The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement Blog

Miracles, Myths, Mistakes and MattersSee Title Page and List of Contents

See: Project Rebuttal: What the West needs to know about Islam

Refuting the gross distortion and misrepresentation of the Quran, the Prophet Muhammad and Islam, made by the critics of Islam

Read: Background to the Project

List of all Issues | Summary 1 | Summary 2 | Summary 3

March 28th, 2018

Sufism – The Path of each and every Muslim via ‘common’ Islam, Quran and Sunnah

 Sufism – The Path of each and every Muslim via ‘common’ Islam, Quran and Sunnah

Sufism is a term thrown around without much understanding. Given its vague connotation and misuse, it is one of the few terms that can be more clearly understood by clarifying as to what Sufism in not.

Sufism is often misattributed to practices, formalities, conventions and traditions such as:

wird and wazifa (repetition of certain holy words), pir and murid (the spiritual guide and the disciple), silsilah (line of spiritual descent) and sajjadah nashin (those who sit in the seat of the teacher), bai'at (oath of allegiance to the head), of sajjadah and tasbih (prayer-carpet and strung beads), sarod and wajd (hymn-singing and ecstasy), zikr-bil-jahr and zikr kafi (loud repetitions and low repetitions), darwaish and fakir (the ascetic hermit), hal (working up an ecstatic mood), mast and malang (oblivious of everything and reckless), ghauth, qutub, abdal, wali (the various spiritual ranks), salik (the seeker after Truth), sirr (the secret) and a hundred and one others. And under this superstructure was crushed the vision of Ghazali, Rumi, Hafiz and the rest of the great sufis. Theirs was a cry of "back to Islamic simplicity." But those who came after them, men of narrower views and commoner clay, outdid the mulla1 himself in weaving a web of rites and rituals, forms and names, around the simple Truth of Islam. The general decadence of the world of Islam has in no small degree been influenced by the mushroom of the sufi schools, now deformed and degenerated, that sprang up here, there and everywhere. A wave of lethargy swept over all those who fell under their influence. What was this life worth? A sufi looks forward to things of the hereafter. While here, he must be content with whatever befalls him. His sole care must be to do the will of the pir, whose mysterious influence with God would secure him a position of special privilege with Him. Thus was undermined the moral backbone of once a manly, strenuous race. The Islamic life of strife and struggle gave place to a life of morbid humility and contentment. The Islamic straightforward commonsense code of life was subordinated to the caprice of an ignorant pir.2

Even the sources of Sufism are misconstrued:

Some people mistakenly believe that it is some sort of inherent knowledge that has been transmitted from generation to generation, and runs parallel with the recognised laws of the shariat (Islamic law). They hold that it was originally secretly taught by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to Hazrat Ali, the fourth Caliph, and then passed on through him to the rest of the Muslim community. Hazrat Ali's name is most often associated with sufism because the leading sufis in many of the sufi orders trace their genealogy to Hazrat Ali. However, it is incorrect to ascribe the origin of Islamic Sufism to Hazrat Ali solely on this ground because the genealogy of sufis from some other orders leads to Hazrat Abu Bakr, the first Caliph.

The belief that Hazrat Ali was vouchsafed by the Holy Prophet some secret spiritual knowledge quite distinct from the shariat is not tenable. The Quranic injunction to the Holy Prophet on this matter is clear:

"O Messenger deliver that which has been revealed to thee from thy Lord." (5:67)

If the Holy Prophet had kept any of the revelation to himself and secretly conveyed it to one of his relatives (Hazrat Ali), it would be in clear violation of his duty as a messenger.

This belief in the secret transmission of knowledge, however, provided an opportunity to some people for trickery and deceit. In the name of tariqat (way) they innovated hundreds of false beliefs, and laid down the basis of another shariat besides the Islamic shariat. They justified these innovations on the grounds that it was the spiritual knowledge which had been transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation and constituted a much more efficacious way of communion with God as compared to the known shariat.3

The idea that Sufism is a secret path outside Quran, must not and cannot be taken seriously, as such a belief brings into question the very integrity of Quran and the Prophet, who repeatedly state the opposite i.e. open declaration of the faith, its basis and practices. Nothing the Prophet said in the name of Islam was anything which is not supported by Quran:

15:94. Therefore declare openly what you [–Muhammad] are commanded (to deliver) and turn away from the polytheists.4

