.

12:14           They said: If the wolf should eat him while we are so many, we should then certainly be losers.

12:15           So when they took him away and agreed to put him down at the bottom of the pit, We revealed to him: You will certainly inform them of this affair of theirs while they do not realize.

12:16           And they came to their father at nightfall, weeping.

12:17           They said: Our father, we went off racing with one another and left Joseph by our goods, so the wolf ate him. And you will not believe us, though we are truthful.

12:18           And they came with false blood on his shirt. He said: Indeed, your souls have made it a light matter for you. So patience is best. And Allah is He Whose help is sought against what you describe.

12:19           And travellers came, and they sent their water-drawer and he let down his bucket. He said: Good news! This is a youth. And they concealed him as an article of merchandise, and Allah knew what they did.

12:20           And they sold him for a small price, a few pieces of silver, and they showed no desire for him.

Section 3 (Joseph’s Firmness under Temptation)

12:21           And the Egyptian who bought him said to his wife: Make his stay honourable. Maybe he will be useful to us, or we may adopt him as a son. And thus We established Joseph in the land, and that We might teach him the interpretation of sayings. And Allah has full control over His affair, but most people do not know.

12:22           And when he attained his maturity, We gave him wisdom and knowledge. And thus do We reward the doers of good.

12:23           And she in whose house he was, sought to seduce him, and bolted the doors and said: Come. He said: Allah forbid! Surely my Lord made good my abode. The wrongdoers never prosper.

12:24           And certainly she desired him, and he would have desired her if he had not seen the clear evidence of his Lord. Thus (it was) that We might turn away from him evil and indecency. Surely he was one of Our chosen servants.

12:25           And they raced with one another to the door, and she tore his shirt from behind, and they met her husband at the door. She said: What is the penalty for one who intends evil to your wife, except imprisonment or a painful punishment?

12:26           He said: She sought to seduce me. And a witness of her own family bore wit­ness: If his shirt is torn in front, she speaks the truth and he is a liar.

12:27           And if his shirt is torn from behind, she tells a lie and he is truthful.

12:28           So when he saw his shirt torn from behind, he said: Surely it is an intrigue of you women. Your intrigue is indeed great!

12:29           Joseph, turn aside from this. And (my wife), ask forgive­ness for your sin. Surely you are one of the sinful.

Section 4 (Joseph is imprisoned)

12:30           And women in the city said: The chief’s wife seeks to seduce her slave. He has indeed affected her deeply with (his) love. Truly we see her in clear error.

12:31           So when she heard of their scheming, she sent for them and prepared for them a feast, and gave each of them a knife, and said (to Joseph): Come out to them. So when they saw him, they thought him great, and cut their hands (in amazement), and said: Holy Allah! This is not a mortal! This is but a noble angel.

12:32           She said: This is he about whom you blamed me. And certainly I sought to seduce him, but he was firm in self-restraint. And if he does not do what I order him, he shall certainly be imprisoned, and he shall certainly be degraded.

12:33           He said: My Lord, the prison is dearer to me than that to which they invite me. And if You do not turn away their intrigue from me, I shall yearn towards them and be one of the ignorant.

12:34           So his Lord accepted his prayer and turned away their intrigue from him. Surely He is the Hearer, the Knower.

12:35           Then it occurred to them after they had seen the signs that they should imprison him for a while.

Section 5 (Joseph’s Preaching in Prison)

12:36           And two youths entered the prison with him. One of them said: I saw myself pressing wine. And the other said: I saw myself carrying bread on my head, from which birds were eating. Inform us of its interpretation; surely we see you to be from among the doers of good.

12:37           He said: The food with which you are fed shall not come to you, but I shall inform you of its interpretation before it comes to you. This is from what my Lord has taught me. Surely I have forsaken the religion of a people who do not believe in Allah, and are deniers of the Hereafter.

12:38           And I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. It does not befit us to set up any partner with Allah. This is by Allah’s grace upon us and on mankind, but most people do not give thanks.

12:39           My two fellow-prisoners, are various lords better or Allah the One, the Supreme?

12:40           You do not serve besides Him but names which you have named, you and your fathers — Allah has sent down no authority for them. Judgment is only Allah’s. He has commanded that you serve none but Him. This is the right religion, but most people do not know.

12:41           My two fellow-prisoners, as for one of you, he will serve wine for his lord to drink; and as for the other, he will be cruci­fied, so that birds will eat from his head. The matter is decreed concerning which you inquired.

12:42           And he said to him whom he knew would be delivered of the two: Remember me with your lord. But the devil caused him to forget mentioning (it) to his lord, so he remained in the prison a few years.

Section 6 (The King’s Vision interpreted by Joseph)

12:43           And the king said: I have seen seven fat cows which seven lean ones devoured, and seven green ears and (seven) others dry. Chiefs, explain to me my dream, if you can interpret the dream.

12:44           They said: Confused dreams, and we do not know the interpre­tation of dreams.

12:45           And of the two, he who had found deliverance and remembered after a long time said: I will inform you of its inter­pretation, so send me.

12:46           Joseph, truthful one, explain to us seven fat cows which seven lean ones devoured, and seven green ears and (seven) others dry, that I may go back to the people so that they may know.

12:47           He said: You shall sow for seven years as usual, then what you reap, leave it in its ear, except a little which you eat.

12:48           Then after that will come seven years of hardship, which will eat away all you have beforehand stored for them, except a little which you have preserved.

12:49           Then after that will come a year in which people will have rain and in which they will press (grapes).

Section 7 (Joseph cleared of the Charges)

12:50           And the king said: Bring him to me. So when the messen­ger came to him, he said: Go back to your lord and ask him, what is the case of the women who cut their hands? Surely my Lord knows their intrigue.

12:51           (The king) said: What was your business when you sought to seduce Joseph? They said: Holy Allah! We knew of no evil on his part. The chief’s wife said: Now has the truth come out. I sought to seduce him and he is surely truthful.

12:52           (Joseph said:) This is that he might know that I have not been unfaithful to him in secret, and that Allah does not guide the plan of the unfaithful.

Part 13

12:53           And I do not call myself sinless; surely (man’s) self is apt to command evil, except those on whom my Lord has mercy. Surely my Lord is Forgiving, Merciful.

12:54           And the king said: Bring him to me, I will choose him for myself. So when he talked with him, he said: Surely you are in our presence today dignified, trusted.

12:55           He said: Place me (in autho­rity) over the treasures of the land; surely I am a good keeper, knowing well.

12:56           And thus did We give to Joseph power in the land — he had mastery in it wherever he liked. We bestow Our mercy on whom We please, and We do not waste the reward of the doers of good.

12:57           And certainly the reward of the Hereafter is better for those who believe and guard against evil.

Section 8 (Joseph helps his Brothers)

12:58           And Joseph’s brothers came and went in to (see) him, and he knew them, while they did not recognize him.

12:59           And when he furnished them with their provision, he said: Bring me a brother of yours from your father. Do you not see that I give full measure and that I am the best of hosts?

12:60           But if you do not bring him to me, you shall have no measure (of corn) from me, nor shall you come near me.

12:61           They said: We shall try to make his father yield about him, and we are sure to do (it).

12:62           And he said to his servants: Put their money into their bags that they may recognize it when they go back to their family, so that they may come back.

12:63           So when they returned to their father, they said: Our father, the measure is withheld from us, so send with us our brother that we may get the measure, and we will surely guard him.

12:64           He said: Can I trust you with him, except as I trusted you with his brother before? So Allah is the Best Keeper, and He is the most Merciful of those who show mercy.

12:65           And when they opened their goods, they found their money returned to them. They said: Our father, what (more) can we desire? This is our property returned to us, and we shall bring corn for our family and guard our brother, and have in addition the measure of a camel-load. This is an easy measure.

12:66           He said: I will by no means send him with you, until you give me a firm promise in Allah’s name that you will bring him back to me, unless you are completely surrounded. And when they gave him their promise, he said: Allah is Guardian over what we say.

12:67           And he said: My sons, do not enter by one gate but enter by different gates. And I cannot avail you against (the decree of) Allah at all. Judgment is only Allah’s. On Him I rely, and on Him let the reliant rely.

12:68           And when they entered as their father had instructed them, it did not avail them against Allah at all, but (it was only) a desire in the soul of Jacob, which he satisfied. And surely he was possessed of knowledge, because We had given him knowledge, but most people do not know.

Section 9 (The Youngest Brother)

12:69           And when they came to Joseph, he lodged his brother with himself, saying: I am your brother, so do not grieve at what they do.

12:70           Then when he furnished them with their provision, (some­one) placed the drinking-cup in his brother’s bag. Then a crier cried out: O caravan, you are surely thieves!

12:71           They said, turning towards them: What is it that you miss?

12:72           They said: We miss the king’s drinking-cup, and he who brings it shall have a camel-load, and I am responsible for it.

12:73           They said: By Allah! You know for certain that we have not come to make mischief in the land, and we are not thieves.

12:74           They said: But what is the penalty for this, if you are liars?

12:75           They said: The penalty for this — the person in whose bag it is found, he himself is the penalty for it. Thus do we punish the wrongdoers.

12:76           So he began with their sacks before the sack of his brother, then he brought it out from his brother’s sack. Thus did We plan for the sake of Joseph. He could not take his brother under the king’s law, unless Allah pleased. We raise in degree whom We please. And above everyone possessed of knowledge is the All-Knowing One.

12:77           They said: If he steal, a brother of his did indeed steal before. But Joseph kept it secret in his mind, and did not disclose it to them. He said: You are in an evil condition, and Allah knows best what you state.

12:78           They said: O chief, he has a father, a very old man, so take one of us in his place. Surely we see you to be one of the doers of good.

12:79           He said: Allah forbid that we should seize other than him with whom we found our property, for then surely we should be unjust!

Section 10 (Joseph discloses his Identity)

12:80           So when they despaired of (persuading) him, they conferred together privately. The eldest of them said: Do you not know that your father took from you a promise in Allah’s name, and how you fell short of your duty about Joseph before? So I shall not leave this land, until my father permits me or Allah decides for me; and He is the Best of the judges.

12:81           Go back to your father and say: Our father, your son committed theft. And we bear witness only to what we know, and we could not keep watch over the unseen.

12:82           And ask the town where we were, and the cara­van with which we proceeded. And surely we are truthful.

12:83           (Jacob) said: No, your souls have contrived an affair for you, so patience is best. Maybe Allah will bring them together to me. Surely He is the Knowing, the Wise.

12:84           And he turned away from them, and said: My sorrow for Joseph! And his eyes were filled  (with tears) on account of the grief, then he repressed (grief).

12:85           They said: By Allah! You will not cease remembering Joseph till you are a prey to disease or you perish.

12:86           He said: I complain of my grief and sorrow only to Allah, and I know from Allah what you do not know.

12:87           My sons, go and inquire about Joseph and his brother, and do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Surely none despairs of Allah’s mercy except the disbelieving people.

12:88           So when they came to him, they said: O chief, distress has afflicted us and our family, and we have brought little money, so give us full measure and be charitable to us. Surely Allah rewards the charitable.

12:89           He said: Do you know how you treated Joseph and his brother, when you were ignorant?

12:90           They said: Are you indeed Joseph? He said: I am Joseph and this is my brother; Allah has indeed been gracious to us. Surely he who keeps his duty and is patient — Allah never wastes the reward of the doers of good.

12:91           They said: By Allah! Allah has indeed chosen you over us, and we were certainly sinners.

12:92           He said: There is no reproach against you this day. Allah may forgive you, and He is the most Merciful of those who show mercy.

12:93           Take this shirt of mine and cast it before my father’s face — he will come to know. And bring to me all your family.

Section 11 (Jacob goes to Egypt)

12:94           And when the caravan left (Egypt), their father said: Surely I scent (the power of) Joseph, if you do not call me weak of mind.

12:95           They said: By Allah! you are surely in your old error.

12:96           Then when the bearer of good news came, he cast it before his face so he became certain. He said: Did I not say to you that I know from Allah what you do not know?

12:97           They said: Our father, ask forgiveness of our sins for us, surely we are sinners.

12:98           He said: I shall ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. Surely He is the For­giving, the Merciful.

12:99           Then when they came to Joseph, he lodged his parents with himself and said: Enter Egypt in safety, if Allah please.

12:100       And he raised his parents on the throne, and they fell prostrate for his sake. And he said: My father, this is the significance of my earlier vision — my Lord has made it true. And He was indeed kind to me, when He brought me forth from the prison, and brought you from the desert after the devil had sown dissensions between me and my brothers. Surely my Lord is Benignant to whom He pleases. Truly He is the Knowing, the Wise.

12:101       My Lord, You have given me kingdom and taught me something of the inter­pretation of sayings. Originator of the heavens and the earth, You are my Friend in this world and the Hereafter. Make me die in sub­mission and join me with the righteous.

12:102       This is from the announcements relating to the unseen (which) We reveal to you, and you were not with them when they resolved upon their affair, and they were devising plans.

12:103       And most people do not believe, though you desire it eagerly.

12:104       And you ask them no reward for it. It is nothing but a Reminder for the nations.

Section 12 (A Lesson for the Prophet’s Opponents)

12:105       And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth do they pass by, yet they turn away from it!

12:106       And most of them do not believe in Allah without setting up partners (with Him).

12:107       Do they then feel secure from the coming to them of an all-encom­pass­ing punishment from Allah or from the coming to them of the hour suddenly, while they do not perceive?

12:108       Say: This is my way; I call to Allah, with certain know­ledge — I and those who follow me. And glory be to Allah! and I am not of those who set up partners (with Allah).

12:109       And We did not send before you any but men, from the people of the towns, to whom We sent revelation. Have they not then travelled in the land and seen what was the end of those before them? And certainly the abode of the Hereafter is best for those who keep their duty. Do you not then understand?

12:110       Until, when the messengers des­paired and (the people) thought that they were told a lie, Our help came to them, and whom We pleased was delivered. And Our punishment is not averted from the guilty people.

12:111       In their histories there is certainly a lesson for those who have under­standing. It is not a narrative which could be forged, but a verification of what is before it, and a distinct explanation of all things, and a guide and a mercy to a people who believe.

 

Chapter 13

Al-Ra‘d: Thunder

Introduction by the translator

This chapter is named Thunder from the analogy of rain which is often likened to revelation in the Quran. As rain is accompanied by thunder and lighten­ing, so is revelation accompanied by warning of punishment, although its real pur­pose is mercy. The chapter points to signs in physical nature to the truth of revelation and deals with the demand from the dis­believers to see the sign of punishment befalling them. It then tells them about the Divine laws which govern reward and punishment, and explains that the real miracles were the spiritual life that the Quran awakened in people and the trans­forma­tion it would bring in the world despite facing great mountains of obstacles. This chapter was revealed during the last four years of the period of the Holy Prophet’s life at Makkah.

Section 1 (Truth of Revelation)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

13:1               I, Allah, am the Best Knower, the Seer. These are verses of the Book. And what is revealed to you from your Lord is the Truth, but most people do not believe.

13:2               Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see, and He is established on the Throne of Power, and He made the sun and the moon subservient (to you). Each one runs to an appointed term. He regulates the affair, making clear the messages that you may be certain of the meeting with your Lord.

