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June 19th, 2010

Did Qadiani Jamaat support creation of Pakistan?

Submitted by Rashid Jahangiri.

These days on secular forums, blogs (e.g. Pak Tea House) and in some newspaper columns an impression is being created that Qadianis at their organizational level under command of their leader Qadiani Jamaat Khalifa 2 Mirza Mahmud Ahmad (QK2) were great supporters of Pakistan, and worked for it.

Apparently, it appears to be the case. But when we look little deeper into historical facts and events things don’t remain as black and white, rather they turn into gray and further research highlights ulterior motives of Qadianis and their QK2.

Qadianis claim that it was their missionary in England Mr. Abdul Rahim Dard who convinced Quaid-I-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah to return to India and work for independent homeland for Muslims. It is also true Sir Zafarullah Khan authored the Pakistan Resolution. Represented Muslims in Redcliff boundary commission. And later became first foreign minister of Pakistan.

When we see little deep into the matter we see that Qadiani Missionary Abdul Rahim Dard did NOT consider non-Qadiani Muslims in India as Muslims. (Reference: Lord Headley while answering a set of questions posed to him, wrote in “Islam, The Guide to Modern Religious Thought” – Islamic Review, June 1929, pg 201-204, Vol XVII, No. 6, pub. The Mosque, Woking, England.). So there was no point in doing efforts for Muslims.

QK2 always boasted of his “spirituality” over Lahori-Ahmadiyya elders (who he declared Murtad {heretics}). He supported his claim by staying in Qadian where Ahmadiyya Movement of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (HMGA) originated. HMGA founded the Bahishti Muqbarah (Heavenly Graveyard) there. And HMGA was buried there along with others such as Maulana Noor Ud Din sahib.

QK2 had instructed his followers to stay put in Qadian. Reference: The paper Al-Fazl (Note: The Official Organ of the Rabwah Jama’at), Qadian of 12th September 1947 carried the following news on page 3: “On the night between 10th and 11th September, the news was broadcast from Radio Pakistan that the respected Imam of the Ahmadiyya Jamaat, Qadian, after consulting representatives of his Jamaat has decided that all Ahmadis of East Punjab, particularly those of the Qadian Jamaat, should stay where ever they are. They should not leave their stations under any circumstances. Women and children should be evacuated to Western Punjab. They can be brought back as soon as conditions improve.” (It is different point that immediately after issuing these instructions to his followers, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad fled from Qadian and took refuge in Lahore.).

Even after QK2 and his followers had immigrated to Pakistan they had plans to move back to Qadian, India. His intentions were supported by the fact that he prohibited his followers to file claims for evacuee property in Pakistan. (Although his family did file and got evacuee property allotted in their favor. Reference: Haqqiqat Passand Party literature).

Now question is what QK2 actually wanted:
QK2 wanted a temporal power in a region where he could rule and have administrative powers. He was hoping that just like descendants of Messiah of Nazareth i.e. Jesus became rulers, may be he a descedant of Messiah of Muhammad could also become some sort of ruler.
QK2 efforts and statements before and after creation of Pakistan in 1947 support his real intentions.

1- QK2 was in negotiation with Nehru to get some sort of Special Status for Qadian after India wins freedom. Where QK2 can have some sort of temporal powers, like princely states in British raj. (I have read to this effect, just can’t recall the reference at the moment).

2- QK2 while chairman of Kashmir Committee was supplying reports of its confidential meetings to Viceroy. As poet Sir Muhammad Iqbal, himself a member of Kashmir Committee, came to know about it, turned against QK2, and from that point his opposition to Qadianis started. (I was orally told about QK2 reports to viceroy, by a person who had detail knowledge of Qadiani Jamaat and QK2. I don’t have any written reference).

3- QK2 continued to dream about temporal power even after he had migrated to Pakistan. He expressed his plans to settle his Qadiani followers in Quetta, Baluchistan. There by sheer number of Qadiani population he would gain temporal powers. (Reference: Haqqiqat Passand Party literature).

CONCLUSION: In my conclusion QK2 had ulterior motives to gain temporal powers in some region, as it became obvious that British rulers will sooner or later quit India. To gain temporal powers QK2 first tried in India and then in Pakistan. Those who know Qadiani jamaat will agree that no one in important positions in their jamaat does anything without the approval of their Qadiani Khalifas. So, I’m inclined to accept that Abdul Rahim Dard’s contact with Quaid-I-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah must be on instructions of QK2. As far as Sir Zafarullah Khan was concerned Quaid-I-Azam would have terminated ZK services in a minute if ZK had deviated from Quaid-I-Azam instructions.