6:50. Say, ‘I [–Muhammad] do not say to you that with me are the treasures of Allâh, nor do I know the unseen; and I do not say to you (that) I am an angel. I indeed follow only what is revealed to me.’ Say, ‘Can a blind person and one gifted with sight be alike?’ Will you not even then give thought?5

The extensive monastic isolationism and ritualism of Sufism in the name of spirituality, and that too, allegedly, sanctioned by Prophet, is factually opposed by Quran, which, on the contrary, restricts even the ‘good’ rituals. For example, a month long fasting and four rikahs of a prayer, if exceeded, are considered transgressions by Quran, despite good intentions of its practitioner:

5:87. O YOU who believe! Do not forbid yourselves good and pure things which Allâh has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Verily, Allâh does not like the transgressors.6

Rather on the reverse, the prayers, the fasting and charity are to be conducted in moderation and in normal state of daily affairs and there is no timeout for monasticism at the cost of daily livelihood and relationships:

17:78-79. Observe Prayer at the declining and paling of the sun, on to the complete darkness (in diverse hours) of the night, and recite the Qur'ân at dawn. Verily, the regular recital (of the Qur'ân) at dawn is (specially) acceptable (to God) and witnessed (by the angels). And remain awake for it (- the recitation of the Qur'ân and Prayer) for a part of the night after having risen from sleep as a supererogatory service for you. Thus it may be that your Lord will raise you to a laudable exalted position.7

73:20. Surely, your Lord knows that you remain standing (to say Night Prayers) for nearly two thirds of the night and (sometimes) half or one third of it; and so does a party of those (of your believing Companions) who are with you. And Allâh determines the night and the day (- sometime the nights are long and sometime they are short and sometime the day and the night are equal). He knows that you (- the Muslims in general) will not be able to keep up so long a vigil (to say Night Prayer). He has, therefore, turned to you with mercy. Recite then, as much of the Qur'ân (in your Night Prayer) as is easily possible. He knows that some of you may be taken ill and others may be moving about in the land seeking Allâh's bounty, and still others who may be fighting for the cause of Allâh, so (O Muslims!) recite as much of it (- the Qur'ân) as is easily possible (for you). You shall, however, observe Prayer (regularly five times a day in all events). And go on presenting Zakât and set apart a goodly portion (of your possessions to give for (the sake of) Allâh. And whatever good you send on before for yourselves, you will find it with Allâh as the best of things meriting the greatest reward. And seek protection of Allâh. Verily, Allâh is All-Protecting, Ever Merciful.8

62:9-10. O you who believe! when the call is made for (the Congregational) Prayer on friday then hasten to extol the name of Allâh and leave off all business. That is best for you if you only knew. And when the Prayer is finished, disperse in the land and seek Allâh's grace and bounty (and restart your business), and go on remembering Allâh much that you may achieve an all-round success.9

2:187. (Though during Fasting you must abstain from all the urges of nature including the sexual urge) it is made lawful for you on the nights of the fasts to approach and lie with your wives (for sexual relationship). They are (a sort of) garment for you and you are (a sort of) garment for them. Allâh knows that you have been doing injustice to yourselves (by restricting conjugal relations with your wives even at night), so He turned to you with mercy and provided you relief; now enjoy their company (at night during Ramadzân) and seek what Allâh has ordained for you. Eat and drink till the white streak of the dawn becomes distinct to you from the black streak (of the darkness), then complete the fast till nightfall. And you shall not lie with them (- your wives) while you perform I`tikâf (- while you are secluding in the mosque for prayer and devotion to God). These are the limits (imposed) by Allâh so do not approach these (limits). Thus does Allâh explains His commandments for people that they may become secure against evil.10

25:67. And (the true servants of God are those) who, when spending, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, (but their spendings follow) a middle course, ever moderate;11

Any transgression of rituals and practices in name of faith that we commonly see in Sufism, has parallels in monastic inventions by the followers of the Jesus, that Quran shuns:

57:27. Then We caused a series of Our Messengers one after the other to follow them closely in their footsteps, and we caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow them, and We gave him (- Jesus) the Evangel. And We placed compassion and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him, but as for monasticism they invented it themselves, We did not enjoin it upon them. (They started monastic life) to seek Allâh's pleasure, but they did not observe it (as faithfully) as it should have been observed. Yet We duly rewarded such of them as (truly) believed but many of them were transgressors.12

Sufism, as commonly known for its style and practices, is alleged to Prophet Muhammad. It has parallels to a faith misconstrued to Jesus. Quran outlines as follows, which implies that the Prophet too will disavow himself from such inventions by his followers:

5:116. AND when Allâh said, ‘O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say to the people, “Take me and my mother for two gods beside Allâh?”’ He (-Jesus) replied, ‘Glory be to You! It was not possible and proper for me to say a thing to which I had no right. If I had said it, you would indeed have known it, (for) you know all that is in my mind but I do not know what is in Yours. It is You alone Who truly know all things unseen.