13:3               And He it is Who spread the earth, and made in it firm mountains and rivers. And of all fruits He has made in it pairs, two (of every kind). He makes the night cover the day. Surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.

13:4               And in the earth are tracts side by side, and gardens of vines, and corn, and palm-trees growing from one root and distinct roots — they are watered with one water; and We make some of them to excel others in fruit. Surely there are signs in this for a people who understand.

13:5               And if you wonder, then wondrous is their saying: When we are dust, shall we then be raised in a new creation? These are they who disbelieve in their Lord, and these have chains on their necks, and they are the companions of the Fire; in it they will abide.

13:6               And they ask you to hasten on the evil before the good, and indeed there have been exemplary punishments before them. And surely your Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind despite their wrongdoing. And surely your Lord is Severe in retribution.

13:7               And those who disbelieve say: Why has not a sign been sent down to him from his Lord? You are only a warner and for every people a guide.

Section 2 (Fall and Rise of Nations)

13:8               Allah knows what every female bears, and what the wombs fall short of completing and what they grow. And everything with Him has a measure.

13:9               The Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Great, the Most High.

13:10           Alike (to Him) among you is he who conceals the word and he who speaks openly, and he who hides himself by night and (who) goes forth by day.

13:11           For him are (angels) guarding the consequences (of his deeds), before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah’s command. Surely Allah does not change the condition of a people, until they change their own condition. And when Allah intends harm to a people, there is no averting it, and besides Him they have no protector.

13:12           He it is Who shows you lightning causing fear and hope and (Who) brings up the heavy cloud.

13:13           And thunder celebrates His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him. And He sends thunderbolts and strikes with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is Mighty in prowess.

13:14           To Him is due the true prayer. And those to whom they pray besides Him give them no answer, but (they are) like one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it will not reach it. And the prayer of the disbelie­vers is only wasted.

13:15           And whoever is in the heavens and the earth makes submission to Allah only, willingly and unwillingly, and their shadows, too, morning and evening.

13:16           Say: Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: Allah. Say: Do you then take besides Him, guardians who control no benefit or harm even for themselves? Say: Are the blind and the seeing alike? Or, are darkness and light equal? Or, have they set up with Allah partners who have created creation like His, so that what is created became confused to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Supreme.

13:17           He sends down water from the clouds, then watercourses flow according to their measure, and the torrent bears along the swelling foam. And a scum like it arises from what they melt in the fire for the sake of making ornaments or tools. Thus does Allah compare truth and falsehood. Then as for the scum, it passes away as a worthless thing; and as for that which benefits people, it remains behind in the earth. Thus does Allah set forth parables.

13:18           For those who respond to their Lord is good. And as for those who do not respond to Him, even if they had all that is in the earth and as much again, they would certainly offer it for a ransom. As for those, theirs is an evil reckoning and their abode is hell; and evil is the resting-place.

Section 3 (Good and Evil bring their own Reward)

13:19           Is he who knows that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, like him who is blind? Only those who have understanding are mindful —

13:20           those who fulfil the pact of Allah, and do not break the covenant,

13:21           and those who join what Allah has ordered to be joined  and have awe of their Lord, and fear the evil reckoning.

13:22           And those who are steadfast seeking the pleasure of their Lord, and keep up prayer and spend (on good works) out of what We have given them, secretly and openly, and repel evil with good; theirs is the (happy) issue of the abode —

13:23           Gardens of perpetuity, which they will enter along with those who do good from among their fathers and their spouses and their offspring; and the angels will enter in upon them from every gate.

13:24           Peace be on you, because you were constant — how excellent is then the final abode!

13:25           And those who break the covenant of Allah after its con­firmation, and cut apart what Allah has ordered to be joined, and make mischief in the land, for them is the curse, and theirs is the evil end of the abode.

13:26           Allah amplifies provision for whom He pleases, and restricts (it also). And they rejoice in this world’s life. And this world’s life, compared with the Hereafter, is only a temporary enjoyment.

Section 4 (Revolution to be brought about by the Quran)

13:27           And those who disbelieve say: Why is not a sign sent down to him by his Lord? Say: Allah leaves in error whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him) —

13:28           those who believe and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah. Now surely in Allah’s remembrance do hearts find rest.

13:29           Those who believe and do good, a good final state is theirs and a goodly return.

13:30           Thus We have sent you among a nation before which other nations have passed away, that you might recite to them what We have revealed to you, and (still) they deny the Beneficent. Say: He is my Lord, there is no god but He; in Him do I trust and to Him is my return.

13:31           And if there could be a Quran with which the mountains were made to pass away, or the earth were split apart, or the dead were made to speak — indeed, the commandment is wholly Allah’s. Do not those who believe know that, if Allah please, He would certainly guide all the people? And as for those who dis­believe, disaster will not cease to afflict them because of what they do, or it will reach close to their homes, until the promise of Allah come to pass. Surely Allah will not fail in (His) promise.

Section 5 (Opposition will fail)

13:32           And messengers before you were certainly mocked, but I gave respite to those who disbelieved, then I seized them. How (terrible) was then My retribution!

13:33           Is, then, He Who watches every soul as to what it earns (like their associate gods)? And yet they ascribe partners to Allah! Say: Name them. Would you inform Him of what He does not know in the earth, or of an out­ward saying? Rather, their plan is made to seem good to those who disbelieve, and they are kept back from the path. And whom Allah leaves in error, he has no guide.

13:34           For them is punishment in this world’s life, and the punishment of the Hereafter is certainly more grievous. And they have no protector against Allah.

13:35           A parable of the Garden which is promised to those who keep their duty: In it flow rivers. Its fruits are perpetual and (so is) its plenty. Such is the end for those who keep their duty; and the end for the disbelievers is the Fire.

13:36           And those to whom We have given the Book rejoice in what has been revealed to you, and some sects deny a part of it. Say: I am commanded only to serve Allah and not set up partners with Him. To Him do I invite (you), and to Him is my return.

13:37           And thus have We revealed it, a true judgment, in Arabic. And if you follow their low desires after the knowledge that has come to you, you would have against Allah no guardian nor protector.

Section 6 (Steady Progress of Truth)

13:38           And certainly We sent messengers before you and appoin­ted for them wives and children. And it is not in the power of a messenger to bring a sign except by Allah’s permission. For every term there is an appointment.

13:39           Allah effaces what He plea­ses and establishes (what He pleases), and with Him is the basis of the Book.

13:40           Whether We show you part of what We promise them, or cause you to die (before it comes about), your duty is only to deliver the message, and Ours to call (them) to account.

13:41           Do they not see that We are visiting the land, curtailing it of its sides? And Allah pronounces a doom — there is no repeller of His decree. And He is Swift in calling to account.

13:42           And those before them planned indeed, but all planning is Allah’s. He knows what every soul earns. And the disbelievers will come to know for whom is the (good) end of the abode.

13:43           And those who disbelieve say: You are not a messenger. Say: Allah is sufficient for a witness between me and you and whoever has knowledge of the Book.

 

Chapter 14

Ibrāhīm: Abraham

Introduction by the translator

This chapter is named after Abraham, whose prayer is mentioned in verses 35–41. It explains that the work of the Quran is to lead people out of darkness into light, but that previous prophets too, such as Moses, had their message rejected at first. However, in all cases the opposition failed and God’s promise to help the prophet was fulfilled. Truth is confirmed and man brings about his own ruin by rejecting it. Then Abraham’s prayer for the right guidance of his descendants is mentioned and we are told that opposition to the truth will always end in failure. This chapter was revealed during the last four years of the period of the Holy Prophet’s life at Makkah.

Section 1 (Revelation dispels Darkness)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

14:1               I, Allah, am the Seer. A Book which We have revealed to you that you may bring forth people, by their Lord’s permission, from darkness into light, to the way of the Mighty, the Praised One,

14:2               of Allah, Whose is whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And woe to the disbelievers for the severe punish­ment!

14:3               Those who love this world’s life more than the Hereafter, and turn away from Allah’s path, and would have it crooked. Those are far astray.

14:4               And We sent no messenger but with the language of his people, so that he might explain to them clearly. Then Allah leaves in error whom He pleases and He guides whom He pleases. And He is the Mighty, the Wise.

14:5               And certainly We sent Moses with Our messages, saying: Bring forth your people from darkness into light and remind them of the days of Allah. In this are surely signs for every steadfast, grateful one.

14:6               And when Moses said to his people: Call to mind Allah’s favour to you, when He delivered you from Pharaoh’s people, who subjected you to severe torment, and slaughtered your sons and spared your women. And there was a great trial in it from your Lord.

Section 2 (Truth is rejected First)

14:7               And when your Lord made it known: If you are grateful, I will give you more, and if you are ungrateful, My punishment is truly severe.

14:8               And Moses said: If you are ungrateful, you and all those on earth, then Allah is surely Self-sufficient, Praised.

14:9               Has not the account reached you of those before you, of the people of Noah and Ād and Thamūd — and those after them? None knows them but Allah. Their messengers came to them with clear arguments, but they thrust their hands into their mouths and said: We deny what you are sent with, and surely we are in serious doubt about that to which you invite us.

14:10           Their messen­gers said: Is there doubt about Allah, the Maker of the heavens and the earth? He invites you to forgive you your faults and to give you respite till an appointed term. They said: You are nothing but mortals like us; you wish to turn us away from what our fathers used to worship, so bring us clear authority.

14:11           Their messengers said to them: We are nothing but mortals like yourselves, but Allah bestows (His) favours on whom He pleases of His servants. And it is not for us to bring you an autho­rity, except by Allah’s permission. And on Allah let the believers rely.

14:12           And why should we not rely on Allah and He has indeed guided us in our ways? And we would certainly bear with patience your persecution of us. And on Allah should the reliant rely.

Section 3 (Opposition is at last destroyed)

14:13           And those who disbelieved said to their messengers: We will certainly drive you out of our land, unless you come back into our religion. So their Lord revealed to them: We shall certainly destroy the wrongdoers,

14:14           and We shall certainly settle you in the land after them. This is for him who fears standing in My presence and fears My threat.

14:15           And they sought judgment, and every insolent opposer was disappointed:

14:16           Hell is before him and he is given to drink boiling water;

14:17           he drinks it little by little and is not able to swallow it; and death comes to him from every quarter, yet he does not die. And before him is vehement punishment.

14:18           The parable of those who disbelieve in their Lord: Their works are as ashes on which the wind blows hard on a stormy day. They have no power over anything they have earned. That is straying far away.

14:19           Do you not see that Allah created the heavens and the earth with truth? If He please, He will take you away and bring a new creation,

14:20           and that is not difficult for Allah.

14:21           And they will all come forth to Allah, then the weak will say to those who were proud: We were your followers, can you then avert from us any of the punishment of Allah? They will say: If Allah had guided us, we would have guided you. It is the same to us whether we cry or bear patiently; there is no escape for us.

Section 4 (Truth is confirmed)

14:22           And the devil will say, when the matter is decided: Surely Allah promised you a promise of truth, and I promised you, then failed you. And I had no authority over you, except that I called you and you obeyed me; so do not blame me but blame your­selves. I cannot come to your help, nor can you come to my help. I deny your taking me as partner with Allah before. Surely for the unjust is a painful punishment.

14:23           And those who believe and do good are made to enter Gardens, in which rivers flow, abiding in them by their Lord’s permission. Their greeting therein is, Peace!

14:24           Do you not see how Allah sets forth a parable of a good word as a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are high,

14:25           yielding its fruit in every season by the permission of its Lord? And Allah sets forth parables for people that they may be mindful.

14:26           And the parable of an evil word is as an evil tree pulled up from the earth’s surface; it has no stability.

14:27           Allah confirms those who believe with the sure word in this world’s life and in the Hereafter; and Allah leaves the wrongdoers in error; and Allah does what He pleases.

Section 5 (Man’s Injustice in rejecting Truth)

14:28           Do you not see those who change Allah’s favour for dis­belief  and make their people reach the abode of destruction —

14:29           Hell. They will burn in it. And an evil place it is to settle in!

14:30           And they set up equals with Allah to lead astray from His path. Say: Enjoy yourselves, for surely your return is to the Fire.

14:31           Tell My servants who believe to keep up prayer and spend (on good works) out of what We have given them, secretly and openly, before the coming of the day in which there is no barter­ing, nor befriending.

14:32           Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and sent down water from the clouds, then brought forth with it fruits as a sustenance for you, and He has made the ships subservient to you to run their course in the sea by His command, and He has made the rivers subservient to you.

14:33           And He has made subservient to you the sun and the moon, pursuing their courses; and He has made subservient to you the night and the day.

14:34           And He gives you of all that you ask of Him. And if you count Allah’s favours, you will not be able to number them. Surely man is very unjust, very ungrateful.

Section 6 (Abraham’s Prayer)

14:35           And when Abraham said: My Lord, make this city secure, and save me and my sons from worshipping idols.

14:36           My Lord, surely they have led many people astray. So whoever follows me, he is surely of me; and whoever disobeys me, You surely are For­giving, Merciful.

14:37           Our Lord, I have settled a part of my off­spring in a valley unproductive of fruit near Your Sacred House, our Lord, that they may keep up prayer; so make the hearts of some people yearn towards them, and provide them with fruits; perhaps they may be grateful.

14:38           Our Lord, surely You know what we hide and what we proclaim. And nothing is hidden from Allah, either in the earth or in the heaven.

14:39           Praise be to Allah, Who has given me, in old age, Ishmael and Isaac! Surely my Lord is the Hearer of prayer.

14:40           My Lord, make me keep up prayer and (those) from my offspring (too), our Lord, and accept my prayer.

14:41           Our Lord, grant me protection and my parents and the believers on the day when the reckoning comes to pass.

Section 7 (The End of Opposition)

14:42           And do not think Allah to be heedless of what the unjust do. He only gives them respite to a day when the eyes will stare (in terror),

14:43           hastening forward, their heads upraised, their gaze not returning to them, and their hearts vacant.

14:44           And warn people of a day when the punishment will come to them, then the wrong­doers will say: Our Lord, grant us respite for a short while, we will respond to Your call and follow the messengers. Did you not swear before, that there will be no passing away for you?

14:45           And you dwell in the abodes of those who wronged themselves, and it is clear to you how We dealt with them and We made (them) examples for you.

14:46           And they have indeed planned their plan, and their plan is with Allah, though their plan is such that the moun­tains should be moved by it.

14:47           So do not think that Allah will fail in His promise to His messengers. Surely Allah is Mighty, the Lord of retribution.

14:48           On the day when the earth will be changed into a different earth, and the heavens (as well), and they will come forth to Allah, the One, the Supreme.

14:49           And you will see the guilty on that day linked together in chains —

14:50           their shirts made of pitch, and fire cover­ing their faces,

14:51           that Allah may repay each soul what it has earned. Surely Allah is Swift in reckoning.

14:52           This is a message for the people and that they may be warned by it, and that they may know that He is One God, and that those who have understanding may be mindful.

 

Chapter 15

Al-Ḥijr: The Rock

Introduction by the translator

This chapter is named The Rock after the Dwellers of the Rock mentioned in v. 80, whose fate is a warning to those who sought to kill the Holy Prophet. The chapter begins with the grand promise that the Quran shall forever be guarded against all corruption and all attempts to annihilate it (v. 9). It goes on to declare that evil-doers cannot inflict any injury on the chosen ones of God and that the devil’s opposition has always failed. Then it gives examples of how opponents of previous prophets were destroyed. This chapter was revealed at Makkah.