ON THE OTHER HAND we see elders of Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement whole-heartedly supported creation of Pakistan, and prayed for Pakistan. Even Quaid-I-Azam stayed in touch with LAM elders and forwarded mails to them regarding Islam.
Few references:

6 Responses to “Did Qadiani Jamaat support creation of Pakistan?”

  1. June 19th, 2010 at 6:13 am
    From Zahid Aziz:

    Mr Naseer Ahmad Faruqui published the following incident in full in Paigham Sulh in 1982. I added it to the English translation of the life story of Maulana Muhammad Ali, published 2004. In the Urdu life story, published 1962, Mr Faruqui had only summarised it, perhaps because Sir Francis Mudie was still alive. Here it is.

    In 1946 I was Deputy Commissioner of Karachi. The Governor of the Sindh was Sir Francis Mudie, one of the few British who, being fully aware of the machinations of the Hindus, was a great sympathiser of the Muslims and supporter of the Pakistan cause. As I had previously served as his secretary, he used to tell me his inner feelings, especially as he found me to agree with his views. Even after I became Deputy Commissioner of Karachi he used to have discussions with me in favour of the creation of Pakistan. His support of the Muslims being no secret, the Hindu press used to refer to his name sarcastically, from his initials F.M., as “Fateh Muhammad”, and send telegrams against him to the Viceroy Lord Wavell and the Secretary of State for India Lord Pethick-Lawrence. But Sir Francis Mudie, instead of being overawed or intimidated, was undeterred and used to fight these complaints.

    A British cabinet mission came to India in 1946, headed by  Lord Pethick-Lawrence, to discuss the question of Indian independence, and on their way from London to New Delhi they stayed in Karachi for one night as guests of the Governor of the Sindh. The following morning it was my official duty, as District Magistrate, to be present at Karachi airport for their departure. After they left, the Governor beckoned me to accompany him in his car. As soon as the car moved off, he said to me: “Faruqui, they are not going to give us Pakistan”. This appeared to be the final, irrevocable decision of the British government. Naturally, I was filled with sadness and gloom, but due to the confidential nature of this news I could not mention it to anyone. Prayer to God was needed, but I myself was far from having closeness to the Almighty. Maulana Muhammad Ali was in Dalhousie at the time, and I knew full well how much his prayers were accepted by God. The matter being confidential, I wrote to him only these lines:

    “The cabinet mission stayed the night in Karachi and proceeded to New Delhi: ‘What the eye can see, cannot be brought to the lips; I am in bewilderment as to what the world will become’.  Sir, please pray specially for the future and welfare of the Muslims.”

    The Hazrat Amir replied by return post as follows:

    “I am always praying for the welfare and the religious and worldly success of the Muslims. But on receiving your letter I was praying specially during the night when I heard the voice: Pakistan Zindabad. Although there appears to be despondency everywhere, it seems that it has been decided in heaven that Pakistan will come into being. I will continue to pray to God in this matter.”

    I became satisfied upon hearing this prophecy but my tranquillity soon vanished when the cabinet mission proposed a kind of united India and the Muslim League accepted it and joined the future government to be headed by Nehru. Not only did the dream of Pakistan appeared to come to an end with that, but I became uncertain about the fulfilment of Hazrat Amir’s prophecy. However, events changed their course when that plan failed because of the obstacles placed by the Congress party. At last  Pakistan came into existence the following year, and towns and cities echoed with the chant Pakistan Zindabad, fulfilling the Divine revelation received by that man of faith.

    Note by ZA: ‘What the eye can see, cannot be brought to the lips; I am in bewilderment as to what the world will become’ is a poetic verse, by I think, Iqbal.

  2. “Khwaja Abdul Rahim suggested the name of Pakistan.” [in the last section of this link]
    Who is Khwaja Abdul Rahim?