5:117. ‘I said nothing to them except that what You had commanded me, “Worship Allâh, My Lord as well as your Lord”. I was a witness over them (only) so long as I remained among them but ever since You caused me to die, You Yourself have been the Watcher over them and You are the Witness to everything.

5:118. ‘If You punish them, then surely they are Your servants and if You pardon them, You surely are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.’ 13

While reading the common literature about Sufism and in personal discussions with those who practice Sufism as a path, it soon emerges that their practices, which teeter on monkery, are not found in Sunnah or Hadiths. By common knowledge, Sufism, its thoughts and practices tend to be enshrined in an esoteric mysticism that can only be understood by and passed from a master to a student and cannot be preached. Even the discussion held in Sufi gatherings, that one can find on internet, are centered on discussion in which Quran tends not be the center of gravity, rather the wits and perceptions of the group leader hold sway over the audience. Whereas, in Quran, the Prophet clearly states that he cannot say, preach or follow that which is not in Quran, and is obviously different from the commonly practiced and pursed Sufism:

10:15. When Our clear verses are recited to them, those who fear not the meeting with Us, nor do they cherish any hope (for the same,) say, ‘Bring a Qur’ân other than this one or (at least) make some changes in it.’ Say (to them), ‘It is not for me to introduce changes in it of my own accord. I follow nothing but what is revealed to me. Truly if I disobey my Lord I fear the punishment of a great (dreadful) Day.’

10:16. Say, ‘Had Allâh (so) willed (that He should replace the teachings of the Qur’ân with some other teachings), I should not have recited this (Qur’ân) to you, nor would He have made it known to you. I had indeed lived among you a (whole) lifetime before this (claim to Prophethood. Was not my truthfulness undisputed?). Will you not then refrain (from opposing me)?’

10:17. Who is then more unjust than he who forges a lie in the name of Allâh or cries lies to His Messages? It is but certain that the guilty shall never attain their goal.14

Sufism teeters on cultism in which the leader of the order is to be blindly followed in thought and action as such leaders are considered by their followers as intercessors with Allah for them. Quran not only rejects such claim to fame of the intercessors but mocks such belief:

10:18. And (some) people worship, apart from Allâh, things that can neither harm them (of their own accord) nor can help them. They say, ‘These are our intercessors with Allâh.’ Say, ‘Do you (presume to) inform Allâh of the things of whose existence in the heavens or in the earth He does not know?’ Glory be to Him! High be He, exalted above (all the things) they associate (with Him).15

Tasawwuf (the way of the Sufis, Sufism) if to be followed, cannot be outside of the pale of Shariat and Sunnah (the way of the Prophet Muhammad, PBUH) and the Book (Quran), for the mere fact that:

5:3…This day have I perfected for you your faith and completed My blessings upon you and have chosen Islam for your religion…16

2:2. This is the only perfect Book [–the Quran], wanting in naught, containing nothing doubtful, harmful or destructive, there is no false charge in it. It is a guidance for those who guard against evil;17

3:31.Say, `Follow me [–the Sunnah], if you love Allâh, (if you do so) Allâh will love you and grant you protection from your sins.…18

With negatives surrounding Sufism out of the way, the path of a Sufi, a Muslim, is vividly identified in Quran:

The technical meanings of Islam are those indicated in the following verse:

Nay, whoever submits himself whole-heartedly to Allah, and he is a doer of good to others, he shall have his reward from his Lord. And there is no fear for such people, nor do they grieve. (2:112)

This means that a Muslim is one who commits his entire being in the way of God, the Most High. That is, he dedicates himself completely to Allah, for the pursuance of His will and for the attainment of His pleasure. He then devotes himself to doing good deeds for the sake of God, and employs all his practical faculties in His path. In short, his life is entirely for Allah in both belief and deed.19

The progressive stages of Sufism are outlined in the same verse 2:112:

It should also be remembered here that the verse mentioned above, i.e.