Section 1 (The Quran is guarded)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

15:1               I, Allah, am the Seer. These are the verses of the Book and (of) a Quran that makes clear.

Part 14

15:2               Often will those who disbelieve wish that they were Muslims.

15:3               Leave them to eat and enjoy themselves, and let (false) hope be­guile them, for they will soon know.

15:4               And never did We destroy a town but it had a decree made known.

15:5               No people can hasten on their doom, nor postpone it.

15:6               And they say: You, to whom the Reminder is revealed, you are indeed mad.

15:7               Why do you not bring the angels to us, if you are truthful?

15:8               We do not send angels but with truth, and then they would not be given respite.

15:9               Surely We have revealed the Re­min­d­er, and surely We are its Guardian.

15:10           And certainly We sent (messengers) before you among the sects of old.

15:11           And never did a messenger come to them but they mocked him.

15:12           Thus do We make it enter the hearts of the guilty  —

15:13           they do not believe in it; and the example of the ancients has gone before.

15:14           And even if We open to them a gate of heaven, and they keep on ascending into it,

15:15           they would say: Only our eyes have been covered over, rather we are a people under enchant­ment.

Section 2 (Forces of Evil will be destroyed)

15:16           And certainly We have made strongholds in the heaven, and We have made it attractive for the onlookers,

15:17           and We guard it against every accursed devil,

15:18           but he who steals a hearing; so there follows him a visible flame.

15:19           And the earth — We have spread it out and made in it firm mountains and caused to grow in it of every suitable thing.

15:20           And We have made in it means of subsistence for you and for those (creatures) for whom you do not provide.

15:21           And there is not a thing but with Us are the treasures of it, and We do not send it down but in a known measure.

15:22           And We send the winds ferti­li­zing, then send down water from the clouds, so We give it to you to drink; nor is it you who store it up.

15:23           And surely it is We, Who give life and cause death, and We are the Inheritors.

15:24           And certainly We know those among you who go forward and We certainly know those who lag behind.

15:25           And surely your Lord will gather them together. He indeed is Wise, Knowing.

Section 3 (The Devil’s Opposition to the Righteous)

15:26           And surely We created man of sounding clay, of black mud fashioned into shape.

15:27           And the jinn, We created before of intensely hot fire.

15:28           And when your Lord said to the angels: I am going to create a mortal of sounding clay, of black mud fashioned into shape.

15:29           So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making submission to him.

15:30           So the angels sub­mitted, all of them together —

15:31           but not Iblīs. He refused to be with those who submitted.

15:32           He said: O Iblīs, what is the reason that you are not with those who submit?

15:33           He said: I am not going to submit to a mortal, whom You have created of sounding clay, of black mud fashioned into shape.

15:34           He said: Then go forth, for surely you are driven away,

15:35           and surely on you is a curse till the day of Judgment.

15:36           He said: My Lord, grant me respite till the day when they are raised.

15:37           He said: Surely you are granted respite,

15:38           till the day of the time made known.

15:39           He said: My Lord, as You have judged me to be in error, I shall certainly make (evil) seem good to them on earth, and I shall cause them all to deviate,

15:40           except Your servants from among them, the purified ones.

15:41           He said: This is a right way with Me.

15:42           As regards My servants, you have no authority over them except such of the deviators as follow you.

15:43           And surely hell is the pro­mised place for them all —

15:44           it has seven gates. For each gate is an appointed portion of them.

Section 4 (Mercy for the Righteous — Abraham)

15:45           Surely those who keep their duty are in Gardens and foun­tains.

15:46           Enter them in peace, secure.

15:47           And We shall remove what­ever of bitterness is in their hearts — as brothers, on thrones, facing each other.

15:48           Toil does not afflict them therein, nor will they be ejected from there.

15:49           Inform My servants that I am the Forgiving, the Merciful,

15:50           and that My punishment — that is the painful punishment.

15:51           And inform them of the guests of Abraham.

15:52           When they came to him, they said, Peace! He said: We are afraid of you.

15:53           They said: Do not be afraid, we give you good news of a boy, possessing knowledge.

15:54           He said: Do you give me good news when old age has come upon me? Of what then do you give me good news?

15:55           They said: We give you good news with truth, so do not be from among the despairing ones.

15:56           He said: And who des­pairs of the mercy of his Lord except those in error?

15:57           He said: What is your business, then, messengers?

15:58           They said: We have been sent to a guilty people,

15:59           except Lot’s follo­w­ers. We shall deliver them all,

15:60           except his wife: We ordained that she shall surely be among those who remain behind.

Section 5 (Lot and Shuaib)

15:61           So when the messengers came to Lot’s followers,

15:62           he said: Surely you are an unknown people.

15:63           They said: Indeed, we have come to you with that about which they disputed.

15:64           And we have come to you with the truth, and we are surely truthful.

15:65           So travel with your followers for a part of the night, yourself follow­ing behind them; and let not anyone of you turn round, and go where you are commanded.

15:66           And We made known to him this decree, that the roots of these should be cut off in the morning.

15:67           And the people of the town came rejoicing.

15:68           He said: These are my guests, so do not disgrace me,

15:69           and keep your duty to Allah and do not shame me.

15:70           They said: Did we not forbid you from (entertaining) people?

15:71           He said: These are my daughters, if you are going to do anything.

15:72           By your life! they blindly wan­dered on in their frenzy.

15:73           So the cry overtook them at sunrise;

15:74           thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them stones, as decreed.

15:75           Surely in this are signs for those who take a lesson.

15:76           And it is on a road that still abides.

15:77           Surely in this is a sign for the believers.

15:78           And the dwellers of the grove were indeed wrongdoers:

15:79           So We inflicted retribution on them. And they are both on an open high road.

Section 6 (Dwellers of the Rock and a Warning)

15:80           And the dwellers of the Rock indeed rejected the messen­gers;

15:81           and We gave them Our messages, but they turned away from them;

15:82           and they carved houses in the mountains, in security.

15:83           So the cry overtook them in the morning;

15:84           and what they earned did not avail them.

15:85           And We did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them but with truth. And the Hour is surely com­ing, so turn away with kindly forgiveness.

15:86           Surely your Lord — He is the Creator, the Knower.

15:87           And certainly We have given you seven oft-repeated (verses) and the grand Quran.

15:88           Do not strain your eyes (with desire) at what We have given certain classes of them to enjoy, nor grieve for them, and make yourself gentle to the believers.

15:89           And say: I am indeed the plain warner.

15:90           Like as We sent down on them who took oaths,

15:91           those who divided the Quran into parts.

15:92           So, by your Lord! We shall question them all,

15:93           as to what they did.

15:94           Therefore declare openly what you are commanded, and turn away from those who set up partners (with Allah).

15:95           Surely We are sufficient for you against the scoffers —

15:96           those who set up another god with Allah; so they will come to know.

15:97           And We know indeed that your heart is distressed at what they say;

15:98           so celebrate the praise of your Lord, and be of those who prostrate (before Him).

15:99           And serve your Lord, until there comes to you what is certain.

 

Chapter 16

Al-Naḥl: The Bee

Introduction by the translator

This chapter is so named because the bee, guided by its instinct which is called “revelation” in 16:68, gathers honey from flowers by taking the best of what is in them, producing “a beverage of many colours in which there is healing for human beings” (16:69). Similarly, Divine revelation to the Holy Prophet collected the best in previous revealed teachings and presented it in the Quran, which is also called “a healing” for people (10:57). This chapter begins by mentioning the benefits which God has conferred upon man in physical nature to show that He also bestows upon him spiritual gifts. Those who reject these gifts will come to disgrace but God is slow to punish. Revelation is necessary, but not every person can receive it directly. The best ones are chosen for it. Revelation teaches the doing of good, and the Quran replaces previous revelation. Those who reject it are then com­pared to a flourishing town which is made to suffer because of the ingratitude of its people. Lastly, Muslims are given certain golden directions to follow in order to be a great nation. This chapter was revealed in the last period at Makkah.

Section 1 (Revelation testified to by Nature)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

16:1               Allah’s commandment will come, so do not seek to hasten it. Glory be to Him, and supremely exalted is He above what they set up as partners (with Him)!

16:2               He sends down angels with reve­lation by His command on whom He pleases of His servants, saying: Give the warning that there is no God but Me, so keep your duty to Me.

16:3               He created the heavens and the earth with truth. Supremely exalted is He above what they set up as partners (with Him)!

16:4               He created man from a small life-germ, and lo! he is an open contender.

16:5               And the cattle, He has created them for you. You have in them warm clothing and (other) advantages, and of them you eat.

16:6               And therein is beauty for you, when you drive them back (home) and when you send them out (to pasture).

16:7               And they carry your heavy loads to regions which you could not reach but with distress to yourselves. Surely your Lord is Compassionate, Merci­ful.

16:8               And (He made) horses and mules and asses that you might ride upon them and as an ornament. And He creates what you do not know.

16:9               And upon Allah it rests to show the right way, and there are some deviating (ways). And if He please, He would guide all of you aright.

Section 2 (Nature upholds Unity)

16:10           He it is Who sends down water from the clouds for you; it gives drink, and by it (grow) the trees on which you feed.

16:11           He causes to grow for you by it vegetation, and the olives, and the date-palms, and the grapes, and all the fruits. Surely there is a sign in this for a people who reflect.

16:12           And He has made subservient to you the night and the day and the sun and the moon. And the stars are made subservient by His command. Surely there are signs in this for a people who understand.

16:13           And what He has created for you in the earth is of varied colours. Surely there is a sign in this for a people who are mindful.

16:14           And He it is Who has made the sea subservient that you may eat fresh flesh from it and bring forth from it ornaments which you wear. And you see the ships cleaving through it, so that you seek of His bounty and that you may give thanks.

16:15           And He has cast firm mountains in the earth in case it should quake with you, and rivers and roads that you may go aright,

16:16           and landmarks. And by the stars they find the right way.

16:17           Is He then Who creates like him who does not create? Are you not then mindful?

16:18           And if you would count Allah’s favours, you would not be able to number them. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

16:19           And Allah knows what you conceal and what you do openly.

16:20           And those whom they call on besides Allah created nothing, while they are themselves created.

16:21           Dead (are they), not living. And they do not know when they will be raised.

Section 3 (Denial due to Ignorance)

16:22           Your God is one God: so those who do not believe in the Hereafter, their hearts refuse to know and they are proud.

16:23           Undoubtedly Allah knows what they conceal and what they do openly. Surely He does not love the proud.

16:24           And when it is said to them, What is it that your Lord has revealed, they say, Stories of the ancients!

16:25           That they may bear their burdens in full on the day of Resurrection, and also part of the burdens of those whom they lead astray without knowledge. Ah! evil is what they bear.

Section 4 (The Wicked will come to Disgrace)

16:26           Those before them plotted, so Allah demolished their build­­ing from the foundations, so the roof fell down on them from above them, and the punishment came to them from where they did not perceive.

16:27           Then on the day of Resurrection He will bring them to disgrace and say: Where are My partners, for whose sake you became hostile? Those who are given the knowledge will say: Surely disgrace this day and evil are upon the disbelievers,

16:28           whom the angels cause to die, while they are unjust to them­selves. Then would they offer submission: We did not do any evil. Yes! Surely Allah knows what you did.

16:29           So enter the gates of hell, to abide in it. Evil indeed is the dwelling-place of the proud.

16:30           And it is said to those who guard against evil: What has your Lord revealed? They say, Good. For those who do good in this world is good. And certainly the abode of the Hereafter is better. And excellent indeed is the abode of those who keep their duty —

16:31           Gardens of perpetuity which they enter, in which rivers flow: they have therein what they please. Thus does Allah reward those who keep their duty,

16:32           whom the angels cause to die in purity, saying: Peace be on you! enter the Garden for what you did.

16:33           They only wait that the angels should come to them or that your Lord’s command should come to pass. Thus did those before them. And Allah did not wrong them, but they wronged them­selves.

16:34           So the evil of what they did afflicted them, and what they mocked at beset them.

Section 5 (Prophets are raised to explain)

16:35           And the idolaters say: If Allah pleased we would not have served any but Him, (neither) we nor our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything without (order from) Him. Thus did those before them. But have the messengers any duty except to deliver the message clearly?

16:36           And certainly We raised in every nation a messenger, saying: Serve Allah and shun the devil. Then some of them Allah guided, and for some of them remaining in error was justly due. So travel in the land, then see what was the end of the rejectors.

16:37           If you desire their guidance, yet Allah will not guide him who leads (others) astray, nor do they have any helpers.

16:38           And they swear by Allah their most energetic oaths: Allah will not raise up him who dies. Yes indeed! It is a promise binding on Him, quite true, but most people do not know:

16:39           So that He might make clear to them what they differ about, and that those who disbelieve might know that they were liars.

16:40           Our word for a thing, when We intend it, is only that We say to it: Be; and it is.

Section 6 (Doom of Opponents is coming)

16:41           And those who flee for Allah’s sake after they are opp­ressed, We shall certainly give them a good abode in the world; and the reward of the Hereafter is much greater, if only they knew —

16:42           those who are steadfast and on their Lord they rely.

16:43           And We did not send before you any but men to whom We sent revelation — so ask the followers of the Reminder if you do not know  —

16:44           with clear arguments and Scriptures. And We have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to people what has been revealed to them, and that perhaps they may reflect.

16:45           Are they, then, who plan evil (plans), secure that Allah will not humble them in the earth, or that punishment will not come upon them from where they do not perceive?

16:46           Or that He will not seize them in their going to and fro, then they will not be able to escape?

16:47           Or that He will not seize them with a gradual reduc­tion? Your Lord is surely Compassionate, Merciful.

16:48           Do they not see everything that Allah has created? Its (very) shadows return from right and left, making submission to Allah, while they are in utter humility.

16:49           And to Allah submits every living creature that is in the heavens and that is in the earth, and the angels (too) and they are not proud.

16:50           They fear their Lord above them and do what they are commanded.

Section 7 (Human Nature revolts against Polytheism)

16:51           And Allah has said: Do not take two gods. He is only one God: So Me alone should you fear.

16:52           And whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His, and to Him is obedience due always. Will you then fear other than Allah?

16:53           And whatever good you have, it is from Allah; then, when evil afflicts you, to Him do you cry for aid.

16:54           Then when He removes the evil from you, lo! some of you set up partners with their Lord,

16:55           so as to deny what We have given them. Then enjoy yourselves, for soon will you know.

16:56           And they set apart for what they do not know, a portion of what We have given them. By Allah! you shall certainly be questioned about what you forged.

16:57           And they ascribe daughters to Allah. Glory be to Him! And for themselves is what they desire!

16:58           And when the birth of a daughter is announced to one of them, his face becomes dark and he is full of wrath.

16:59           He hides himself from the people because of the evil of what is announced to him. Shall he keep it with dis­grace or bury it (alive) in the dust? Now surely evil is what they judge!

16:60           For those who do not believe in the Hereafter are evil attributes and Allah’s are the sublime attributes. And He is the Mighty, the Wise.