  3. June 19th, 2010 at 9:29 am
    From Zahid Aziz:

    More from the biography of Maulana Muhammad Ali:

    Long-standing relations with the Quaid-i Azam

    The Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a visitor to Maulana Muhammad Ali from the days when he was known as plain Mr. Jinnah and was one of the leaders of the Congress party. In those days too he was regarded also as a great leader of Muslim India. Once when he came to Lahore Maulana Muhammad Ali gave a tea party in his honour, at which were invited the prominent Muslim figures of Lahore. The party was held in a marquee in the grounds of Islamia College. The Maulana referred, in a brief speech, to the Islamic services of his Anjuman. In those days the Arya Samaj campaign of shuddi [to convert Muslims to the Arya Hindu sect] was at its height and the Anjuman had done much work to counteract it. He also explained the beliefs of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Jama‘at and said that the real purpose of the Ahmadiyya Movement is to serve Islam, while holding itself above sectarianism. This speech had a good effect.

    Afterwards, when the guests were talking among themselves, Mr. Jinnah took the Maulana to one side and was discussing this topic with him. I was also standing there, listening. Mr. Jinnah praised the work of the Anjuman and expressed regret at the opposition of the prejudiced among the Muslims. The conversation was in English and one sentence, reflecting Mr. Jinnah’s informality with the Maulana, still resounds in my ears. In connection with the relations of the general Muslim community with the Ahmadiyya Jama‘at Mr. Jinnah said:

    “Look here, Muhammad Ali! You should also be tactful. Don’t be aggressive in your preachings.”

    The Quaid-i Azam at the Maulana’s residence

    Much later, when the Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah had taken up the leadership of the Muslims of India in their demand for Pakistan, he came to a tea party at the Maulana’s invitation at his residence in Muslim Town. The Maulana had also invited members of the Anjuman. The Quaid-i Azam made a short speech in which, while expressing admiration for the Anjuman’s services, he mentioned an incident regarding the Anjuman’s English weekly organ The Light. He said that once during a conversation the Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow, had told him that his [Jinnah’s] recent statement that democracy was not suitable for India had caused commotion in the country and he did not understand how he could oppose such a wonderful system. The Quaid-i Azam said that he told the Viceroy in reply that he would send him a newspaper to read about this. So he sent the Viceroy an issue of The Light which contained an article on the topic that parliamentary democracy was not suitable for India. The next day he returned it with a note saying that he understood his position and what he had stated was justified. After relating this incident the Quaid-i Azam said:

    Your Anjuman is doing very fine work. I receive your paper, The Light. I am a politician and read this paper for political articles, but along with that I also read religious articles. I keep a file of this paper.

    He also said that he received letters from other countries containing enquiries about Islam:

    Foreigners think that as I am a leader of Muslims they can write to me seeking information about Islam. I pass those letters on to your Anjuman for appropriate answers.

    Comment by ZA on: “…his [Jinnah’s] recent statement that democracy was not suitable for India had caused commotion in the country…”

    I think by “democracy” Mr Jinnah would have been talking about a united India with elections across the whole of the electorate without separate representation for minorities. This would lead to domination by the majority community in India.

  4. June 20th, 2010 at 11:26 pm
    From homo sapien:

    Jinnah had sided against separate electorates as early as in 1927, but the Delhi Muslim Conference made it clear that he had little support amongst Indian Muslims in this regard. He noted he was prepared to honestly represent the wishes of his electorate but did not consider to be in their best interest in the longer term.

    When he returned from a break in England from politics, in 1934, he entered an agreement with Rajendra Prasad (ie Congress) in which some common objectives were proclaimed. Doing away with separate electorates was one of them.

    Jinnah accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan which had no provision for separate electorates. Although I can only see the “democracy was not suitable for India” bit up in ZA’s comment, if this was said, and without knowing the context, my guess would be that he not only meant that India needed a federal or confederal structure, but that was the way for India to achieve what is now – since about 1982 – called a consociational democracy or consociationalism. He was most likely distinguishing it from the Westminster model, or elucidating the fact that it would be in some key respects different than even the American system, but more like the Canadian and, even, Lebanese system.

    Even Ambedkar set about forming a federalist party after the 1951 elections, and observed that he did not see salvation in reservations. He agreed that separate electorates would mean not just separate development (apartheid S.Africa style) but unequal development.

  5. Is the menioned  issue of light available online?  I would like to read this article.

  6. August 25th, 2012 at 9:30 pm
    From Zahid Aziz:

    If anyone is interested, this article has been located in The Light, 24 February 1946. Please see this link.