Nay whoever submits himself whole-heartedly to Allah, and he is a doer of good to others, he shall have his reward from his Lord; and there is no fear for such people, nor do they grieve.

the three stages of perfect spiritual obedience: fana (annihilation), baqa (continuance) and liqa (meeting with God). As described above, the phrase "submits himself whole-heartedly to Allah" gives the lesson that the entirety of a person's being with all his faculties must be handed over to God and dedicated in His way. This is the state which is called fana. It has been so named by spiritual scientists because of the kind of death (of the lower self) that takes place when a person, acting according to the dictates of this verse, hands over his whole being with all its faculties to God by devoting it to His way, and refrains completely from the urges and comforts of his lower self.

The words of the verse immediately after, "and he is a doer of good to others", refers to the stage of baqa. This is the stage when a person, after a complete negation of the self, begins to act under Divine motivation and instigation, and after the cessation of all baser movements is set into motion under Divine inspiration. This is that second life which should be appropriately termed baqa.

The words of the verse after this, "he shall have his reward from his Lord, and there is no fear for such people, nor do they grieve", affirms the certainty of receiving reward, and negates the presence of fear and grief. This is a reference to the state of liqa. In this state a person achieves that high status in knowledge, conviction, trust and love, where the reward for his sincerity, faith and fidelity is no longer mere imagination or conjecture, but is as certain, manifest, and perceptible, as if he had received it. He acquires such a faith in the existence of God as if he can see Him. All fears about the future vanish and no trace is left of any past or present grief. He perceives the existence of every spiritual blessing. This state, which is clear of all murkiness, safe from every doubt, and free from the fear of the unknown, is termed liqa. The word muhsin (doer of good) in this verse corroborates this description of the state of liqa, because as explained by the Holy Prophet Muhammad ihsan denotes that perfect state in which man forms such a close relationship with God during worship that it is as if he were seeing Him.

The rank of liqa is fully attained by the spiritual wayfarer when the divine hue conceals and covers the human element under it as completely as fire hides the colour of molten iron, so that to outward appearance there is nothing but fire. This is the stage at which some spiritual students, when they reached it, have erred and mistaken shuhud (the presence of the Divine Being) as wujud (unity with the Divine Being). To those saints who reached this rank, or those who attained some measure of it, certain spiritual scholars have applied the term 'sons of God'. This analogy has been made because such persons have completely embraced Divine attributes, and just as a son bears some resemblance in appearance and features to his father, they too, by reflection, bear some resemblance to God's beautiful attributes in which they are moulded. Although such a term is not explicitly used in the language of the shariah, the spiritual men have, in fact, deduced it from the Holy Quran. As Allah, the Glorious says:

Remember Allah as you remember your fathers; nay, with an even stronger remembrance. (2:200)

It is obvious that if the shariah had meant to forbid the metaphorical use of such terms then God would have kept His word free from the kind of expression from which the legality of such usage could be deduced.20

Only the first stage of a Sufi is volitional, while the subsequent two are endowed:

It should be noted that the stages of baqa and liqa cannot be achieved by effort and are, in fact, endowed. Human endeavour can take a person only up to the stage of fana where the journey of all the righteous persons and spiritual wayfarers ends as the limits of human capabilities have been reached. And when the purified souls reach this stage of fana, it is the pattern of Allah, and has always been so, that the winds of His bounty blow and propel the traveler to the stages of baqa and liqa. With this research, it is evident that all the difficulties and deprivations of this journey are up to the stage of fana and beyond it effort, endeavour and hard work are not factors for further advancement. In fact, it is the pure love that develops in the stage of fana for the Supreme and Generous God which causes a spark from the love of God to automatically fall on the devotee and this is referred to as the stages of baqa and liqa. And when the love of Allah descends upon the love of the servant, then with the union of both these loves, the bright and complete reflection of the Holy Spirit (Ruh-al Qudus) is generated in the heart of that person. At the stage of liqa, the light of that Holy Spirit is very prominent and the unusual feats of empowerment that we have discussed earlier are manifested by these people. This light of the Holy Spirit is always with them and resides within them. They do not separate from it under any condition, nor does the light separate from them. The light emanates from them with every breath and is cast on every object they see and with their speech it exhibits its luminescence to the audience. This light is called the Ruh-al-Qudus (The Holy Spirit). This is, however, only the reflection of the Real Holy Spirit which resides in Heaven. This reflection of the Holy Spirit resides in the pure hearts and souls forever, and does not separate from them for even a moment.21

The stage of liqa has examples in Quran. The liqa of the prophet is thus mentioned where he addresses his followers as O My servants22 with the voice of Allah:

39:10. Say, `O My servants who believe! take your Lord as a shield. There is a good reward for those who do good in (the life of) this world. And (if you are persecuted for your faith know that) the earth of Allâh is vast and spacious (enough to provide you shelter). Certainly the patiently, persevering and steadfast will be given their reward beyond measure.' 22a

39:53. Say, `O My servants who have committed excesses against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allâh. Surely, Allâh forgives all sins. Verily, He is the Great Protector, the Ever Merciful.'22b

The liqa stage was not limited to the Prophet alone. His companions shared a similar stage:

8:17. Therefore (in this war O Muslims!) you killed them not. (As a matter of fact) it was Allâh Who killed them. And (O Prophet!) it was not you who threw (a handful of small stones) when you did (apparently) throw them (towards the enemy) but it was Allâh Who threw (that He might vanquish your enemies) and that He might confer on the believers from Himself a bounteous favour. Verily, Allâh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.22c

One of the Divine of our times, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Mujaddid, shares his epitome stage of liqa as manifested revelations:

You are from Me and I am from you, and the earth and the heavens are with you as they are with Me, and you are from Our water and other people from dust, and you are from Me as My unity and you are with Me at that stage of union as is not known to any creature. God praises you from His throne. You proceeded from Him and He chose you from out of the whole world. You are exalted in my court. I approved you for Myself. You are the light of the world, your eminence is wonderful. I shall raise you towards Myself, and shall keep your group triumphant till the day of judgment. You have been blessed, God increased your honour. You are God’s prestige, so He shall not abandon you. You are the eternal word, so you shall not be obliterated. I shall come to you along with armies. You shall receive my spoils of war. I shall bestow honour on you and protect you. This will happen, this will happen, this will happen, and then there shall be passing away. For you, are My perfect rewards. Tell the people that if you love God then come and walk in my wake so that God may also love you. God is witness to my truth, then why do you not believe? You are before My eyes. I named you ‘one resigned to the will of God’. God praises you from the throne. We praise you and send benediction on you. People will wish to extinguish this light but God will take this light, which is His light, to perfection. We shall cast terror in their hearts. Our victory shall come and the affair of the times shall end with Us. That day it shall be said: Was it not the truth? I am with you wherever you are. Whither you face, God faces the same way. To pledge allegiance to you is like pledging allegiance to Me, your hand is My hand. People will come to you from afar and God’s help will descend upon you. People will get revelations from God about you and will help you. None can avert God’s prophecies.”

O Ahmad, blessing has been made to issue from your lips and mention of your name has been exalted. God will illuminate your argument. You are brave, if faith had been [as distant as] at the Pleiades, you would have found it. Treasures of God’s blessing have been given to you. The mention of your forefathers shall be cut off, and God shall start with you. I intended to make My successor so I have created Adam, that is, you Avahan (God descended in you). God shall not abandon you, nor leave you till He distinguishes between the pure and the polluted. I was a hidden treasure so I desired to be recognized. You are a mediator between Me and the entire creation. I breathed My spirit in you. You shall be helped and none shall find place to escape to. You have descended with the truth and in you the prophecies of the prophets have been fulfilled. God sent His apostle to strengthen His religion and make it triumphant over all religions. God made him descend near Qadian and he alighted with truth, and was made to alight with truth, and this was ordained from the beginning. You people were at the brink of an abyss, God sent him to rescue you. O My Ahmad, you are My wish and are with Me. I planted the tree of your eminence with My own hand. I shall make you the leader of the people and shall help you. Do the people wonder at this? Say: God is a wonder. He chooses whom He pleases and is not questioned about His actions. God’s shadow shall be on you and He shall remain your shield. The heaven was closed up and also the earth, We opened them both. You are that Jesus whose time shall not be wasted. A pearl like you cannot be wasted. We shall make you a sign for the people and this had been destined from the beginning. You are with me. Your secret is My secret. You are dignified and chosen in this world and the hereafter. For you is a special reward and you are dignified above the whole world. Go forth rejoicing as your time has drawn nigh, and the feet of the Muhammadans are settled firmly on a very high minaret. I shall show my splendour, I shall lift you with a show of My power. A warner came to the world but the world accepted him not. But God will accept him and will manifest his truth with very powerful attacks. For him is that abode where man cannot reach by the strength of his deeds. You are with Me, for you the night and day have been created. You have that relationship with Me which is not known to the creatures. O people, the light of God has come to you, so do not become rejectors.”23

While keeping the above discussion in mind, the following verses, in a nutshell, encapsulate the Sufi stages of the Prophet, commonly called as ‘Meraj’, the spiritual journey and ascension – We made the vision which We showed you (being carried to Jerusalem from Makkah by night) (17:60).24According to Quran the sojourn was solely centered on Prophet following the path of Quran:

53:1. I call to witness every part of the Qur'ân when it is revealed,

53:2. That your comrade (Muhammad) has neither deviated (from true guidance in his practices) nor has he erred (in his beliefs).