Section 8 (Wrongdoing of Deniers)

16:61           And if Allah were to destroy people for their wrongdoing, He would not leave on it a single creature, but He gives them res­pite till an appointed time. So when their doom comes they cannot postpone it an hour, nor (can they) bring it forward.

16:62           And they ascribe to Allah what they (themselves) hate, and their tongues relate the lie that for them is good. Assuredly for them is the Fire, and they will be abandoned (in it).

16:63           By Allah! We certainly sent (messengers) to nations before you, but the devil made their deeds seem good to them. So he is their patron today, and for them is a painful punishment.

16:64           And We have not revealed to you the Book except that you may make clear to them what they differ about, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.

16:65           And Allah sends down water from above, and with it gives life to the earth after its death. Surely there is a sign in this for a people who listen.

Section 9 (Parables showing Truth of Revelation)

16:66           And surely there is a lesson for you in the cattle: We give you to drink of what is in their bellies — from between the faeces and the blood — pure milk, agreeable to the drinkers.

16:67           And of the fruits of the palms and the grapes, you obtain from them intoxi­cants and goodly provision. There is surely a sign in this for a people who ponder.

16:68           And your Lord revealed to the bee: Make hives in the moun­tains and in the trees and in what they build,

16:69           then eat of all the fruits and walk in the ways of your Lord submissively. From their bellies comes forth a beverage of many colours, in which there is healing for man. Surely in this there is a sign for a people who reflect.

16:70           And Allah creates you, then He causes you to die; and some of you are brought back to the worst part of life, know­ing nothing after having knowledge. Surely Allah is Know­ing, Powerful.

Section 10 (The Recipient of Revelation)

16:71           And Allah has made some of you excel others in the means of subsistence; so those who are made to excel do not give away their sustenance to those whom their right hands possess, so that they may be equal in it. Will they then deny the favour of Allah?

16:72           And Allah has made wives for you from among yourselves, and has given you sons and daughters from your wives, and has pro­vided you with good things. Will they then believe in falsehood and deny the favour of Allah?

16:73           And they serve besides Allah that which controls for them no sustenance at all from the heavens and the earth; nor have they any power.

16:74           So do not coin likenesses for Allah. Surely Allah knows and you do not know.

16:75           Allah sets forth a parable: There is a slave, the property of another, controlling nothing, and there is one to whom We have granted from Ourselves a goodly provision, so he spends from it (on good works) secretly and openly. Are the two alike? Praise be to Allah! But most of them do not know.

16:76           And Allah sets forth a parable of two men: One of them dumb, controlling nothing, and he is a burden to his master; wherever he sends him, he brings no good. Is he equal with him who enjoins justice, and he is on the right path? 

Section 11 (Punishment withheld)

16:77           And Allah’s is the unseen of the heavens and the earth. And the matter of the Hour is but as a twinkling of the eye or it is nearer still. Surely Allah is Powerful over all things.

16:78           And Allah brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers — you knew nothing — and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts that you might give thanks.

16:79           Do they not see the birds, constrained in the middle of the sky? None withholds them but Allah. Surely there are signs in this for a people who believe.

16:80           And Allah has given you an abode in your houses, and He has given you houses of the skins of cattle, which you find light to carry on the day of your march and on the day of your halting, and of their wool and their fur and their hair, household stuff and a provision for a time.

16:81           And Allah has made for you, out of what He has created, shelters, and He has given you in the mountains, places of retreat, and He has given you garments to save you from the heat, and (protective) garments to save you in your fighting. Thus does He complete His favour to you that you may submit.

16:82           Then if they turn away, your duty is only to deliver the message clearly.

16:83           They recognize the favour of Allah, yet they deny it, and most of them are ungrateful.

Section 12 (Prophets testify)

16:84           And on the day when We raise up a witness out of every nation, then permission (to offer excuse) will not be given to the disbelievers, nor will they be allowed to make amends.

16:85           And when the wrongdoers see the punishment, it will not be lightened for them, nor will they be given respite.

16:86           And when those who set up partners (with Allah) see their associate-gods, they will say: Our Lord, these are our associate-gods on whom we called besides You. But they will throw back at them the word: Surely you are liars.

16:87           And they will tender submission to Allah on that day, and what they used to forge will fail them.

16:88           Those who disbelieve and hinder (people) from Allah’s way, We will add punishment to their punishment because they made mischief.

16:89           And on the day when We raise up in every people a witness against them from among themselves, and bring you as a witness against these. And We have revealed the Book to you explaining all things, and a guidance and mercy and good news for those who submit.

Section 13 (Revelation enjoins Good)

16:90           Surely Allah commands (the doing of) justice and the doing of good (to others) and the giving to the near of kin, and He forbids indecency and evil and rebellion. He instructs you that you may be mindful.

16:91           And fulfil the covenant of Allah, when you have made a cove­nant, and do not break (your) oaths after making them firm, and you have indeed made Allah your surety. Surely Allah knows what you do.

16:92           And do not be like her who unravels her yarn, dis­integ­rating it into pieces, after she has spun it strongly. You make your oaths to be means of deceit between you because (one) nation is more numerous than (another) nation. Allah only tries you by this. And He will certainly make clear to you on the day of Resurrection what you differed about.

16:93           And if Allah please, He would make you a single nation, but He leaves in error whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases. And certainly you will be questioned as to what you did.

16:94           And do not make your oaths a means of deceit between you, so that a foot should slip after its stability, and you should taste evil because you hinder (people) from Allah’s way and severe punishment be your (lot).

16:95           And do not take a small price for Allah’s covenant. Surely what is with Allah is better for you, if only you knew!

16:96           What is with you passes away and what is with Allah is enduring. And We shall certainly give to those who are patient their reward for the best of what they did.

16:97           Whoever does good, whether male or female, and is a believer, We shall certainly make him live a good life, and We shall certainly give them their reward for the best of what they did.

16:98           So when you recite the Quran, seek refuge in Allah from the accursed devil.

16:99           Surely he has no authority over those who believe and rely on their Lord.

16:100       His authority is only over those who befriend him and those who set up partners with Him.

Section 14 (The Quran is not a Forgery)

16:101       And when We change a message for a message — and Allah knows best what He reveals — they say: You are only a forger. Rather, most of them do not know.

16:102       Say: The Holy Spirit has revealed it from your Lord with truth, that it may estab­lish those who believe, and as a guidance and good news for those who submit.

16:103       And indeed We know that they say: Only a mortal teaches him. The tongue of him whom they hint at is foreign, and this is clear Arabic language.

16:104       Those who do not believe in Allah’s messages, Allah does not guide them, and for them is a painful punishment.

16:105       Only they forge lies who do not believe in Allah’s messages, and they are the liars.

16:106       Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief — not he who is compelled while his heart is content with faith, but he who opens (his) breast for disbelief — they incur Allah’s displeasure, and for them is a grievous punishment.

16:107       That is because they love this world’s life more than the Hereafter, and because Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

16:108       These are they whose hearts and ears and eyes Allah has sealed and these are the heed­less ones.

16:109       No doubt that in the Hereafter they are the losers.

16:110       Then surely your Lord, to those who flee after they are perse­cu­ted, then struggle hard and are patient, surely your Lord after that is Protecting, Merciful.

Section 15 (Fate of the Opponents)

16:111       On the day when every soul will come pleading for itself, and every soul will be paid in full what it has done, and they will not be dealt with unjustly.

16:112       And Allah sets forth a parable: A town safe and secure, to which its means of subsistence came in abun­dance from every quarter; but it disbelieved in Allah’s favours, so Allah made it taste a pall of hunger and fear because of what they did.

16:113       And certainly a Messenger came to them from among them, but they rejected him, so the punishment caught them while they were wrongdoers.

16:114       So eat of what Allah has given you, lawful and good (things), and give thanks for Allah’s favour, if He it is you serve.

16:115       He has forbidden you only what dies of itself and blood and the flesh of swine and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked; but whoever is driven to (it), not desiring nor exceeding the limit, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

16:116       And do not utter the lie which your tongues describe: This is lawful and this unlawful; so that you forge a lie against Allah. Surely those who forge a lie against Allah will not prosper.

16:117       A little enjoyment — and for them is a painful punishment.

16:118       And to those who are Jews We prohibited what We have related to you already, and We did not wrong them, but they wronged them­selves.

16:119       And surely your Lord, for those who do evil in igno­rance, then turn after that and make amends, surely your Lord after that is Forgiving, Merciful.

Section 16 (The Way to Greatness)

16:120       Surely Abraham was a model (of virtue), obedient to Allah, upright, and he was not from among the idolaters,

16:121       grate­ful for His favours. He chose him and guided him on the right path.

16:122       And We gave him good in this world; and in the Hereafter he is surely among the righteous.

16:123       Then We revealed to you: Follow the faith of Abraham, the upright one; and he was not from among the idolaters.

16:124       The Sabbath was ordained only against those who differed about it. And surely your Lord will judge between them on the day of Resurrection in that in which they differed.

16:125       Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the best manner. Surely your Lord knows best him who strays from His path, and He knows best those who go aright.

16:126       And if you take your turn, then retaliate with the like of what you were afflicted with. But if you show patience, it is certainly best for the patient.

16:127       And be patient and your patience is not but by (the help of) Allah, and do not grieve for them, nor be in distress by what they plan.

16:128       Surely Allah is with those who keep their duty and those who do good (to others).

 

Chapter 17

Banī Isrā’īl: The Israelites

Introduction by the translator

This chapter opens and ends by referring to the history of the Israelites, who, after attaining to greatness, were twice punished for their misdeeds. It begins with a mention of the Mi‘rāj or ascension of the Holy Prophet, indi­cative of the eminence to which the Muslims would rise. It then warns Muslims of the fate which befell the Israelites, as the same fate was to befall them. Then it goes on to deal with the following subjects: every deed must have a con­sequence, the moral teachings Muslims must follow to do good deeds, opposi­tion to the truth and to the righteous, and its defeat by the truth — that “truth” being the Holy Prophet himself who is the “spirit of truth” prophesied in the Gospel of John — the Quran being a miracle, and, finally, Moses’ warning to Pharaoh, a warning like it now being given by the Quran to its opponents. This chapter was revealed in the early period at Makkah, around the fifth year of the Holy Prophet’s mission.

Part 15

Section 1 (Israelites punished Twice)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

17:1               Glory be to Him Who carried His servant by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Remote Mosque, whose precincts We blessed, that We might show him some of Our signs! Surely He is the Hearing, the Seeing.

17:2               And We gave Moses the Book and made it a guidance to the Children of Israel (saying): Take no guardian beside Me  —

17:3               (you) the offspring of those whom We bore with Noah. Surely he was a grateful servant.

17:4               And We made known to the Children of Israel in the Book: Certainly you will make mischief in the land twice, and behave insolently with mighty arrogance.

17:5               So when the first warning of the two came to pass, We raised against you Our servants, of mighty prowess, so they made havoc in (your) houses. And it was an accomplished threat.

17:6               Then We gave you back the turn against them, and aided you with wealth and chil­dren and made you a numerous band.

17:7               If you do good, you do good for your own souls. And if you do evil, it is for them. So when the second warning came, (We raised another people) that they might bring you to grief and that they might enter the Mosque as they entered it the first time, and that they might des­troy, what­ever they conquered, with utter destruction.

17:8               It may be that your Lord will have mercy on you. And if you return (to mischief), We will return (to punishment). And We have made hell a prison for the disbelievers.

17:9               Surely this Quran guides to what is most upright, and gives good news to the believers who do good that theirs is a great reward,

17:10           and that those who do not believe in the Hereafter, We have prepared for them a painful punishment.

Section 2 (Every Deed has a Consequence)

17:11           And man prays for evil as he ought to pray for good; and man is ever hasty.

17:12           And We made the night and the day two signs, then We have made the sign of the night to pass away and We have made the sign of the day manifest, so that you may seek grace from your Lord, and that you may know the numbering of years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything distinctly.

17:13           And We have made every human being’s actions to cling to his neck, and We shall bring forth to him on the day of Resurrection a book which he will find wide open.

17:14           Read your book. Your own soul is sufficient as a reckoner against you this day.

17:15           Whoever goes aright, goes aright only for the good of his own soul; and whoever goes astray, goes astray only to its detriment. And no bearer of a burden can bear the burden of another. Nor do We punish until We raise a messenger.

17:16           And when We wish to destroy a town, We send command­ments to its people who lead easy lives, but they transgress therein; thus the word proves true against it, so We destroy it with utter destruction.

17:17           And how many generations did We destroy after Noah! And your Lord is sufficient as being Aware and Seer of His servants’ sins.

17:18           Whoever desires this transitory life, We hasten to him in it what We please for whom­soever We desire, then We assign to him hell; he will enter it despised, driven away.

17:19           And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it with due striving and is a believer — those are they whose striving is amply rewarded.

17:20           All do We aid — these as well as those — out of the bounty of your Lord, and the bounty of your Lord is not limited.

17:21           See how We have made some of them to excel others. And certainly the Hereafter is greater in degrees and greater in excellence.

17:22           Do not set up any other god with Allah, or you will sit down despised, forsaken.

Section 3 (Moral Precepts)

17:23           And your Lord has decreed that you serve none but Him, and do good to parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, say no word to them showing annoyance, nor rebuke them, and speak to them a generous word.

17:24           And make yourself gentle to them with humility out of mercy, and say: My Lord, have mercy on them, as they brought me up (when I was) little.

17:25           Your Lord knows best what is in your minds. If you are righteous, He is surely Forgiving to those who turn (to Him).

17:26           And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and the traveller, and do not squander wastefully.

17:27           Surely the squand­erers are the devil’s brethren. And the devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord.

17:28           And if you (have to) turn away from them (in order) to seek mercy from your Lord that you hope for, then speak to them a gentle word.

17:29           And do not make your hand to be chained to your neck, nor stretch it forth to its fullest extension, so that you sit down blamed, stripped off.

17:30           Surely your Lord amplifies pro­vision for whom He pleases, and restricts (it also). Surely He is ever Aware, Seer, of His servants.

Section 4 (Moral Precepts)

17:31           And do not kill your children for fear of poverty — We pro­vide for them and for you. Surely the killing of them is a great wrong.

17:32           And do not go near to fornication: surely it is an obscenity. And evil is the way.

17:33           And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause. And whoever is killed unjustly, We have indeed given to his heir authority — but let him not exceed the limit in killing. Surely he will be helped.

17:34           And do not draw near to the orphan’s property, except in the best way, till he attains his maturity. And fulfil the promise; surely the promise will be enquired into.

17:35           And give full measure when you measure out, and weigh with a true balance. This is fair and better in the end.

17:36           And do not follow that of which you have no knowledge. Surely the hearing and the sight and the heart, all of these will be asked about it.

17:37           And do not go about in the land exultingly, for you cannot split the earth, nor reach the mountains in height.

17:38           All this, the evil of it, is hateful in the sight of your Lord.

17:39           This is from the wisdom which your Lord has revealed to you. And do not set up with Allah any other god, or you would be thrown into hell, blamed, cast away.

17:40           Has then your Lord pre­ferred to give you sons, and (for Himself) taken daughters from among the angels? Surely you utter a terrible saying.

Section 5 (Disbelievers grow Harder)

17:41           And certainly We have repeated (warnings) in this Quran that they may be mindful. And it only adds to their aversion.

17:42           Say: If there were with Him gods, as they say, then certainly they would have been able to seek a way to the Lord of the Throne.

17:43           Glory be to Him, and He is supremely exalted above what they say!

17:44           The seven heavens and the earth and those in them declare His glory. And there is not a single thing but glorifies Him with His praise, but you do not understand their glorification. Surely He is Forbearing, Forgiving.

17:45           And when you recite the Quran, We place between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter a hidden barrier;

17:46           and We put coverings on their hearts and a deafness in their ears that they may not understand it; and when you mention your Lord alone in the Quran, they turn their backs in aversion.

17:47           We know best what they listen to when they listen to you, and when they take counsel secretly, when the wrongdoers say: You follow only a man deprived of reason.

17:48           See, what they liken you to! So they have gone astray, and cannot find the way.

17:49           And they say: When we are bones and decayed particles, shall we then be raised up as a new creation?

17:50           Say: Be stones or iron,

17:51           or some other creature of those which are too hard (to receive life) in your minds! But they will say: Who will return us? Say: He Who created you at first. Still they will shake their heads at you and say: When will it be? Say: Maybe it has drawn near.

17:52           On the day when He will call you forth, then will you obey Him, giving Him praise, and you will think that you remai­n­ed only a little (while).

Section 6 (Punishment must follow)

17:53           And say to My servants that they speak what is best. Surely the devil sows dissensions among them. The devil is surely an open enemy to man.

17:54           Your Lord knows you best. He will have mercy on you, if He please, or He will punish you, if He please. And We have not sent you as being in charge of them.

17:55           And your Lord best knows those who are in the heavens and the earth. And certainly We made some of the prophets to excel others, and to David We gave the Zabūr.

17:56           Say: Call on those whom you assert besides Him; they have no power to remove distress from you nor to change.

17:57           Those whom they call upon, themselves seek the means of access to their Lord — whoever of them is nearest — and they hope for His mercy and fear His punishment. Surely the punishment of your Lord is a thing to be cautious of.

17:58           And there is not a town but We will destroy it before the day of Resurrection or punish it with a severe punishment. That is written in the Book.

17:59           And nothing hindered Us from sending signs, but the ancients rejected them. And We gave to Thamūd the she-camel, a manifest sign, but they did her wrong, and We send signs only to warn.

17:60           And when We said to you: Surely your Lord encompasses people. And We made the vision which We showed you only a trial for people, as also the tree cursed in the Quran. And We warn them, but it only adds to their great inordinacy.

Section 7 (The Devil’s Opposition to the Righteous)

17:61           And when We said to the angels: Be submissive to Adam, they submitted, but not Iblīs. He said: Shall I submit to him whom You have created of dust?

17:62           He said: Do You see, this is he whom You have honoured above me! If You grant me respite to the day of Resurrection, I will certainly cause his progeny to perish except a few.

17:63           He said: Go away! Whoever of them follows you surely hell is your recompense, a full recompense.

17:64           And incite who­ever of them you can with your voice, and collect against them your horse(-men) and your foot(-soldiers), and share with them in wealth and children, and promise them. And the devil promises them only to deceive.

17:65           My servants — you have surely no authority over them. And your Lord is sufficient as having charge of affairs.

17:66           Your Lord is He Who speeds the ships for you in the sea that you may seek of His grace. Surely He is ever Merciful to you.

17:67           And when distress afflicts you in the sea, away go those whom you call on except He; but when He brings you safe to the land, you turn away. And man is ever ungrateful.

17:68           Do you then feel secure that He will not bring you low on a tract of land, or send on you a violent wind?  Then you will not find a protector for your­selves;

17:69           or, do you feel secure that He will not take you back into it another time, then send on you a fierce gale and thus overwhelm you for your ungratefulness? Then you will not find any aider against Us in the matter.

17:70           And surely We have honoured the children of Adam, and We carry them in the land and the sea, and We provide them with good things, and We have made them to excel highly most of those whom We have created.

Section 8 (Opposition to the Prophet)

17:71           On the day when We shall call every people with their leader: then whoever is given his book in his right hand, these will read their book; and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.

17:72           And whoever is blind in this (world) he will be blind in the Hereafter, and further away from the path.

17:73           And surely they had purposed to turn you away from what We have revealed to you, that you should forge against Us (some revelation) other than that, and then they would have taken you for a friend.

17:74           And if We had not made you firm, you might have indeed inclined to them a little;

17:75           then We would have made you taste a double (punishment) in life and a double (punishment) after death, and then you would not have found any helper against Us.

17:76           And surely they purposed to unsettle you from the land that they might expel you from it, and then they will not remain after you but a little while.

17:77           (This is Our) way with Our messengers whom We sent before you, and you will not find a change in Our course.

Section 9 (Truth will prevail)

17:78           Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of the night, and the recital of the Quran at dawn. Surely the recital of the Quran at dawn is witnessed.

17:79           And during a part of the night, keep awake by it, beyond what is incumbent on you; maybe your Lord will raise you to a position of great glory.

17:80           And say: My Lord, make me enter a truthful entering, and make me go forth a truthful exit, and grant me from Your presence an authority to help (me).

17:81           And say: The Truth has come and false­hood vanished. Surely falsehood is ever bound to vanish.

17:82           And the Quran that We reveal is a healing and a mercy to the believers, and it only increases the wrongdoers in loss.

17:83           And when We bestow favours on man, he turns away and behaves proudly; and when evil afflicts him, he is in despair.

17:84           Say: Every­one acts according to his manner. But your Lord best knows who is best guided on the path.

Section 10 (The Quran — a Unique Guidance)

17:85           And they ask you about the revelation. Say: The reve­lation is by the commandment of my Lord, and you are not given knowledge but a little.

17:86           And if We please, We could certainly take away what We have revealed to you, then you would find none to plead (your cause) against Us —

17:87           But it is a mercy from your Lord. Surely His bounty to you is abundant.

17:88           Say: If people and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Quran, they could not bring the like of it, though they helped one another.

17:89           And certainly We have made clear for people in this Quran every kind of description, but most people consent only to denying.

17:90           And they say: We will by no means believe in you, till you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us,

17:91           or you have a garden of palms and grapes in the midst of which you cause rivers to flow forth abundantly,

17:92           or you cause the heaven to come down upon us in pieces, as you think, or bring Allah and the angels face to face (with us),

17:93           or you have a house of gold, or you ascend into heaven. And we will not believe in your ascending till you bring down to us a book we can read. Say: Glory be to my Lord! Am I anything but a mortal messenger?

Section 11 (Justice of Retribution)

17:94           And nothing prevents people from believing, when the guidance comes to them, except that they say: Has Allah raised up a mortal to be a messenger?

17:95           Say: If there had been in the earth angels walking about secure, We would have sent down to them from the heaven an angel as messenger.

17:96           Say: Allah is sufficient for a witness between me and you. Surely He is ever Aware of His servants, Seer (of them).

17:97           And he whom Allah guides, he is on the right way; and he whom He leaves in error, for them you will find no guardians besides Him. And We shall gather them together on the day of Resurrection on their faces, blind and dumb and deaf. Their abode is hell. Whenever it abates, We make them burn the more.

17:98           This is their retribution because they disbelieve in Our messages and say: When we are bones and decayed particles, shall we then be raised up into a new creation?

17:99           Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, is Able to create the like of them? And He has appointed for them a term, of which there is no doubt. But the wrongdoers consent only to denying.

17:100       Say: If you control the treasures of the mercy of my Lord, then you would withhold (them) for fear of spending. And man is ever miserly.

Section 12 (Comparison with Moses)

17:101       And certainly We gave Moses nine clear signs; so ask the Children of Israel. When he came to them, Pharaoh said to him: Surely I think you, Moses, to be one bewitched.

17:102       He said: Truly you know that none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth has sent these as clear proofs; and surely I believe you, Pharaoh, to be lost.

17:103       So he desired to scare them from the land, but We drowned him and those with him, all together;

17:104       and We said to the Children of Israel after him: Abide in the land. But when the latter promise came, We brought you all rolled up.

17:105       And with truth have We revealed it, and with truth did it come. And We have not sent you but as a giver of good news and as a warner.

17:106       And it is a Quran We have made distinct, so that you may read it to the people by slow degrees, and We have revealed it in portions.

17:107       Say: Believe in it or do not believe. Surely those who are given the knowledge before it, fall down prostrate on their faces, when it is recited to them,

17:108       and they say: Glory be to our Lord! Surely the promise of our Lord was to be fulfilled.

17:109       And they fall down on their faces, weeping, and it adds to their humility.

17:110       Say: Call on Allah or call on the Beneficent. By whatever (name) you call on Him, He has the best names. And do not be loud in your prayer nor be silent in it, and seek a way between these.

17:111       And say: Praise be to Allah! Who has not taken to Him­self a son, and Who does not have a partner in the kingdom, and Who does not have a helper because of weakness; and pro­claim His greatness, magnifying (Him).

 

Chapter 18

Al-Kahf: The Cave

Introduction by the translator

This chapter deals with both the early state of Christianity, when it was under persecution and practised renunciation of the world, and prophetically with its latter-day condition when Christian nations have acquired un­surpassed material dominance in the world. It is called The Cave because early Chris­tians sought refuge in such places from persecution and practised monkery in solitude. In the first as well as the last section the doctrine of the Divine sonship of Jesus is denounced (v. 4, v. 102) and the purely material engross­ment of these nations is prophesied to lead to material and spiritual failure (v. 7–8, v. 103–104). In between, the chapter treats the following subjects: a story from early Christianity of the dwellers of the cave, contain­ing propheti­cal allusions to its later history, rejection of the truth by those who possess wealth and power, the guilty being brought to judgment, a story of Moses’ search for knowledge and finding a man of God superior to him in know­ledge, indicating the coming of Islam, and a story of King Darius I and his efforts to repel the two tribes of Gog and Magog, which again contains a pro­phetical allusion to the rise and dominance of modern Western nations. This chapter was revealed in the early period at Makkah.

Section 1 (A Warning to the Christians)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

18:1               Praise be to Allah! Who revealed the Book to His servant, and did not allow in it any crookedness,

18:2               rightly directing, to give warning of severe punishment from Him and to give good news to the believers who do good that theirs is a goodly reward,

18:3               staying in it forever;

18:4               and to warn those who say: Allah has taken to Him­self a son.

18:5               They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. Grievous is the word that comes out of their mouths. They speak nothing but a lie.

18:6               Then perhaps you will kill yourself with grief, sorrowing after them, if they do not believe in this announce­ment.

18:7               Surely We have made whatever is on the earth an embellish­ment for it, so that We may try which of them is best in works.

18:8               And We shall surely make what is on it dust, without vegetation.

18:9               Or, do you think that the companions of the Cave and the Inscrip­tion were from among Our wonderful signs?

18:10           When the youths sought refuge in the Cave, they said: Our Lord, grant us mercy from Yourself, and provide for us a right course in our affair.

18:11           So We prevented them from hearing in the Cave for a number of years,

18:12           then We raised them up that We might know which of the two parties was best able to calculate the time for which they remained.

Section 2 (The Dwellers in the Cave)

18:13           We relate to you their story with truth. Surely they were youths who believed in their Lord and We increased them in guidance.

18:14           And We strengthened their hearts when they stood up and said: Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth; we call upon no god beside Him, for then indeed we should utter an enormity.

18:15           These our people have taken gods beside Him. Why do they not bring clear authority for them? Who is then more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah?

18:16           And when you withdraw from them and what they worship except Allah, take refuge in the Cave; your Lord will spread forth for you some of His mercy, and pro­vide for you a profitable course in your affair.

18:17           And you might see the sun, when it rose, decline from their Cave to the right, and when it set leave them behind on the left, while they were in a wide space of it. This is from among the signs of Allah. He whom Allah guides, he is on the right way; and whom He leaves in error, you will not find for him a friend to guide aright.

Section 3 (The Dwellers in the Cave)

18:18           And you might think them awake while they were asleep, and We turned them about to the right and to the left, with their dog outstretching its paws at the entrance. If you looked at them, you would turn back from them in flight, and you would be filled with awe because of them.

18:19           And thus did We rouse them that they might question each other. A speaker from among them said: How long have you stayed? They said: We have stayed for a day or a part of a day. (Others) said: Your Lord knows best how long you have stayed. Now send one of you with this silver (coin) of yours to the city, then let him see what food is purest, and bring you provision from it, and let him behave with gentleness, and not make your case known to anyone.

18:20           For if they prevail against you, they would stone you to death or force you back to their religion, and then you would never succeed.

18:21           And thus did We make (people) to get knowledge of them, that they might know that Allah’s promise is true and that the Hour — there is no doubt about it. When they disputed among themselves about their affair and said: Erect an edifice over them. Their Lord knows best about them. Those who pre­vailed in their affair said: We shall certainly build a place of worship over them.

18:22           (Some) say: (They were) three, the fourth of them their dog; and (others) say: Five, the sixth of them their dog, making conjectures about the unseen. And (others) say: Seven, and the eighth of them their dog. Say: My Lord best knows their number — none knows them but a few. So do not contend in their matter but with a clear argument, and do not question any of them concerning them.

Section 4 (The Quran as a Guidance)

18:23           And do not say of anything: I will do that tomorrow,

18:24           unless Allah please. And remember your Lord when you forget and say: Maybe my Lord will guide me to a nearer course to the right than this.

18:25           And they remained in their cave three hundred years, and they add nine.

18:26           Say: Allah knows best how long they remained. His is the unseen of the heavens and the earth. How clear His sight and His hearing! There is no guardian for them beside Him, and He takes none as partner in His judgment.

18:27           And recite what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord. There is none who can alter His words. And you will find no refuge beside Him.

18:28           And keep yourself with those who call on their Lord morning and evening desiring His good­will, and let not your eyes pass from them, desiring the beauties of this world’s life. And do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful of Our remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case exceeds due bounds.

18:29           And say: The Truth is from your Lord; so whoever wishes, let him believe, and whoever wishes, let him disbelieve. Surely We have prepared for the wrongdoers a Fire, an enclosure of which will encompass them. And if they cry for water, they are given water like molten brass, scalding their faces. Evil the drink! And ill the resting-place!

18:30           As for those who believe and do good, We do not waste the reward of him who does a good work.

18:31           These it is for whom are Gardens of perpetuity in which rivers flow; they are adorned therein with bracelets of gold, and they wear green robes of fine silk and thick brocade, reclining therein on raised couches. Excellent the recom­pense! And goodly the resting-place!

Section 5 (A Parable)

18:32           And set forth to them the parable of two men — for one of them We made two gardens of grape-vines, and We surrounded them with date-palms, and between them We made corn-fields.

18:33           Both these gardens yielded their fruits, and did not fail in this at all, and We caused a river to gush forth in their midst,

18:34           and he had fruit. So he said to his companion, while arguing with him: I have more wealth than you, and am greater in followers.

18:35           And he went into his garden, while he was unjust to himself. He said: I do not think that this will ever perish,

18:36           and I do not think the Hour will come; and even if I am returned to my Lord, I will certainly find a better place of return than this.

18:37           His companion said to him, while arguing with him: Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you of dust, then of a small life-germ, then He made you a perfect man?

18:38           But as for me, He, Allah, is my Lord, and I set up none as partner with my Lord.