53:3. He does not say anything out of (his own) fanciful desire.

53:4. This (Qur'ân) is nothing but (pure) revelation, revealed (to him by God).

53:5. The Lord of Mighty Powers has taught him (this discourse).

53:6. (The Lord) Whose powers become manifest in manifold and frequent ways, with the result that he (- this Messenger of God) attained perfection and fullest vigour (both intellectually and physically).

53:7. And he attained to the zenith of heights (in his spiritual ascension).

53:8. Then he drew near to Him and afterwards he descended (to humankind, for their guidance).

53:9. So that he became (as it were) one chord to two bows or closer still.

53:10. Then He revealed that excellent and mighty (Qur'ânic) revelation which He had to send to His servant (Muhammad),

53:11. Whose mind made no mistake in (the interpretation of) that which he saw (during the ascansion).

53:12. Will you doubt and dispute with him concerning that (sight) which he saw with his own eyes (it being no figment of imagination)?

53:13. And, of course, he saw Him (in His another manifestation to him) yet another time.

53:14. It was near the Sidrah which stands at the farthest end (of knowledge),

53:15. Near where also is the Garden which is the real eternal abode.

53:16. (This was) when the sublime thing (- the Divine Manifestation) which was to cover Sidrah had covered it.

53:17. (When he saw the Divine Manifestation) his eye deviated not (from the certainty of the Truth) nor did it wander away (from the invincible faith on which he stood).

53:18. (It was the moment when) he saw the greatly important signs of his Lord.25

In conclusion, Sufism, in light of Quran, is not a separate creed or path that was passed secretly from the Prophet to Ali and others. The path of a Sufi is path of mainstream Islam and of each and every Muslim. All prophets and reformers (Mujaddids) were Muslims. Thus, every Prophet was a Sufi and so was every Mujaddid, with the difference that the office of Prophethood ended with Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and after him the Mujaddids is a conferred position by Allah Himself and cannot be attained by voluntary effort alone.

1 Urdu mullā, from Persian, from Arabic mawlā, master, friend; – Not be confused with ordinary Mullah of a mosque
2 Mysticism in Islam by Khwaja Kamaluddin, under the section: Introduction by Maulana Yakub Khan and Maulana Aftab-ud-din Ahmad, p. 18, pub: Aftab-ud-Din Ahmad Charitable Trust, 15 Brandreth Road, Lahore (Pakistan).
3 Position of Sufi-ism (Tasawwuf) in Islam: by Dr. Basharat Ahmad, Compiled by Dr. Mohammad Ahmad (link:
4 Al-Hijr – The Rock: Nooruddin
5 Al-Anam – The Cattle: Nooruddin
6 Al-Maidah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin
7 Isra – The Night-Journey: Nooruddin
8 Al-Muzzammil – He That Has Wrapped Himself Up: Nooruddin
9 Al-Jumu`ah – The Congregation: Nooruddin
10 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
11 Al-Furqan – The Standard of True and False: Nooruddin
12 Al-Hadid – The Iron: Nooruddin
13 Al-Maidah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin
14 Yunus – Jonah: Nooruddin
15 Ibid
16 Al-Maidah – The Table Spread with Food: Nooruddin
17 Al-Baqarah – The Cow: Nooruddin
18 Al-Imran – The Family of Imran: Nooruddin
19 Philosophy of Sufi-ism (Tasawwuf) in Islam: by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, Compiled by Dr. Mohammad Ahmad (link:
20 Ibid
21 Ibid
22 Kitab al-Bariyya or An Account of Exoneration by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, translated by Dr. Zahid Aziz, p. 104, Nottingham, England, November 1999. (link:
22aAl-Zumar – The Multitudes: Nooruddin

22cAl-Anfal  – The Voluntary Gifts: Nooruddin

23 Ibid, p. 99-101

24 Isra – The Night-Journey: Nooruddin
25 Al-Najam – Part of the Quran: Nooruddin

Comments are closed.