18:39           And why did you not say, when you entered your garden: It is as Allah has pleased — there is no power except in Allah? If you consider me as less than you in wealth and children —

18:40           then maybe my Lord will give me better than your garden, and will send on (yours) a reckoning from heaven so that it is dust without plant,

18:41           or its water will sink down into the ground, so that you are unable to find it.

18:42           And his fruit was destroyed; so he began to wring his hands for what he had spent on it, as it lay waste, its roofs fallen down, and he said: Ah me! I wish I had not set up any partner with my Lord!

18:43           And he had no forces to help him against Allah, nor could he defend himself.

18:44           Thus protection is only Allah’s, the True One. He is best to (give) reward and best for (determining) the final end.

Section 6 (The Guilty are brought to Judgment)

18:45           And set forth to them the likeness of the life of this world as water which We send down from the cloud, so the vegetation of the earth becomes luxuriant by it, then it becomes dry, broken into pieces which the winds scatter. And Allah is the Holder of power over all things.

18:46           Wealth and children are an adornment of the life of this world; but the ever-abiding, the good works, are better with your Lord in reward and better in hope.

18:47           And the day when We cause the mountains to pass away, and you see the earth a levelled plain and We gather them together and leave none of them behind.

18:48           And they are brought before your Lord in ranks. Now certainly you have come to Us as We created you at first. But you thought that We had not made an appointment for you.

18:49           And the book is placed, and you see the guilty fearing for what is in it, and they say: O woe to us! What a book is this! It leaves out neither a small thing nor a great one, but numbers them (all), and they find what they did confronting them. And your Lord does not wrong anyone.

Section 7 (Their Helplessness)

18:50           And when We said to the angels: Be submissive to Adam, they submitted, but not Iblīs. He was from among the jinn, so he transgressed the commandment of his Lord. Will you then take him and his offspring for friends rather than Me, and they are your enemies? Evil is the exchange for the unjust.

18:51           I did not make them witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor their own creation. Nor could I take those who mislead for aiders.

18:52           And one day He will say: Call on those whom you considered to be My partners. So they will call on them, but they will not answer them, and We shall cause a separation between them.

18:53           And the guilty will see the Fire, and know that they are about to fall into it, and they will find no escape from it.

Section 8 (Warning is disregarded)

18:54           And certainly We have made distinct in this Quran for mankind every kind of description; and man is in most things con­tentious.

18:55           And nothing prevents people from believing when the guidance comes to them, and from asking forgiveness of their Lord, but that (they wait) for the way of the ancients to catch up with them, or that the punishment should confront them.

18:56           And We do not send messengers but as givers of good news and warn­ing, and those who disbelieve contend by means of falsehood to weaken thereby the Truth, and they take My messages and the warning for a mockery.

18:57           And who is more unjust than he who is reminded of the messages of his Lord, then he turns away from them and forgets what his hands have already done? Surely We have placed veils over their hearts, so they do not understand it, and a deafness in their ears. And if you call them to the guidance, they will even then never follow the right course.

18:58           And your Lord is Forgiving, full of mercy. If He were to punish them for what they earn, He would certainly hasten the punishment for them. But for them there is an appointed time from which they will find no refuge.

18:59           And these towns — We des­troyed them when they did wrong. And We have appointed a time for their destruction.

Section 9 (Moses travels in Search of Knowledge)

18:60           And when Moses said to his servant: I will not cease until I reach the junction of the two rivers, or I will go on for years.

18:61           So when they reached the junction of the two (rivers), they forgot their fish, and it took its way into the river, being free.

18:62           But when they had gone further, he said to his servant: Bring us our morning meal, we have certainly found this journey of ours tiring.

18:63           He (the servant) said: Did you see when we took refuge on the rock, I forgot the fish, and none but the devil made me forget to speak of it, and it took its way into the river; what a wonder!

18:64           He said: This is what we sought for. So they returned retracing their foot­steps.

18:65           Then they found one of Our servants whom We had granted mercy from Us and whom We had taught knowledge from Our­selves.

18:66           Moses said to him: May I follow you that you may teach me some of the good you have been taught?

18:67           He said: You will not be able to have patience with me.

18:68           And how can you have patience in matters in which you do not have a compre­hensive knowledge?

18:69           He said: If Allah please, you will find me patient, nor shall I disobey you in anything.

18:70           He said: If you would follow me, do not question me about anything until I myself speak to you about it.

Section 10 (Moses travels in Search of Knowledge)

18:71           So they set out, until, when they embarked in a boat, he made a hole in it. (Moses) said: Have you made a hole in it to drown its occupants? You have surely done a terrible thing.

18:72           He said: Did I not say that you will not be able to have patience with me?

18:73           He said: Do not blame me for what I forgot, and do not be hard upon me for what I did.

18:74           So they went on, until, when they met a boy, he killed him. (Moses) said: Have you killed an innocent person, not guilty of killing another? You have indeed done a horrible thing.

Part 16

18:75           He said: Did I not say to you that you will not be able to have patience with me?

18:76           He said: If I ask you about anything after this, do not keep company with me. You will then indeed have found an excuse in my case.

18:77           So they went on, until, when they came to the people of a town, they asked its people for food, but they refused to entertain them as guests. Then they found in it a wall which was on the point of falling, so he put it into a right state. (Moses) said: If you had wished, you could have taken a recompense for it.

18:78           He said: This is the parting between me and you. Now I will inform you of the significance of that about which you could not have patience.

18:79           As for the boat, it belonged to poor people working on the river, and I intended to damage it, for there was behind them a king who seized every boat by force.

18:80           And as for the boy, his parents were believers and we feared that he might involve them in wrongdoing and disbelief.

18:81           So we intended that their Lord might give them in his place one better in purity and nearer to mercy.

18:82           And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure belonging to them, and their father had been a righteous man. So your Lord intended that they should attain their maturity and take out their treasure — a mercy from your Lord — and I did not do it of my own accord. This is the significance of that about which you could not have patience.

Section 11 (Dhu-l-qarnain and Gog and Magog)

18:83           And they ask you about Dhu-l-qarnain. Say: I will recite to you an account of him.

18:84           Truly We established him (with power) in the land and granted him means of access to everything;

18:85           so he followed a course.

18:86           Until, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it going down into a black sea, and found by it a people. We said: O Dhu-l-qarnain, either punish them or do them a benefit.

18:87           He said: As for him who is unjust, we shall punish him, then he will be returned to his Lord, and He will punish him with an exemplary punishment.

18:88           And as for him who believes and does good, for him is a good reward, and We shall speak to him an easy word of Our command.

18:89           Then he followed a course.

18:90           Until, when he reached (the land of) the rising sun, he found it rising on a people to whom We had given no shelter from it —

18:91           so it was. And We had full knowledge of what he had.

18:92           Then he followed a course.

18:93           Until, when he reached (a place) between the two mountains, he found on that side of them a people who could hardly understand a word.

18:94           They said: Dhu-l-qarnain, Gog and Magog do mischief in the land. May we then pay you tribute on condition that you raise a barrier between us and them?

18:95           He said: The power with which my Lord has established me is better, so if only you help me with strength (of men), I will make a fortified barrier between you and them:

18:96           Bring me blocks of iron. At length, when he had filled up the space between the two mountain sides, he said, Blow. Till, when he had made it (as) fire, he said: Bring me molten brass to pour over it.

18:97           So they were not able to scale it, nor could they make a hole in it.

18:98           He said: This is a mercy from my Lord, but when the promise of my Lord comes to pass He will crumble it, and the promise of my Lord is ever true.

18:99           And on that day We shall let some of them surge against others and the trumpet will be blown, then We shall gather them all together,

18:100       and We shall bring forth hell, exposed to view, on that day before the disbelievers,

18:101       whose eyes were under a cover from My Reminder, and they could not bear to hear.

Section 12 (Christian Nations)

18:102       Do those who disbelieve think that they can take My servants to be protectors besides Me? Surely We have prepared hell as an entertainment for the disbelievers.

18:103       Say: Shall We inform you who are the greatest losers in respect of deeds?

18:104       Those whose effort is lost in this world’s life, and they think that they are making good manufactures.

18:105       Those are they who disbelieve in the messages of their Lord and meeting with Him, so their deeds are fruitless. Nor shall We set up a balance for them on the day of Resurrection.

18:106       That is their reward — hell, because they disbelieved and held My messages and My messengers in mockery.

18:107       As for those who believe and do good deeds, for them are Gardens of Paradise, an entertainment,

18:108       to abide therein; they will not desire removal from there.

18:109       Say: If the sea were ink for the words of my Lord, the sea would surely be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even if We brought as much again to add (to it).

18:110       Say: I am only a mortal like you — it is revealed to me that your God is one God. So whoever hopes to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds, and make no one a partner (with God) in the service of his Lord.

 

Chapter 19

Maryam: Mary

Introduction by the translator

The name of this chapter is taken from the story of Mary, mother of Jesus. It begins with an account of the birth of John and of Jesus, the last repre­sen­ta­tives of prophecy in the house of Israel, and then refutes the doctrine of the Divine sonship of Jesus. It then mentions the missions of some earlier pro­phets, showing that only human beings are raised to reform the world. At the end the doctrine that Jesus is the son of God is again denounced. This chapter was revealed in the early period at Makkah, about or before the fifth year of the Holy Prophet’s mission.

Section 1 (Zacharias and John)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

19:1               Sufficient, Guide, Blessed, Knowing, Truthful God.

19:2               A mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zacharias —

19:3               when he called upon his Lord, crying in secret.

19:4               He said: My Lord, my bones are weakened, and my head flares with whiteness (of hair), and I have never been unsuccessful in my prayer to You, my Lord.

19:5               And I fear my kinsfolk after me, and my wife is barren, so grant me from Yourself an heir

19:6               who should inherit me and inherit from the Children of Jacob, and make him, my Lord, acceptable (to You).

19:7               O Zacharias, We give you good news of a boy, whose name is John: We have not made before anyone his equal.

19:8               He said: My Lord, how shall I have a son, and my wife is barren, and I have reached extreme old age?

19:9               He said: So (it will be). Your Lord says: It is easy to Me, and indeed I created you before, when you were nothing.

19:10           He said: My Lord, give me a sign. He said: Your sign is that you do not speak to people three nights, being in sound health.

19:11           So he went forth to his people from the sanctuary and proclaimed to them: Glorify (Allah) morning and evening.

19:12           O John, take hold of the Book with strength. And We gran­ted him wisdom when a child,

19:13           and kind-heartedness from Us and purity. And he was dutiful,

19:14           and kindly to his parents, and he was not insolent, disobedient.

19:15           And peace on him the day he was born and the day he died, and the day he is raised to life!

Section 2 (Mary and Jesus)

19:16           And mention Mary in the Book. When she drew aside from her family to an eastern place;

19:17           so she screened herself from them. Then We sent to her Our spirit and it appeared to her as a well-made man.

19:18           She said: I seek refuge from you in the Beneficent, if you are one guarding against evil.

19:19           He said: I am only bearer of a message of your Lord: That I will give you a pure boy.

19:20           She said: How can I have a son and man has not yet touched me, nor have I been unchaste?

19:21           He said: So (it will be). Your Lord says: It is easy to Me; and that We may make him a sign to people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter decreed.

19:22           Then she conceived him, and withdrew with him to a remote place.

19:23           And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree. She said: Oh, I wish I had died before this, and had been a thing quite forgotten!

19:24           So a voice came to her from beneath her: Do not grieve, surely your Lord has provided a stream beneath you.

19:25           And shake towards you the trunk of the palm-tree, it will drop on you fresh ripe dates.

19:26           So eat and drink and be comforted. Then if you see any mortal, say: Surely I have vowed a fast to the Beneficent, so I will not speak to anyone today.

19:27           Then she came to her people with him, carrying him. They said: Mary, you have indeed brought a strange thing!

19:28           Sister of Aaron, your father was not a wicked man, nor was your mother an unchaste woman!

19:29           But she pointed to him. They said: How should we speak to one who is a child in the cradle?

19:30           He said: I am indeed a servant of Allah. He has given me the Book and made me a prophet,

19:31           and He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and He has enjoined on me prayer and the due charity so long as I live,

19:32           and to be kind to my mother; and He has not made me insolent, unblessed.

19:33           And peace on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I am raised to life.

19:34           Such is Jesus son of Mary — a statement of truth about which they dispute.

19:35           It does not befit Allah that He should take to Himself a son. Glory be to Him! When He decrees a matter He only says to it, Be, and it is.

19:36           And surely Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him. This is the right path.

19:37           But factions from among them differed; so woe to those who disbelieve, because of their presence on a grievous day!

19:38           How clearly will they hear and see on the day when they come to Us; but the wrong­doers are today in manifest error.

19:39           And warn them of the day of Regret, when the matter is decided. And they are (now) in negli­gence and they do not believe.

19:40           Surely We inherit the earth and those on it, and to Us they are returned.

Section 3 (Abraham)

19:41           And mention Abraham in the Book. Surely he was a truthful man, a prophet.

19:42           When he said to his sire: My sire, why do you worship something which does not hear, nor see, nor can it avail you at all?

19:43           My sire, to me indeed has come the knowledge which has not come to you; so follow me, I will guide you on a right path.

19:44           My sire, do not serve the devil. Surely the devil is disobedient to the Beneficent.

19:45           My sire, surely I fear that a punishment from the Beneficent may afflict you, so that you become a friend of the devil.

19:46           He said: Do you dislike my gods, Abraham? If you do not stop, I will certainly drive you away. And leave me for a time.

19:47           He said: Peace be on you! I shall pray my Lord to forgive you. Surely He is ever Kind to me.

19:48           And I withdraw from you and what you call on besides Allah, and I call upon my Lord. Maybe I shall not remain unblessed in calling upon my Lord.

19:49           So when he withdrew from them and what they wor­shipped besides Allah, We gave him Isaac and Jacob. And each (of them) We made a prophet.

19:50           And We gave them of Our mercy, and We granted them a truthful mention of eminence.

Section 4 (Other Prophets are raised)

19:51           And mention Moses in the Book. Surely he was one purified, and was a messenger, a prophet.

19:52           And We called to him from the blessed side of the mountain, and We made him draw near to Us in communion.

19:53           And We gave him out of Our mercy his brother Aaron, a prophet.

19:54           And mention Ishmael in the Book. Surely he was truthful in promise, and he was a messenger, a prophet.

19:55           And he enjoined on his people prayer and charity, and was one in whom his Lord was well pleased.

19:56           And mention Idrīs in the Book. Surely he was a truthful man, a prophet,

19:57           and We raised him to an elevated state.

19:58           These are they on whom Allah bestowed favours, from among the prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried with Noah, and of the offspring of Abraham and Israel, and of those whom We guided and chose. When the messages of the Beneficent were recited to them, they fell down in submission, weeping.

19:59           But after them came an evil generation, who wasted prayers and followed lusts, so they will meet with ruin,

19:60           except those who repent and believe and do good — such will enter the Garden, and they will not be wronged in the least:

19:61           Gardens of perpetuity which the Beneficent has promised to His servants, in the Unseen. Surely His promise ever comes to pass.

19:62           They will hear therein no vain discourse, but only, Peace! And they have their sustenance therein, morning and evening.

19:63           This is the Garden which We cause those of Our servants to inherit who keep their duty.

19:64           And we do not descend but by the command of your Lord. To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us and what is between these, and your Lord is never forgetful.

19:65           Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, so serve Him and be patient in His service. Do you know anyone equal to Him?

Section 5 (How the Opponents were dealt with)

19:66           And says man: When I am dead, shall I truly be brought forth alive?

19:67           Does not man remember that We created him before, when he was nothing?

19:68           So by your Lord! We shall cer­tainly gather them together and the devils, then shall We bring them around hell on their knees.

19:69           Then We shall draw forth from every group those most rebellious against the Beneficent.

19:70           Again, We certainly know best those who deserve most to be burned in it.

19:71           And there is not one of you but shall come to it. This is an unavoidable decree of your Lord.

19:72           And We shall deliver those who guard against evil, and leave the wrongdoers in it on their knees.

19:73           And when Our clear messages are recited to them, those who disbelieve say to those who believe: Which of the two groups is better in position and better assembled?

19:74           And how many a generation have We destroyed before them, who had better possessions and appearance!

19:75           Say: As for him who is in error, the Beneficent will pro­long his length of days; until they see what they were threatened with, either the punishment or the Hour. Then they will know who is worse in position and weaker in forces.

19:76           And Allah increases in guidance those who go aright. And the ever-abiding, the good works, are better with your Lord in reward and yield better return.

19:77           Have you seen him who disbelieves in Our messages and says: I shall certainly be given wealth and children?

19:78           Has he gained knowledge of the unseen, or received a promise from the Beneficent?

19:79           By no means! We write down what he says, and We shall lengthen to him the length of the punishment,

19:80           and We shall inherit from him what he says, and he will come to Us alone.

19:81           And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they should be to them a source of strength —

19:82           By no means! They will soon deny their worshipping them, and be their adversaries.

Section 6 (False Doctrine of Sonship)

19:83           Do you not see that We send the devils against the dis­belie­vers, inciting them provokingly?

19:84           So make no haste against them. We only number out to them a number (of days).

19:85           The day when We gather the dutiful to the Beneficent to receive honours,

19:86           and drive the guilty to hell, as thirsty beasts.

19:87           They have no power of intercession, except him who has made a covenant with the Beneficent.

19:88           And they say: The Beneficent has taken to Himself a son.

19:89           Certainly you make a detestable assertion!

19:90           The heavens may almost be torn apart at it, and the earth split, and the moun­tains crumble down in pieces,

19:91           that they ascribe a son to the Benefi­cent!

19:92           And it is not worthy of the Beneficent that He should take to Him­self a son.

19:93           There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes to the Beneficent as a servant.

19:94           Certainly He comprehends them, and has numbered them all.

19:95           And everyone of them will come to Him on the day of Resurrection, alone.

19:96           Those who believe and do good deeds, for them the Bene­ficent will surely bring about love.

19:97           So We have made it easy in your tongue, only that you should give good news by it to those who guard against evil, and should warn by it a contentious people.

19:98           And how many a generation before them have We destroyed! Can you see anyone of them or hear a sound of them?

 

Chapter 20

Ṭā

Introduction by the translator

The initial letters of this chapter serve as its title. Beginning by declaring that the Quran was revealed to be triumphant in the world, it deals at length with the story of Moses, showing how he was ultimately successful. It follows this by a description of the opposition to the Prophet Muhammad and the consequences of that opposition. This chapter was re­vealed in the early period at Makkah, about or before the fifth year of the Holy Prophet’s mission.

Section 1 (Moses is called)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

20:1               O man,

20:2               We have not revealed the Quran to you that you may be unsuccessful;

20:3               but it is a reminder to him who fears:

20:4               a revelation from Him Who created the earth and the high heavens.

20:5               The Beneficent is established on the Throne of Power.

20:6               To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth and whatever is between them and whatever is beneath the soil.

20:7               And if you utter the saying aloud, surely He knows the secret (that you hide), and what is yet more hidden.

20:8               Allah — there is no God but He. His are the most beautiful names.

20:9               And has the story of Moses come to you?

20:10           When he saw a fire, he said to his family: Wait, I see a fire; maybe I will bring to you a live coal from it or find guidance at the fire.

20:11           So when he came to it, a voice came: O Moses,

20:12           surely I am your Lord, so take off your shoes; surely you are in the sacred valley Tuwā.

20:13           And I have chosen you so listen to what is revealed:

20:14           Surely I am Allah, there is no God but I, so serve Me, and keep up prayer for My remembrance.

20:15           Surely the Hour is coming — I am about to make it manifest  — so that every soul may be rewarded as it strives.

20:16           So do not let him who does not believe in it, and follows his low desire, turn you away from it, so that you perish.

20:17           And what is this in your right hand, O Moses?

20:18           He said: This is my staff — I lean on it, and I beat leaves with it for my sheep, and I have other uses for it.

20:19           He said: Throw it down, O Moses.

20:20           So he threw it down, and lo! it was a snake, gliding.

20:21           He said: Take hold of it and do not fear. We shall return it to its former state.

20:22           And press your hand to your side, it will come out white without harm — another sign:

20:23           that We may show you of Our greater signs.

20:24           Go to Pharaoh, surely he has exceeded the limits.

Section 2 (Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh)

20:25           He said: My Lord, expand my breast for me (with know­ledge),

20:26           and ease my task for me,

20:27           and loosen the knot from my tongue,

20:28           (that) they may understand my word.

20:29           And give to me a helper from my family,

20:30           Aaron, my brother;

20:31           add to my stren­g­th by him,

20:32           and make him share my task —

20:33           so that we may glorify You much,

20:34           and much remember You.

20:35           Surely, You are ever seeing us.

20:36           He said: You are indeed granted your petition, O Moses.

20:37           And indeed We bestowed on you a favour at another time,

20:38           when We revealed to your mother what was revealed:

20:39           Put him into a chest, then put it into the river, the river will cast it upon the shore — there an enemy to Me and an enemy to him shall take him up. And I shed on you love from Me; and that you may be brought up before My eyes.

20:40           When your sister went and said: Shall I direct you to one who will take charge of him? So We brought you back to your mother that she might be comforted and she should not grieve. And you killed a man, then We delivered you from grief, and tried you with (many) trials. Then you stayed for years among the people of Midian. Then you came here as ordained, O Moses.

20:41           And I have chosen you for Myself.

20:42           Go you and your brother with My messages and do not be remiss in remembering Me.

20:43           Go both of you to Pharaoh, surely he is inordinate;

20:44           then speak to him a gentle word, perhaps he may be mindful or fear.

20:45           They said: Our Lord, we fear that he may hasten to do us harm or be inordinate.

20:46           He said: Do not fear, surely I am with you — I do hear and see.

20:47           So go to him and say: Surely we are two messengers of your Lord, so send forth the Children of Israel with us, and do not torment them. Indeed we have brought you a message from your Lord, and peace be on him who follows the guidance.

20:48           It has indeed been revealed to us that punishment will overtake him who rejects and turns away.

20:49           (Pharaoh) said: Who is your Lord, Moses?

20:50           He said: Our Lord is He Who gives to everything its creation, then guides (it).

20:51           He said: What then is the state of the former generations?

20:52           He said: The knowledge of that is with my Lord in a book; my Lord neither makes error nor forgets —

20:53           Who made the earth for you an expanse and made for you paths in it and sent down water from the clouds. Then with that We bring forth pairs of various herbs.

20:54           Eat and pasture your cattle. Surely there are signs in this for those who have understanding.

Section 3 (Moses and the Enchanters)

20:55           From it We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it raise you a second time.

20:56           And truly We showed him all Our signs but he rejected and refused.

20:57           Said he: Have you come to us to turn us out of our land by your enchantment, Moses?

20:58           We too can bring to you enchantment like it, so make an appoint­ment between us and you, which we do not break, neither we nor you, in a central place.

20:59           (Moses) said: Your appointment is the day of the Festival, and let the people be gathered in the early fore­noon.

20:60           So Pharaoh went back and settled his plan, then came.

20:61           Moses said to them: Woe to you! Do not fabricate a lie against Allah or He will destroy you by punishment, and he fails indeed who fabricates (a lie).

20:62           So they disputed among themselves about their affair and kept the talk secret.

20:63           They said: These are surely two enchanters who would drive you out from your land by their enchantment, and destroy your excellent institutions.

20:64           So settle your plan, then come (ranged) in ranks, and he will succeed indeed this day who is uppermost.

20:65           They said: Moses, will you throw, or shall we be the first to throw?

20:66           He said: No, you throw down. Then lo! their cords and their rods — it appeared to him by their enchantment as if they ran.

20:67           So Moses conceived fear in his mind.

20:68           We said: Do not fear, surely you are the uppermost.

20:69           And throw down what is in your right hand — it will eat up what they have produced. What they have produced is only the trick of an enchanter, and the enchanter does not succeed wherever he comes from.

20:70           So the en­chanters fell down prostrate, saying: We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.

20:71           (Pharaoh) said: You believe in him before I give you permission! Surely he is your chief who taught you enchantment. So I shall cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides and I shall crucify you on the trunks of palm-trees, and you shall certainly know which of us can give the severer and the more lasting punishment.

20:72           They said: We cannot prefer you to the clear arguments that have come to us and to Him Who made us, so decide whatever you will decide. You can only decide about this world’s life.

20:73           Surely we believe in our Lord that He may forgive us our faults and the magic to which you compelled us. And Allah is Best and Ever-abiding.

20:74           Whoever comes guilty to his Lord, for him is surely hell. He will neither die in it, nor live.

20:75           And who­ever comes to Him a believer, having done good deeds, for them are high ranks —

20:76           Gardens of perpetuity, in which rivers flow, to abide in them. And such is the reward of him who purifies him­self.

Section 4 (The Israelites worship the Calf)

20:77           And certainly We revealed to Moses: Travel by night with My servants, then strike for them a dry path in the sea, not fearing to be caught, nor being afraid.

20:78           So Pharaoh followed them with his armies, then the sea covered them that would cover them.

20:79           And Pharaoh led his people astray and he did not guide aright.

20:80           O Children of Israel, We truly delivered you from your enemy, and made a covenant with you on the blessed side of the mountain, and sent to you the manna and the quails.

20:81           Eat of the good things We have provided for you, and do not exceed the limits in that respect, so that My wrath comes upon you; and he on whom My wrath comes, he perishes indeed.

20:82           And surely I am Forgiving toward him who repents and believes and does good, then walks aright.

20:83           And what made you hasten from your people, O Moses?

20:84           He said: They are here on my track, and I hastened on to You, my Lord, that You might be pleased.

20:85           He said: Surely We have tried your people in your absence, and the Sāmirī  has led them astray.

20:86           So Moses returned to his people angry, sorrowing. He said: My people, did not your Lord promise you a goodly pro­mise? Did the promised time, then, seem long to you, or did you wish that dis­pleasure from your Lord should come upon you, so that you broke (your) promise to me?

20:87           They said: We did not break the promise to you of our own accord, but we were made to bear the burdens of the ornaments of the people, then we cast them away, and thus did the Sāmirī suggest.

20:88           Then he brought forth for them a calf, a (lifeless) body, having a lowing sound, so they said: This is your god and the god of Moses; but he forgot.

20:89           Could they not see that it returned no reply to them, nor con­trolled any harm or benefit for them?

Section 5 (The End of Calf-worship)

20:90           And Aaron indeed had said to them before: My people, you are only tried by it, and surely your Lord is the Beneficent God, so follow me and obey my order.

20:91           They said: We shall not cease to keep to its worship until Moses returns to us.

20:92           (Moses) said: Aaron, what prevented you, when you saw them going astray,

20:93           that you did not follow me? Have you, then, disobeyed my order?

20:94           He said: Son of my mother, do not seize me by my beard, nor by my head. Surely I was afraid you would say: You have caused division among the Children of Israel and not waited for my word.

20:95           (Moses) said: What was your object, Sāmirī?

20:96           He said: I per­ceived what they did not perceive, so I took a handful from the footprints of the messenger then I threw it away. Thus did my soul entice me.

20:97           He said: Go away then! It is (the punishment) for you in this life to say, Do not touch (me). And surely for you is a pro­mise which shall not fail. And look at your god to whose worship you have kept. We will certainly burn it, then we will scatter it in the sea.

20:98           Your Lord is only Allah, there is no God but He. He com­prehends all things in (His) knowledge.

20:99           Thus We relate to you some news of what has happened before. And indeed We have given you a Reminder from Our­selves.

20:100       Whoever turns away from it, he will surely bear a burden on the day of Resurrection,

20:101       abiding in this (state). And evil will be their burden on the day of Resurrection —

20:102       the day when the trumpet is blown; and We shall gather the guilty, blind, on that day,

20:103       consulting together secretly: You stayed only ten (days).

20:104       We know best what they say when the fairest of them in course would say: You stayed only a day.

Section 6 (The Prophet’s Opponents)

20:105       And they ask you about the mountains. Say: My Lord will scatter them, as scattered dust,

20:106       then leave it a plain, smooth, level,

20:107       on which you see no crookedness nor uneven­ness.

20:108       On that day they will follow the Inviter, in whom is no crookedness; and the voices are low before the Beneficent God, so that you hear nothing but a soft sound.

20:109       On that day no inter­cession avails except of him whom the Beneficent allows, and whose word He is pleased with.

20:110       He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they cannot encompass it in know­ledge.

20:111       And faces shall be humbled before the Living, the Self-subsistent. And he who bears wrongdoing is indeed undone.

20:112       And whoever does good works, and is a believer, has no fear of injustice nor of the with­holding of what is (his) due.

20:113       And thus have We sent it down an Arabic Quran, and have distinctly set forth in it some threats that they may guard against evil, or that it may be a reminder for them.

20:114       Supremely exalted then is Allah, the King, the Truth. And do not make haste with the Quran before its revelation is made complete to you, and say: My Lord, increase me in knowledge.

20:115       And certainly We gave a commandment to Adam before, but he forgot; and We found in him no resolve (to disobey).

Section 7 (The Devil’s Misleading)

20:116       And when We said to the angels: Be submissive to Adam, they submitted, but not Iblīs; he refused.

20:117       We said: O Adam, this is an enemy to you and to your wife; so do not let him drive you both out of the garden so that you are unhappy.

20:118       Surely it is granted to you that you are not hungry therein, nor naked,

20:119       and that you are not thirsty therein, nor exposed to the sun’s heat.

20:120       But the devil made an evil suggestion to him; he said: O Adam, shall I lead you to the tree of immortality and a kingdom which does not decay?

20:121       So they both ate of it, then their evil inclina­tions became manifest to them, and they began to cover them­selves with the leaves of the garden. And Adam disobeyed his Lord, and was disappointed.

20:122       Then his Lord chose him, so He turned to him and guided (him).

20:123       He said: Go forth from this (state) both — all (of you) — some of you are enemies of others. Surely a guidance from Me will come to you; then whoever follows My guidance, he will not go astray nor be unhappy.

20:124       And whoever turns away from My Reminder, for him is surely a (spiritually) deprived life, and We shall raise him up blind on the day of Resurrection.

20:125       He will say: My Lord, why have You raised me up blind, while I used to see?

20:126       He will say: Thus did Our messages come to you, but you neglected them. And thus are you forsaken this day.

20:127       And thus do We recompense him who is extravagant and does not believe in the messages of his Lord. And certainly the punishment of the Hereafter is severer and more lasting.

20:128       Is it not clear to them how many of the generations, in whose dwellings they go about, We destroyed before them? Surely there are signs in this for those who have understanding.

Section 8 (Punishment is Certain)

20:129       And if a word had not gone forth from your Lord, and a term been fixed, it would surely have come upon them.

20:130       So bear patiently what they say, and celebrate the praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting, and glorify (Him) during the hours of the night and parts of the day, that you may be well pleased.

20:131       And do not strain your eyes (with desire) at what We have provided different classes of them with — the splendour of this world’s life — that We may try them by means of it. And the sustenance of your Lord is better and more lasting.

20:132       And enjoin prayer on your people, and steadily adhere to it. We do not ask from you a sustenance. We provide for you. And the (good) end is for guarding against evil.

20:133       And they say: Why does he not bring us a sign from his Lord? Has not a clear evidence come to them of what is in the previous Books?

20:134       And if We had destroyed them with punish­ment before it, they would have said: Our Lord, why did You not send to us a messenger, so that we might have followed Your messages before we met disgrace and shame?

20:135       Say: Everyone (of us) is waiting, so wait. Soon you will come to know who is the follower of the even path and who goes aright.

 

Chapter 21

Al-Anbiyā’: The Prophets

Introduction by the translator

This chapter deals with the deliverance of the prophets, hence its title, and the ultimate triumph of their cause. It tells us that judgment on the opponents is approaching and the truth must triumph now as always. Then it draws atten­tion to the truth of revelation, after which it speaks of God’s merciful deal­ing with people as this is how the Holy Prophet’s opponents would be dealt with. Next, examples of a number of prophets are cited who were deli­vered from their enemies. At the end we are told that the righteous will be made to inherit the land. This chapter was revealed in the early period at Makkah, about or before the fifth year of the Holy Prophet’s mission.

Part 17

Section 1 (Judgment approaches)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

21:1               Their reckoning draws near to people, and they turn away in heedlessness.

21:2               No new Reminder comes to them from their Lord but they hear it while they play,

21:3               their hearts trifling. And they —the wrongdoers — counsel in secret: He is nothing but a mortal like yourselves; will you then yield to enchantment while you see?

21:4               He said: My Lord knows (every) utterance in the heaven and the earth, and He is the Hearer, the Knower.

21:5               Indeed, say they: Confused dreams! Rather, he has forged it! Rather, he is a poet! so let him bring us a sign such as the former (prophets) were sent (with).

21:6               Not a town believed before them which We destroyed: will they then believe?

21:7               And We did not send before you any but men to whom We sent revelation; so ask the followers of the Reminder if you do not know.

21:8               Nor did We give them bodies not eating food, nor did they live forever.

21:9               Then We made Our promise good to them; so We delivered them and whom We pleased, and We destroyed the extravagant.

21:10           Certain­ly We have revealed to you a Book which will give you eminence. Do you not then understand?

Section 2 (Truth has always Triumphed)

21:11           And how many a town which was unjust did We demolish, and We raised up after it another people!

21:12           So when they felt Our might, lo! they began to flee from it.

21:13           Do not flee and return to the easy lives which you led, and to your dwellings, that you may be questioned.

21:14           They said: O woe to us! Surely we were unjust.

21:15           And this cry of theirs did not cease till We made them cut off, extinct.

21:16           And We did not create the heaven and the earth and all that is between them for sport.

21:17           If We had wished to take a pastime, We would have taken it from before Ourselves; by no means would We do (so).

21:18           Indeed, We hurl the Truth against falsehood, so it knocks out its brains, and lo! it vanishes. And woe to you for what you describe!

21:19           And to Him belongs whoever is in the hea­vens and the earth. And those who are with Him are not too proud to serve Him, nor are they weary.

21:20           They glorify (Him) night and day — they do not tire.

21:21           Or have they taken gods from the earth who give life?

21:22           If there were in them gods besides Allah, they would both have been in disorder. So glory be to Allah, the Lord of the Throne, being above what they describe!

21:23           He cannot be questioned as to what He does, and they will be questioned.

21:24           Or, have they taken gods besides Him? Say: Bring your proof. This is the reminder of those with me and the reminder of those before me. But most of them do not know the Truth, so they turn away.

21:25           And We sent no messenger before you but We revealed to him that there is no God but Me, so serve Me.

21:26           And they say: The Beneficent has taken to Himself a son. Glory be to Him! No, they are honoured servants  —

21:27           They do not speak before He speaks, and according to His command they act.

21:28           He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not intercede except for him whom He approves, and for fear of Him they tremble.

21:29           And whoever of them should say, I am a god besides Him, such a one We recompense with hell. Thus We reward the unjust.

Section 3 (Truth of Revelation)

21:30           Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the earth were closed up, so We split them apart. And We made from water everything living. Will they not then believe?

21:31           And We made firm mountains in the earth in case it should quake with them, and We made in it wide ways that they might follow a right direction.

21:32           And We have made the heaven a guarded canopy; yet they turn away from its signs.

21:33           And He it is Who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon. All float in orbits.

21:34           And We did not grant living forever to any mortal before you. If you die, will they live forever?

21:35           Every soul must taste of death. And We test you by evil and good by way of trial. And to Us you are returned.

21:36           And when those who disbelieve see you, they treat you only with mockery: Is this he who speaks of your gods? And they deny when the Beneficent God is mentioned.

21:37           Man is created of haste. Soon will I show you My signs, so ask Me not to hasten them.

21:38           And they say: When will this promise come to pass, if you are truthful?

21:39           If those who disbelieve only knew the time when they will not be able to ward off the fire from their faces, nor from their backs, and they will not be helped!

21:40           Indeed, it will come to them all of a sudden and stun them, so they will not have the power to avert it, nor will they be given respite.

21:41           And messengers before you were indeed mocked, but that which they mocked at befell those of them who scoffed.

Section 4 (Allah deals with People Mercifully)

21:42           Say: Who guards you by night and by day from the Bene­ficent? But they turn away at the mention of their Lord.

21:43           Or, have they gods who can defend them against Us? They cannot help themselves, nor can they be defended from Us.

21:44           Indeed, We gave provision to these and their fathers, until life was prolonged to them. Do they not see then that We are visiting the land, curtailing it of its sides? Can they then prevail?

21:45           Say: I warn you only by revelation; and the deaf do not hear the call when they are warned.

21:46           And if a blast of the punishment of your Lord were to touch them, they would say: O woe to us! Surely we were unjust.

21:47           And We will set up a just balance on the day of Resurrection, so no soul will be wronged in the least. And if there were the weight of a grain of mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We to take account.

21:48           And certainly We gave Moses and Aaron the criterion and a light and a reminder for those who guard against evil,

21:49           who fear their Lord in secret and they are fearful of the Hour.

21:50           And this is a blessed Reminder, which We have revealed. Will you then deny it?

Section 5 (Abraham is delivered)

21:51           And certainly We gave Abraham his rectitude before, and We knew him well.

21:52           When he said to his sire and his people: What are these images to whose worship you are devoted?

21:53           They said: We found our fathers worshipping them.

21:54           He said: Certainly you have been, you and your fathers, in manifest error.

21:55           They said: Have you brought us the truth, or are you a jester?

21:56           He said: Indeed, your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who created them; and I am one of the bearers of witness to this.

21:57           And, by Allah! I will certainly plan against your idols after you go away, turning your backs.

21:58           So he broke them into pieces, except the chief of them, that perhaps they might return to it.

21:59           They said: Who has done this to our gods? Surely he is one of the wrongdoers.

21:60           (Some) said: We heard a youth, who is called Abraham, speak of them.

21:61           They said: Then bring him before the people’s eyes, perhaps they may bear witness.

21:62           They said: Have you done this to our gods, Abra­ham?

21:63           He said: Surely (someone) has done it. The chief of them is this; so ask them, if they can speak.

21:64           Then they turned to them­selves and said: Surely you yourselves are wrongdoers;

21:65           then they were made to hang down their heads: You know indeed that they do not speak.

21:66           He said: Do you then serve besides Allah what does you no good, nor harms you?

21:67           Enough of you and what you serve besides Allah! Have you no sense?

21:68           They said: Burn him, and help your gods, if you are going to do (anything).

21:69           We said: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham:

21:70           And they intended a plan against him, but We made them the greater losers.

21:71           And We delivered him and Lot (direc­t­ing them) to the land which We had blessed for the nations.

21:72           And We gave him Isaac; and Jacob, a son’s son. And We made (them) all good.

21:73           And We made them leaders who guided (people) by Our command, and We revealed to them the doing of good and the keeping up of prayer and the giving of charity, and Us (alone) they served;

21:74           and to Lot We gave wisdom and know­ledge, and We delivered him from the town which committed wicked deeds. Surely they were an evil people, transgressors;

21:75           and We admitted him to Our mercy; surely he was from among the righteous.

Section 6 (Allah always delivers Prophets)

21:76           And Noah, when he cried before (this), so We answered him, and delivered him and his people from the great calamity.

21:77           And We helped him against the people who rejected Our mess­ages. Surely they were an evil people, so We drowned them all.

21:78           And David and Solomon, when they gave judgment con­cerning the field, when the people’s sheep strayed into it by night, and We were bearers of witness to their judgment.

21:79           So We made Solomon to understand it. And to each (of them) We gave wisdom and knowledge. And We made the mountains, declaring (Our) glory, and the birds, subservient to David. And We were the Doers.

21:80           And We taught him the making of coats of mail for you, to protect you in your wars; will you then be grateful?

21:81           And to Solomon (We subdued) the wind blowing violent, pursuing its course by His command to the land which We had blessed, and We are ever Knower of all things.

21:82           And of the devils there were those who dived for him and did other work besides that, and We kept guard over them;

21:83           and Job, when he cried to his Lord: Distress has afflicted me, and You are the most Merciful of those who show mercy!

21:84           So We responded to him and removed the distress he had, and We gave him (back) his people and more like them with them, a mercy from Us and a reminder to the worshippers.

21:85           And Ishmael and Idrīs and Dhu-l-Kifl; all were from among the patient ones;

21:86           and We admitted them to Our mercy; surely they were from among the good ones.

21:87           And Dhu-l-Nūn, when he went away in anger, and he thought that We would not constrain him, so he called out among afflictions: There is no God but You, glory be to You! Surely I am a sufferer of loss.

21:88           So We responded to him and delivered him from grief. And thus do We deliver the believers.

21:89           And Zacharias, when he cried to his Lord: My Lord, do not leave me alone and You are the Best of inheritors!

21:90           So We responded to him and gave him John and made his wife fit for him. Surely they used to hasten in (doing) good deeds and called upon Us, hoping and fearing; and they were humble before Us.

21:91           And she who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our inspiration, and made her and her son a sign for the nations.

21:92           Surely this your community is a single community, and I am your Lord, so serve Me.

21:93           And they split apart their unity: to Us will all return.

Section 7 (The Righteous will inherit the Land)

21:94           So whoever does good deeds and is a believer, there is no rejection of his effort, and We surely write (it) down for him.

21:95           And it is forbidden to a town which We destroy: they shall not return.

21:96           Even when Gog and Magog are let loose  and they sally forth from every elevated place.

21:97           And the True Promise draws near, then the eyes of those who disbelieve will be fixedly open: O woe to us! Surely we were heedless of this; indeed, we were unjust.

21:98           Surely you and what you worship besides Allah are fuel of hell; to it you will come.

21:99           If these had been gods, they would not have come to it. And all will abide in it.

21:100       For them therein is groaning and in it they do not hear.

21:101       Those for whom the good (end) has already gone forth from Us, they will be kept far off from it  —

21:102       They will not hear the faintest sound of it and they will abide in that which their souls desire.

21:103       The great Terror will not grieve them, and the angels will meet them: This is your day which you were promised.

21:104       The day when We roll up heaven like the rolling up of the scroll of writings. As We began the first creation, We shall reproduce it. A promise (binding) on Us. We shall bring it about.

21:105       And certainly We wrote in the Book after the reminder that My righteous servants will inherit the land.

21:106       Surely in this is a message for a people who serve (Us).

21:107       And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the nations.

21:108       Say: It is only revealed to me that your God is one God: will you then submit?

21:109       But if they turn back, say: I have warned you in fairness, and I do not know whether what you are promised is near or far.

21:110       Surely He knows what is spoken openly and He knows what you hide.

21:111       And I do not know if this may be a trial for you and a provision till a time.

21:112       He said: My Lord, judge with truth. And our Lord is the Beneficent, Whose help is sought against what you ascribe (to Him).

 

Chapter 22

Al-Ḥajj: The Pilgrimage

Introduction by the translator

This chapter is called The Pilgrimage because the proclamation of pilgri­mage, originally made by Abraham, was now repeated by the Holy Prophet and addressed to the whole world. It opens with the prophecy of a terrible calamity, which is a preliminary to the triumph of truth. Then it asserts the certainty of Divine help for the believers and their consequent triumph. As their triumph would involve the conquest of Makkah, the chapter then deals with the topics of the Sacred House, the pilgrimage and sacrifice. The subject of fighting is then introduced, requiring sacrifices to be made. Then it tells us that, despite opposition, the faithful would be established in the land, but as Allah’s deal­ing with the opponents is merciful their punish­ment would be with­held for a while. At the end it declares that polytheism would be up­rooted. This chapter was revealed in the late period at Makkah.

Section 1 (The Judgment)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

22:1               O people, keep your duty to your Lord; surely the shock of the Hour is a grievous thing.

22:2               The day you see it, every woman giving suck will forget her suckling and every pregnant one will lay down her burden, and you will see people as drunken, yet they will not be drunken, but the punishment of Allah will be severe.

22:3               And some people dispute about Allah without knowledge, and follow every rebellious devil —

22:4               For him it is written that who­ever takes him for a friend, he will lead him astray and conduct him to the punishment of the burning Fire.

22:5               O people, if you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then surely We created you from dust, then from a small life-germ, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete, that We may make clear to you. And We cause what We please to remain in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity. And some of you are caused to die, while some of you are brought back to the worst part of life, knowing nothing after having know­ledge. And you see the earth barren, but when We send down water upon it, it stirs and swells and brings forth a beautiful (growth) of every kind.

22:6               That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and He gives life to the dead, and He is Powerful over all things,

22:7               and the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it; and Allah will raise up those who are in the graves.

22:8               And some people dispute about Allah without knowledge, and without guidance, and without an illuminating Book,

22:9               (such a person) turning away haughtily to lead (others) astray from the way of Allah. For him is disgrace in this world, and on the day of Resurrection We shall make him taste the punishment of burning.

22:10           This is for what your two hands have sent ahead, and Allah is not in the least unjust to the servants.

Section 2 (Certainty of Divine Help)

22:11           And some people serve Allah, (standing) on the verge, so if good befalls such a one he is satisfied with it, but if a trial afflicts him he turns back headlong. He loses this world and the Hereafter. That is a manifest loss.

22:12           He calls besides Allah on something which cannot harm him, nor benefit him; that is stray­ing far.

22:13           He calls on him whose harm is nearer than his benefit. Certainly an evil guardian and an evil associate!

22:14 &nb